Byzantium and the Islamic world to 750
Byzantium and the Islamic world to 750 Hist 101
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Jasmene Monique Ramirez
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HIST 161 001
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmene Monique Ramirez on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 101 at University of New Mexico taught by Professor Davis-Secord in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization I in History at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
Byzanitum and the Islamic world to 750 Byzantium is essentially the opposite of the latin west It has a monetized system of cials in cities Christianization language of administration and the church becomes greek Culturally administratively linguistically and religiously the west and the east pull apart Trade is not common between the East and west However in Byzantium they did not recognize the supremacy of the bishop of Rome aka the pope ln Byzantium education culture and administration takes place in cities where many of the citizens live Hagia Sophia a massive church attests to the wealth of the empire Constantinople is the capital city and is extremely wealthy that has a monetized system and long distance trade routes that crisscross the Mediterranean and silk roads High value luxury goods make their way into the cities Byzantium includes parts of North Africa the Balkans and Asia minor The borders of the empire become sources of con ict and tension They come into con ict with Sasinid Persia to the east bulgars and slavs to the north and Arabs from the South in North Africa A series of wars between Byzantine and Sasanid empire exhaust both sides Control of Damascus and Jerusalem ip op over the century until both sides run out of money and the cities are left decimated lconoclasm the breaking away from and destruction of icons became an internal source of division in the seventh century Relics and the remains of saints are believed to possess spiritual power In the greek world icons became sources of spiritual power as prayer conduits In the late seventh century and early eight century there is a move to be rid of icons This causes a big split between the iconophiles and iconoclasts Leo III the lsaurian outlaws the use of icons This is con rmed by Synod of 754 council lcons become illegal in public and private worship This was a very painful process Some people were violently evicted and icons were stolen when they were discovered in peoples homes lcons were essentially the equivalent of a spiritual security blanket for the people of the time When under attack from three fronts the icons made people feel better In 787 at the second council of nicea icon use was restored In 750 the byzantine empire consisted of nothing more than Asia minor and part of the Balkans Islamic World Arabian Peninsula was occupied mostly by Bedouin tribes They were pastoralists and nomadic and organized into family based tribal organizations lead by sheihks tribal elders Mecca and Medina become wealthy trade cities trading from the red sea to the Mediterranean Mecca becomes the most important Here there are a number of shrines to the Gods and Goddesses in prelslamic world controlled by ruling clan of Mecca Mecca is also a spiritual and economic center Muhammad was part of the ruling family and was a trader working for a widow He traveled extensively and had a signi cant sense of religion and spirituality In his twenties he goes to a cave retreat and in 610 hears a voice he attributes to the angel Gabriel He receives revelations over many years and becomes convinced Bedouins were once monotheistic but fell off the wagon He felt it was his duty to return people to monotheism He was a considered a prophet His family was not happy about his message and there is a con ict between muhammads followers and his family Muhammad ees to medina with followers This ight became what we know today as the Hijra 622 was considered Year 1 of the Islamic calendar During time in Medina the people develop a sense as being their own community in terms of legal and administration systems military judicial social and religious systems This sense of community usurps tribal loyalties and con icts based on tribal identity This idea is called umma which translates to community Transcends tribe language and culture As this umma strengthens in identity they believe their mission is to return to mecca and return the people to monotheism They engage in raids against mecca in 624 This is considered a military jihad struggle Any way of struggling for true belief against sin First victory is the battle of badr The victory lends credence to the idea that God is on their side Eventually they prevail over the meccans The ruling family allows reformation of spirits This return to mecca is known as the hajj and today a pilgrimage is made annually in remembrance of this journey One of the most important sites is the Ka aba Religion of Islam Uncompromising monotheism is the main tenant God is one not divided There are three sources for answers or information They are the Qur an Number one source and consist of Muhammad s revelations the sunna traditions of the prophet or the hadith saying of the prophet 5 pillars Shahada witness basic profession of faith No God but Allah Salat 5 daily prayers Sawm fasting such as at Ramadan Zakat alms Hajj pilgrimage to mecca Medinan community forms a social structure called shari a which translates to the path Shari a law today is the contemporary interpretations of how medinan umma lived Muhammad dies before naming a successor and doesn t leave behind instructions for succession From this problem two camps emerge The Sunni were one camp of traditionalists that felt a successor should be chosen who was the most worthy for the job The Shi ite believed that only a blood relative of Muhammad could rule Ali ibn Abu Talib was the closest relative of Muhammad He was Muhammads rst cousin and son in law The prophet s daughter Fatima married Ali Ali and Fatima had two sons Hassan and Huissein The Shi ites believed that they should rule as imam The shi ites however do not prevail 1St caliph is abu bakr 634 and reintroduced islam to tribes of Arabia Polytheists were forced to convert while monotheists were allowed to keep their original faith Under Umar in 664 and Uthman who took over in 656 the Quar an was codi ed Uthman was however killed to put Ali in power All ibn abu talib open warfare begins He was deposed in 660 and died in 661 Supporters go into hiding A cousin of Uthman takes over as caliph He transfers the capital from Medina to Damascus Around this time the byzantines and sasanids had exhausted their militaries Once the two were weakened the arabs took the chance to take Jerusalem and Damascus which becomes the ummayad caliphate The Shi ites moved into North Africa to hide from the Sunni They begin to preach their message In Tunis in 909 the shi ite caliphate forms They take advantage militarily and establish a caliphate based in Cairo and called themselves the fatimids after Fatima The Ummayads tended to take over and keep in place existing administration and began a translation movement Ancient Greek texts that were lost in the west become preserved in Arabic Became a dedicated culture of learning and scholarship This was a highly interconnected world and was sophisticated intellectually Scholars would travel anywhere between Spain and Persia Mimics and borrows lots of architecture that existed before their arrival ln basilicas they didn t do much more than add rugs to turn them into mosques ln Jerusalem the dome of the rock constructed on the remains of the temple of Solomon Caligraphic styles roman style arches and columns and Arabic script mosaics were basic tenants of the architecture
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