Week 10 Lecture Notes- BIO 106 Ocean Life
Week 10 Lecture Notes- BIO 106 Ocean Life BIO 106 - M001
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hill on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
11215 Marine Mammals Diversity of Ocean Life In order from largest of species to smallest Viruses and bacteria Invertebrates Fishes Birds Mammals Reptiles Linnaean Hierarchy Domain Eucarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordats Class Mammalia All animals we will look at in this lecture are mammalia Order Cetacea Family Delphinidae Genus Lagenorhynchus Species Largenorhynchus acutus Number of species vs Visibility the charismatic factor Invertebrates and fishes are the dominant numerical species in the ocean Not many marine mammals but they are what most people pay attention to Fish can eat mammals mammals can eat fish What makes an animal a marine mammal Mammal with a primarily marine existence from one of the following three orders Cetacea Sirenia Carnivora All air breathing giVing birth to precocious live young Typical mammalia characteristics with adaptations to marine life Three orders of marine mammals Cetacea Mysticetes baleen whales Odontocetes toothed whales Sirenia Manatees and dugongs sea cows Carnivora Seals Sea lions otters and polar bears Cetacea The most diverse group of marine mammals All the whales of the world B aleen whales are usually larger than toothed whales There are a lot more toothed whales than baleen whales Mysticetes Order Cetacea SubOrder Mysticeti Four families Balaenidae 4 Balaenopteridae 8 Neobalaenidae 1 found just in southern hemisphere we do not know much about them Eschrichtiidae l gray whale 14 total baleen whale species Mysticetes What is a mysticete Net in their mouth created by hair like fibers Use their baleen hole behind eye to strain water out when they filter food in Primary slow feeders filter feeders paired nostrils blowholes on top of the skull Newest species of baleen whale Omura s whale Balaenoptera omurai First described in 2003 by Japanese scientists First video and behavioral description published this month Baleen whale size generally very large blue whale largest baleen whale and invertebrate animal on earth up to 33 meters Minke whale smallest baleen whale still 10 m Not only are blue whales longer but they are bigger all over can be 132 tons Minke whale can only get up to 10 tons Mvsticetes Sounds baleen whales make a variety of sound They use sound to communicate over a long distance because visibility is limited Contact calls upcalls male agonistic sound gunshot used in aggressive situations bowhead song changes every year fin whale song sounds like birds Blue Whale Songs Low frequency and loud detectable over long ranges Mvsticete Sounds B aleen Whale sounds are both Loud Low frequency Potential detection ranges are large Odontocetes Order Cetacea Suborder Odontoceti Ten families 1 Physeteridae 1 large species sperm Whale Kogiidae 2 smaller species Pygmy and Dwarf Sperm Whales ziphiidae 21 species beaked Whales deep diving Platanistidae l specie Indian river dolphin Iniidae 1 Amazon river dolphin Lipotidae 1 Yangtze river dolphin extinct I Pontoporiidae 1 La Plata dolphin Monodontidae 2 beluga and narwhal 9 Delphinidae 36 Oceanic dolphins 10 Phocoenidae 7 species porpoise 74 minus 1 odontocete species OOOUlIgtUJ Odontocete bodv size Smallest vaquita up to 15 m and 95 lbs Will go extinct soon Largest sperm Whales up to 20 m and 55 tons Body sizes vary Odontocetes What is an odontocete One opening on top of skull they all have teeth there is variation in the teeth that they have extreme teeth narwhals Echolocation make a variety of signals echolocation odontocetes are able to generate sounds and use these echoes coming back form their own signals to sense the environment and their prey the melon in their heads helps emit sound They hear through their jawbones sperm Whales have clicks in their heads belugas have a lot of different sounds bottlenose dolphins have signature whistles Odontocetes types of sounds Functional categories Echolocation Communication Sound types pulses or clicks whistles bangs Controversies for toothed whales in caDtivitV Blackfish started a lot of publicity about whether or not we should keep these toothed animals in captivity California just banned captive breeding of SeaWorld killer whales A beluga whale died suddenly at the Georgia Aquarium Sirenians Order Sirenia 2 families Trichechidae 3 species Atlantic manatees Dugongidae 1 living specie dugong Sirenians what are sirenians herbivores slow moving mobility found in shallow water and coastal areas tend to get hit by ships I strangely like elephants Sirenian Sounds high frequency chirps useful in shallow water shorter and narrower wavelengths for communication Contact calls Agonistic Carnivores Order carnivore polar bear only marine carnivore that hunts both on land and in the water 5 families Ursidae l specie polar