class notes 11/3-11/5
class notes 11/3-11/5 PHI 115
Popular in Normative Ethics: Contemporary Moral Problems
Popular in PHIL-Philosophy
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHI 115 at Pace University taught by Dr. Mitchell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Normative Ethics: Contemporary Moral Problems in PHIL-Philosophy at Pace University.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
11315 Chapter 28 World Hunger and Moral Obligation Expands on singers idea of give when u can Shouldn t be forced its what u earned Right thing to do but not mandatory Farmer works hard to make a living has a surplus 0 Lazy neighbor and now is struggling 0 Does hard working neighbor have to help out his lazy neighbor Cant be forced to give what is ours which is why singer argument is awed Positive rights are based on the recipient 0 Not something your born with what u agree to do 0 Ex parents keeping child Should have choice to decide if we should give it away and help others What singer forgets is o Entitlement I Rights I Desert Farmer example 0 Deserves to have the produce 0 Has a right to keep it and deserves to keep it Kidney example 0 We have a right to say what we want to do because it is apart of our bodies Moral code 0 Not advocating a diff one 0 We are not forced to have to give our thins away I Not a requirement We can but its our decision Singer argued that we need to give things away until it puts us in the same position as those we r helping He argues that we cant be forced 0 We should give but his argument is based on our right to decide Comparable moral importance CMISinger 0 He calls it the greater morel evil rule GMERArthur Calls singer a moral crusader 0 Trying to change our right and wrong Shallow ponddo we save the child 0 Child has a right to live and that right is a negative right and we should honor that o Signer doesn t matter where child is if we have the ability to help that child then we should time and space doesn t matter 0 Arthur feels that time and space does matter Not a moral obligation to give 0 We should do but not morally required If we try to get people more than what they want to do it will fail people will not do it o Obstacle to high people will ignore Singer 0 Moral obligation to give people in need regardless of financial status I Not giving up moral significance Not giving up kidney eye sight because they r of significance 0 Have certain moral obligations Arthur 0 Agrees with singer I Giving is the right thing to do 0 We decide if we want to give its not a moral obligation I We have the choice 0 That would be supererogatory certain moral obligations Chapter 29 Terrorism Random murder of innocent people 0 Indirect approach266 o Directed toward certain groups but hurts innocent people quotBy no means unknownquot Intended to frighten the population Used in war to establish government 0 267british war 3 examples try to act in accordance with the norm 0 Russian revolutionaries I Wanted to kill tsarist official Children were in his carriage so they back off I Republican militant was to carry a preset time bomb I Missed where he was going I Placed it in street I Killed innocent bystanders o Stern Gang I 268 3 British Minister was assintated by Stern Gang a Zionist group Cases have moral distinctions in common 0 Aiming and not aiming or aiming at particular people Soldiers v officials 0 Soldiers activates is a matter of fact the unjust or oppressive character of the officials activities is a matter of political judgments I Political Vietcong assassination campaign 0 NLF waged a campaign aimed at destroying the gove of south Vietnamese countryside 0 Any official is engages in the political efforts of the unjust regime just as any soldier is engaged in the war effort His Impression 0 Terrorism is the deliberate violation of its norms 0 People are killed simply to deliver a message of fear to others like themselves 0 Current terrorist campaigns focus on people who h 0 Thesis 0 Indiscriminate killing cant be justified 0 Terrorism is inherently immoral 0 Terrorism is not permissible Can an army engaged in war engage in terrorism 0 Yes I WW2 Bombed villages in Germany that were full of civilians to try to create fear Is assignation ever morally justifiable o Hitler people did attempt to assassinate him but failed would this be morally justifiable is it terrorism I No because he was killing tons of people 4 0 Soldiers and officials are different 0 Soldiers matter of fact have to do it part of their job I By wearing the uniform they are obligated to fight others who are in uniform Main thesis 0 Not permissible unless your a soldier o If soldier acts through terrorism its ok bc hes in uniform and his identity is a solider o Wont carry if civilians around Chapter 30 Is Terrorism Distinctively Wrong Aims to challenge and criticize the dominate views that come with terrorism Terrorismdeliberate used of force against not combatant Should consider the life of the non combatant Civilian death is not always because of direct military actions Main point 0 People who are in warfare are doing the same thing as the terrorist 0 Being more careless I Killing just to kill 0 Defending terrorism with some restrictions I Pointing out that the reason behind their actions is political I Military bombs village no strategic importance other than to break peoples will just as bad as terrorism I Ch 29 soldiers have to do its part of their job Soldiers are told what to do 0 Its ok that they r bombing a city because it s what they r told to do Officials are the ones making decisions through society and political aspect 1 1515 Chapter 3 l Torture The action or practice of in icting severe pain on someone as a punishment or to force them to do something Assault upon the defenseless o Is cruel assault against the defenseless s o In combat the other person one kills is still a threat when killed and is killed on part for the sake of ones own survival 0 EX page 283 I The supreme reason With Constraints 0 Terroristic torture I Full on evil I To install fear 0 Interrogational torture I To get what they want 0 Info etc Morally permissible o 293 Questions 0 l I Terroristic Evil based I Interrogational Have a goal to obtain 0 2 I Depends on situation I 291 o 3 I He does believe it should be illegal though in some cases it can be used for good for Americans 0 4 I Depends on the situation I 289 Individual has to be able to back up their cause 0 Ought to remain illegal 293 0 Strong analogy to civil disobedience 0 Should be allowed in moral sense in the name of justice Bringing torture out in certain circumstances 0 Bring it out of the dungeon n make it morally acceptable Chapter 32 Ticking Bombs Torture amp the analogy with selfdefense It is never permissible intentionally to in ict severe pain or severe harm on someone unwilling unless the painharm is intended i for their bene t or ii as a punishment or iii as a part of the pursuit of a legitimate war or iv to prevent the individual from causing severe pain or severe harm to innocents 296 Defense casemorally permissible 0 Police Tasers the terrorist in self defense for himselflives of others Interrogation casenot morally permissible Re ex case unclear Holding casemorally permissible Withholding casenot morally permissible o By in icting pain upon the terrorist the police of cer is not preventing him from doing anything the action is already done Fellow casenot morally permissible 0 Police torture terrorist that they have captured and has no knowledge of the bomb 0 Has no knowledge the Argument 1 o The terrorist planned out all of his actions carefully and by not informing the police of the bombs whereabouts he is preventing the police from preventing him from completing his joint action of murder 3 02 Argument 2 o The silence of a terrorist who refuses to tell the location of a planted bomb is considered to be a part of his attack since his voluntary refusal to speak will allow the bomb to go off completing the attack Hills response 0 One completes an action when they nish basic physical movements that lead to the effects of said action If completion were based upon the effects happening one could continue to perform actions even after their death Argument 303 0 Those who don t disclose where the terrorist ha been spending their time are subject to torture I His response Torturing the innocent who made seal of confession is not justi ed Is not justi ed when it doesn t permit someone from committing the act himself or herself Cant testify against ur spouse Positive duty 0 Duty not to allow harm to come onto someone Negative 0 Requires u to withhold or stop someone from doing 0 Leave person alone Drowning case 0 A s moral reasoning Ok Not Defense X Interrogation X re eX X Holding X Withholding X
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