Lecture: Emotion and Motivation
Lecture: Emotion and Motivation APSY.UE.0002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
Lecture: Emotion & Motivation Motivation Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal Motives can be physiological and psychological There are numerous perspectives regarding motivated behaviors Instinct Theory (The Evolutionary Perspective) Drive Reduction Theory Focuses on how our inner pushes and outer pulls interact with each other Arousal Theory Focuses on the right amount of stimulation Hierarchy of Needs How some needs are more important than others Instinct/Evolutionary Theory To qualify as an instance, a complex behavior must have a ﬁxed pattern throughout a species and be unlearned Psychologist that prescribe to this believe natural selection favors behaviors that maximizes reproductive success (that passes genes on to the next generation) At the heart of this perspective is the genetically-driven motivation to survive that is why Dolphins migrate in the winter - so their oﬀsprings have a better chance of survival Why mothers wake up at night so they can feed and care for their infants Basic and biological drives that stem from the basic survival drive to survive to the next generation Fails in describing what leads to speciﬁc motivation Ex. Why we want to eat the prettiest cupcake Drive & Incentive Theories A physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce the need When a physiological need increases, so does a psychological drive, an aroused motivated state The aim of drive reduction is homeostasis, the maintenance of a steady internal state We are pushed to reduce drives and pulled by incentives, positive or negative stimuli that lure or repel us Ex. Depending on our past experiences, the smell of food will incentives us to act in a certain way We act when there is both a need and an incentive Drive Theories: Emphasize how internal states push people in certain directions Incentive Theories: Emphasize how external stimuli pull people in certain directions Arousal Theories We are more than homeostatic beings Humans motivation seeks optimal levels of arousal Once our biological needs are satisﬁed, we feel driven to experience stimulation Ex. You have slept, you have been fed Ex. Babys crawl around and want to experience their arousal Lacking stimulation, we feel bored With too much stimulation comes stress, and we look for ways to decrease arousal Hierarchy of Needs (Abraham Maslow) Our Needs form a triangle, once one level is met…you seek to satisfy the next level The order of these needs are not universally ﬁxed Ex. People starve themselves to make a political statement - Sacriﬁcing lower needs for the higher ones Needs (6-3) are our Psychological Needs 1. Self-Transcendence Strive for meaning, purpose, and identity that is beyond one self; more globally - general needs 2. Self-Actualization Want to complete goals to fewest potential 3. Self-Esteem 4. Love and belonging 5. Safety 6. Physiological Needs Environmental Factors Eﬀect Needs (Abraham Maslow) Palatability If something tastes good to us, the more of it we will eat Quantity Available The amount of food available to us plays a factor into how much we eat Variety More options = Eat more overall Presence of Others We eat 44% more when we are eating with someone else We learn what we like to eat based on Classical Conditioning & Observational Learning Belongingness (Abraham Maslow) We have a strong need to belong Our need to belong inﬂuences our thoughts and relationships A study done with College students in America and South Korea Showed: College students level of happiness is related to the satisfaction of sense self-esteem and belonging Our need to belong results in both deep attachments and menacing threats Our need to belong leads us to form close bonds with family, friends, team mates, and join ganges Achievement The achievement motive is the needs to: Master diﬃcult challenges Outperform others Meet high standards of excellence Excel People with a high needs to achieve Handle critique and feedback a lot better Successful Strong positive correlation between motivation to achieve and educational achievement Achievement motivation is inﬂuenced by: The probability of success The incentives for success Emotion Emotion -> Motivation -> Emotion -> Motivation (and so on, like a circle) Emotion can lead to motivation Feelings of arousal can lead to motivation Motivation can lead to Emotion as well Feeling a level of anxiety for second exam can lead to motivate people The more motivated you are to study/succeed, the more anxious you will feel Components of Emotion: Physiological Component Cognitive Component Behavioral Component Physiological Component The autonomic nervous system mobilizes the body for action and then calms it when the crisis has past Sympathetic Nervous System Prepares us for a ﬁght or ﬂight response Parasympathetic Nervous System Calms the body Cognition and Emotion Cognition can deﬁne emotion Spillover Eﬀect: Arousal response to one event inﬂuences our response to another event Schachter & Singer (1962) Some emotional responses do not require conscious thinking Many of our emotional reactions are automatic and eﬀortless Particularly true for our dislikes/fears and simple likes Changing these emotional responses is diﬃcult Easier to change our cognition than to change our emotions Behavior and Emotion Emotions are expressed through body language and facial expressions The Facial-Feedback Hypothesis posits that facial muscles send signals to the brain that help it recognize the emotion being experienced When you frown: Send message to brain that you are sad When you smile: Send message to brain that you are happy Cross-Culturally there are: Similarities in the ability to diﬀerentiate facial expressions of emotions Ex. Emojis - We can send an emoji to someone in China and they will know what we mean Diﬀerences in the expression of emotions Ex. The Chinese do not have a word for depression The way we talk about emotions changes