Water, Vitamins, Minerals 11-5 lecture and readings
Water, Vitamins, Minerals 11-5 lecture and readings NUTR 400 L21
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Krasko on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 400 L21 at University of New Hampshire taught by Professor Jesse Morrell in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Health & Well Being in Biological Sciences at University of New Hampshire.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
Week of 112 116 Week 3 Notes for Exam 3 I am not paid by the University I am a student in this class taking my notes on the lectures and the readings This notes combine the notes from the lecture and the reading assignments Water The Forgotten Nutrient And Vitamins and Minerals 115 Basics 0 Essential 0 Most abundant molecule 0 3070 adults weight higher in infants and kids ower in women obesity lean vs adipose tissue Fluid in the body uid water and solutes o intracellular uid 23 of all uid extracellular uid outsie cells 13rCI body uid between the cells interstitial uid in the vessels intravascular osmosis water will go from high to low concentration concentration of uid matters in osmosis Water will always go from high low Functions of Water maintenance of blood volume 0 transport of nutrient and oxygen 0 lubricant and protection tears uid in GI tract 0 chemical reactions solvent 0 temperature regulation water resists temperature change waste removal How Much Do we Need 0 Varies with size activity environment conditions and diet Adequate intake Al Men 37 Liters 15 cups daily Women 27 Liters 11 cups daily 0 20 found in food we eat Popular Be verages caloric beverages soft drinks fruit drinks 0 coffee tea ect 0 Alcohol diuretic 0 Bottled water How does the body Regulate Water Balance IN a majority comes from uid some from food and a little made from metabolism OUT skin persipitation lung respiration urine then feces are the way its excreted We lose about 2800 mL a day Regulation 0 The body Regulates blood volume and pressure to signal our body and say if it should retain water 0 The pituitary gland releases ADH that tells the kidneys to hold onto water Adrenal gland above kidney releases Aldosterone when they detect high blood pressure and tells the kidney to hold onto sodium Dehydration and Water toxicity Thirst mechanism is sometimes slow and unreliable Special populations 0 Water intoxication rare but potentially fatal hyponatremia Low Blood Sodium Clicker Questions 1 the majority of uid in body is where Intracellular this is 23rCI of the bodies uid The younger the age the higher the body water they have Men vs Women men have higher water Vitamis Basics Small amounts Organic Give no evergy MOST cannot be made by body Available in a variety of foods dairy is the only source that gives Vitamin D Vitamin 812 is only In animal based foods Fat Soluble don t like water Vitamins ADEK Dissolved in fats Stored in fat tissue and liver Higher potential for toxicity Water Soluble B Vitamins Vitamin C Found freely transported in blood because they get along with water Don t store these Excrete excessive amounts Not typically toxicity Frequently needed Digestion Begins in stomach Pancreatic enzymes released into Small Intestine Fat soluble vitamins need bile to help be absorbed Fat soluble vitamins also wont to be absorbed well if there s not fat in the body Fat Soluble vitamins go to the Lymphatic System before going into the blood Water soluble vitamins can go straight into blood after the Small Intestine The only Vitamin that gets 100 absorbed in the small intestine is Vitamin K Vitamin Status Severe De ciencies rare Vulnerable populations Food choices and preparation Enrichment when adding Vitamins and Minerals where they have been lost during processing Typical in our green products Forti cation adding nutrients where they wouldn t normally be uorine added into water 5 nutrients that need to be added to grains Thymin Rhybo avin Niacin Colate ron All B Vitamins Many BVitamins Act as Coenzymes Coenzymes are molecules that activate enzymes 0 BVitamins attach to the inactive enzyme 0 This helps get metabolism going Mineral Basics 0 Inorganic micronutrients Yield NO energy 0 Plant and animal sources 0 Either Major 100 mg or more a day Trace smaller amounts like iron More iron de ciency globally than anything else minerals retain chemical contentidentity they cant be easily destroyed more stable than vitamins can be toxic in excess amounts Many Minerals act as Cofactors 0 Pretty much the same thing as coenzymes but for minerals Bioavailability of nutrients Amount of nutrients that is absorbed and available to the body Protects us from getting to much of a possibly dangerous nutrient In uenced by physiological needs amount consumed dietary choices binders calcium is only gained from dairy Mineral Status 0 Several de ciencies are rare 0 Most common iron and iodine 1 most likely to be toxic Vitamin D This is because its fat soluble 2 True or false minerals are more likely to be durable than vitamins True Readings for above lecture Water and Intro to Vitamins and Minerals Drinking water Quality and Health 0 Can only last 4 days without water 0 Average adult consumes and excretes 10 cupsday Water can be hard soft natural modi ed and others Hard Vs Soft Hardness refeers to the amout of calcium magnesium and sometimes iron in it 0 Soft water may have sodium and other minerals or chemicals but very little calcium magnesium or iron 0 To soften water calcium and magnesium are taken out and sodium is added 0 Soft water may strip toxic metals from the pipes and may provide to much sodium Giardia and other Microorganisms Water also has different levels of microorganisms o Chlorination and ltration controls bacteria levels Giardia amia isn t killed by chlorine Most found in surface waters like mountain streams and lakes 0 Once drank a giardia cyst can grow into a trophozoite in the SI 0 Symptoms diarrhea weakness gas loss appetite dehydration cramping Curable with prescription Overview of Vitamins o Vitamins vital part of a healthy diet 0 To little can cause a nutritional disorder as well as eating to little 0 Either fat soluble vitamins ADEK Or water soluble All BVitamins and Vitamin C 0 Fat Soluble Vitamins dissolve in fats stored in liver and in fatty tissue if to much it can be harmful the body does not stroe most vitamins except for Vitamins A 812 and D which are signi cantly stored in the liver vitamin de ciencies can impair the intenstines absorption of food Can reduce absorption of fatsoluble vitamins ADEK this can cause chronic diarrhea Crohn disease certain pancreatic disorders