Chaper 11 Notes
Chaper 11 Notes SCED 305
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chaelin Despres on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SCED 305 at Towson University taught by Dr. Jamie Silverman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Development in Education and Teacher Studies at Towson University.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
Chapter 11 Effective Learning Environments What is an Effective Learning Environment Classroom Management strategies for providing effective learning environments 0 Not only preventingresponding to misbehavior 0 Using class time well creating an atmosphere that is conductive to interestinquiry o Permitting activities that engage mindsimaginations Effective Instruction 0 Wellstructured activities that motivate students 0 Misbehavior doesn t disrupt lesson or other students learning What is the Impact of Time on Learning Engaged TimeTime on Task is more important than time spent in school 0 Number of time actually spent learning Allocated Time time during which students have an opportunity to learn 0 Paying attention 0 Written assignmentsother tasks Preventing Lost Time 0 Frequent loss of time can interrupt ow of instruction 0 Communicate to students that learning is important and worth their timeeffort Preventing Late Starts and Early Finishes 0 Ontime lesson is important for setting a purposive tone to instruction 0 Plan more than you think you ll need Preventing Interruptions 0 Break momentum of the lesson reduces students attention to the lessontask o Takes planning on how to not let interruptions disrupt lessons Handling Routine Procedures Maintaining a Rapid Pace of Instruction 0 Students learn more from teachers who cover a lot of content in each lesson Minimizing Time Spent on Discipline Using Engaged Time Effectively Teaching Engaging Lessons 0 Relevant to student interests to get them to pay attention 0 Emphasize active rapid participation 0 Deemphasize independent seatwork especially unsupervised o Engaged time is higher in wellstructured cooperative learning programs Managing Transitions 0 When making a transition give a clear signal to which your students know to respond 0 Before the transition students must be certain of what they are going to do clear direction 0 Make transitions all at once Maintaining Group Focus During Lessons 0 Maintain the involvement of all students in all parts of the lesson 0 Group Altering questioning strategies that are designed to keep all students on their toes during a lesson Maintaining Group Focus During Seatwork 0 Monitor activitiesinformally check individual students work 0 Provide individual help to students Overlapping 0 Attend to interruptionsbehavior problems while continuing to teach a lesson Overdoing Time on Task Classroom Management in StudentCentered Classroom 0 More participatory 0 Students set standards of behavior What Practices Contribute to Effective Classroom Management Different grade levelsstudents groups need different management concerns Starting Out the Year Right 0 Moreeffective managers have a clear specific plan for introducing students to classroom rulesprocedures and spend as many days as necessary carrying out their plan Work with the whole class initially remain involve with the whole class at all times Spend extra time during the first days introducing procedures and discussing class rules Teach students specific procedures 0000 Use simple enjoyable tasks as first activities 0 Respond immediately to any misbehavior Setting Class Rules 0 Three Principles I Class Rules should be few in number I Should Make Sense and be seen as fair by students I Should be clearly explained and deliberately taught to students 0 Give a moral authority for specific procedures What are Some Strategies for Managing Routine Misbehavior Re ect on the purpose of disciplinary strategies Students must respect teachers teachers must respect students The Principle of Least Intervention 0 Correct misbehaviors using the simplest intervention that will work 0 Prevention varying content of lesson using a variety of materialsapproaches displaying human and enthusiasm instituting cooperative learning to reduce boredom Nonverbal Cues correct behavior without interrupting momentum of the lesson Praise of Correct Behavior that is incompatible with misbehavior Praise for other students Verbal reminders given immediately after behavior should state what students should do 0000 rather than what they are doing wrong Repeated reminders Consequences should be mildly unpleasant short in duration and applied as soon as possible after the behavior Avoid referring to incident after applying consequence How is Applied Behavior Analysis Used to Manage More Serious Behavior Problems Applied Behavior Analysis an analysis of classroom behavior in terms of behavioral concepts and give specific strategies for preventing and dealing with misbehavior How Student Misbehavior is Maintained 0 Attention is the most common reinforcers for misbehavior o Teacher s Attention pay attention to students when they are doing well and ignore them as much as possible when they misbehave 0 Peers Attention I Group Contingencies strategies in which the entire class is rewarded on the basis of everyone s behavior I Remove the offended from the classroom to deprive them of peer attention 0 Release from Unpleasant States or Activities I Boredom frustration fatigue unpleasant activities I Create interesting engaged varied lessons I Actively involve students in lessons Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis 0 Behavior Modification systemic application of antecedents and consequences to change behavior I Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports PBIS 0 General Steps I Identify target behavior and reinforcers 0 See which reinforcers maintain the desired behavior 0 First behavior targeted should be serious easy to observe and occurs frequently I Establish a baseline for target behavior 0 See how often target behavior occurs I Choose reinforcers and criteria for reinforcement I Choose a punisher and criteria for punishment 0 Principles for punishments 0 Use sparingly 0 Make it clear to the child why they are being punished 0 Provide child with alternative means of obtaining positive reinforcement o Reinforce child for behaviors that are incompatible with those you wish to weaken 0 Never use physical punishment 0 Never punish when you are in a very angryemotional state 0 Punish when a behavior starts rather than when it ends I Observe behavior during program implementation and compare it to baseline I Reduce frequency of reinforcement once program is working Applied Behavior Analysis Programs 0 HomeBased Reinforcement I Give students dailyweekly report cards to take home and parents are instructed to provide rewards to students on the basis of these reports 0 Daily Report Cards I Teacher rates behaviorschoolwork at end of each day 0 Group Contingency Programs I An entire group is rewarded on the basis of the behavior of the group Ethics of Behavioral Methods 0 Constitutes bribing students to behave well 0 Should be instituted only when it is clear that preventiveinformal methods of improving classroom management are not enough to create a positive environment How Can Serious Behavior Problems be Prevented Preventive Programs 0 Creating safeprosocial classroom environments 0 Giving students opportunities to play prosocial roles as volunteers tutors or leaders in activities Identifying Causes of Misbehavior Enforcing Rules and Practices 0 Expectations must be consistently expressed Enforcing School Attendance o Unexcused absences are a strong predictor of low achievement Practicing Intervention Requesting Family Involvement Using Peer Mediation Confronting Bullying Judiciously Applying Consequences