bears Carnivores Polar Bears Circumpolar Arctic distribution Entirely white or cream colored they can re ect light through their clear hair and absorb heat to regulate body temperature through their black skin Largest bear species Males bigger than females Males average 900 lbs females only about 400 lbs Very strong swimmers both at and below the surface Carnivores Otters Sea Otters North Pacific Large up to 5 in length about 75 to 100 lbs Floats on back at surface to feed rest and groom Marine otters south Pacific Smaller about 3 feet 10 pounds Little known about the species Sea Otters as Kevstone Species Keystone species a plant or animal that plays a unique and crucial role in the way an ecosystem functions A Keystone holds an arch together one of the first species described as a keystone species Sea Otters and Kelp Forests eat urchins and keep urchin population relatively low which allows kelp to grow and thrive they have a very large impact on the environment without sea otters there will barely be any kelp because of sea urchins Carnivores Sea lions vs Seals Seals do not have actual ears holes in their heads sea lions have ears Sea lions are more agile and graceful on land Seals have ippers that make them more graceful in the water Carnivores Otarids Otarid sea lions and fur seals eared seals pinniped finfooted Have external ear aps Can walk supported on front and hind ippers Carnivores Walruses Found throughout the arctic and subarctic Large males can be 12 feet and 4200 lbs Sparse hair and moustache Long tusks no ear aps forefippers like sea lions hind ippers like harbor seals Carnivores Phocids Earless seals or true seals lack external ear aps can not support body weight on ippers use front ippers to drag themselves limited ability for movement on land graceful in water Diversity of marine life Carnivores examples of sound production mating sounds established internally bearded seal scifi sound harbor seals Hoover amazing vocal mimic Status and Conservation issues Fishing is the number one cause of mortality in marine mammal species other threats include pollution boat traffic habitat loss and noise Most endangered Odontocetes river dolphins and the vaquita porpoise are most endangered Mysticetes North Atlantic and North Pacific Right Whales Western North Pacific gray Whales Pinnipeds Hawaiian and Mediterranean Monk Seals Caribbean Monk Seal believed extinct Most dugong populations are critically endangered 11415 Guest Lecture Ocean Acoustic Ecology the rising tide of human noise in the ocean The ocean is alive With the sounds of life Nobody is deaf and it s about the ecosystem Lowfrequency sounds travel very far in the ocean Whales ships and explosions Three basic messages Whales depend on sound and their acoustic habitats for life acoustic ecology Human activities impose risks to those habitats over very large spatial and temporal scales chronic noise from commercial shipping and energy exploration Knowledge can change the conceptual paradigm our attitudes and our behaviors scientificpersonal activism The fin Whale is the second largest animal on Earth Right Whales coastal males do not sing Scientific translation of the acoustic phenomena bioacoustic feature space for some baleen Whales We now collect very large amounts of data You can now listen in real time wwwlistenforwhalesor2 Team players Cornell Woods Hole NOAA Excelerate Energy Neptune LLC IFAW NEA PCCS We can locate track and count calling right whales Global commercial shipping traffic 96 of the world s commerce The rising tide of ocean noise The loudness is much greater in the Mediterranean where there is shipping vs in the Gulf of CA Baja Mex where there is no shipping Sound map movie of ships and endangered right whales off Boston MA Energy exploration and operations produce sounds and noises that invade marine acoustic habitats on ocean scales Seismic exploration example of acoustic intrusion into VLF and LF niches Longrange and largescale In uence of oil and gas seismic airgun array exploration on whale acoustic habitat How big is the Acoustic Footprint of a seismic airgun survey 100000 sq nmi over Washington DC What is the acoustic impact of a seismic airgun survey We don t know Today 9 applicants 300000 miles of survey Fin whale acoustic occurrence calendar 1 year by lh Big data platforms data analytic systems data integrations planet OS wwwmarinexploreorg We are bleaching the ocean with noise We are tearing the fabric of their social networks What is the risk What is the eventual cost Physics chemistry life health What is being done to change human behavior IMO quieter ships Oil and Gas companies nonexplosive sounds US Navy research significant restrictions All area and seasonal restrictions Social Actions IllUmiNations event at the UN NYC Sept 20 2014 Empire State Building NYC July 29 2015 Feature documentaries Racing extinction Sonic seas 52
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