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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nowak Notetaker on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Indiana University taught by Dr. Thomassen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
▯ What is language? Who has language? ▯ The _________________________________Revolution ▯ late 1950’s/early 1960’s onward ▯ Heavily influenced developments in the field of Psychology ▯ _________________________________Psychology is one of the primary areas in the discipline today ▯ Communication of thought and ideas using symbols is known as: ▯ Study of Language ▯ _________________________________: bottom up and top down “nice one!” _________________________________: set of rules that allow the communicator to combine arbitrary symbols to convey meaning ▯ Novel constructions possible ▯ Many different ways of communicating a single thought Three aspects of Grammar: ▯ _________________________________: Rules for possible word sound combinations in a language ▯ _________________________________: Rules for combining words into sentences ▯ _________________________________: Rules used to communicate meaning (see text for examples of each!) If it doesn’t have these features, it is not a language Exp. _________________________________ is a language; gestures are not ▯ Learning language: _________________________________vs. _________________________________ ▯ Behaviorist view: learning through conditioning ▯ Skinner's Verbal Behavior (Chomsky’s review, 1959) helped ignite cognitive revolution, breaking the hold of behaviorism on Psychology ▯ _________________________________: language does NOT fit learning model! ▯ Chomsky’s Evidence ▯ A child doesn’t hear every single sentence Novel constructions emerge Words have multiple meanings, thoughts are not confused by this Actions typically don’t match or reinforce speech Exp. Mommy comes home: “Hi, baby!”, not “Mommy is coming through the door” Grammar has primacy Children’s errors immune from reinforcement Exp. Holded the bunny and petted it hard-wired; genetic (He’s a nativist w/regard to language acquisition) LAD: Language Acquisition Device “black box”: ▯ Chomsky tells us how language works: _________________________________structure: Superficial appearance, ordering of words (literally what we say) _________________________________structure: Underlying representation or meaning (what we mean) Speech requires _________________________________of deep structure into a surface structure (_________________________________grammar) _________________________________determine how words combine into phrases, and phrases into sentences – what is possible in a language ▯ The Hierarchical Structure of Language: ▯ _________________________________-- the smallest significant sound units in speech Vary by language Example: “ee” as in “feet” ▯ _________________________________-- the smallest units of language that carry meaning (you know around 50,000-80,000 of these!) Words, prefixes, suffixes, etc. Examples: “do,” “un” ▯ _________________________________: Words, phrases, and sentences Words combine to make phrases Example: “the interesting class” is a noun phrase Languages differ in syntax, as well (German, Russian, Klingon) ▯ Language Development ▯ Babies can innately (“from birth”) discriminate _________________________________ ▯ Infants are “citizens of the world” – can recognize and discriminate any of the world’s language _________________________________ This ability lasts only so long, disappears by _________________________________ ▯ At this point, child “specializes”, recognizing and producing phonemes in mother tongue (native languages) – top-down process! ▯ You know a lot of words! ▯ Average 30 yr old American has vocabulary of 80,000 to 100,000 English words. ▯ Compared to a well-trained parrot? ▯ How did you learn all those words? ▯ Language Development 3-5 weeks, up to 4 months: _________________________________(vowel sounds), vowel discrimination 4-6 months: _________________________________sounds of spoken language (consonants and vowels), gestures to communicate First words typically appear 6-8 months) 12-18 months: more adult-like “Telegraphic speech” follows adult syntax ,simple two-word sentences 8 mo. old Toby’s first sentence: “Ahbabelle’s juice” (followed by his next sentence:“more juice, open bottle”) ▯ 15-18 months, children learn about 1 word every 3 days ▯ Big Event at 18 months: Vocabulary_________________________________ Word order almost always correct 10-12 words per day Language center in Wernicke’s area result of vocab. explosion Grammar skills seem to be critical for vocab. ▯ Grammar skills learned during the preschool years, w/out formal teaching Preschoolers _________________________________ rules Example: goed, getted Grammar knowledge fine-tuned from 3 to about 6 or 7 ▯ How does a baby learn to speak? ▯ Infants learn to distinguish individual words ▯ Problem: the spaces between words are only obvious once you know the language. We do not "speak----like----this," but rather with a fluid stream of words C’mere Solution: babies recognize phonemes, and then recognize likely patterns for beginning/ending (morphemes, etc.) ▯ Language is not cognition, although language conveys thought ▯ Some instances of retardation, with poor abilities in all areas, have excellent language skills – fluent, articulate Exp. Williams Syndrome, IQ of 50, can’t tie shoes ▯ Strokes impair language, intelligence may be intact ▯ Some syndromes have language delays and difficulties, but patients have high intelligence
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