Week 3 Lecture notes- Intro. to PPPM
Week 3 Lecture notes- Intro. to PPPM
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Date Created: 01/23/15
12015 Historical and Structural Contexts of Public Policy Making Stable Foundation Federalism Separation of power The rule of law Commitment to individual liberty The sanctity of property Civil rights Many things have also changed since the founding The people are sovereign Constitution constrains the govt not the people The constitutional order changes to address inequities and problems Understanding of an indivisible union Treatment of African Americans and women Treatment od unpopular minorities Japanese in WW1 Others Constant features Very difficult to make and change policy pros and cons to that Highly fragmented govt Rules and norms of the legislative and other bodies Public support for stability The system is highly fragmented Separation of power Historical Evolution of Constitutional Order Divided power 17891860 0 Rural nation Sparsely populated Homogenous Based on limited federal govt Valued individual liberty and private property Not much industry Not a lot of inland movement Hardly any state govt OOOOOOO State Activism 0 States become more powerful 0 Population growth 0 Economic growth 00000 00000 A little less agrarian Demands of industrial revolution Social strife Integration of slaves into the labor pool Labor safety trans continental railroad lost about 100 people died during construction 30 in the hoover damn bay bridge 30 empire state building estimate one person die per oor Human life was not that valuable Labor had to try to organize Class differentiation rich vs poor Efforts to break up trusts monopolies Some policies The Civil War Amendment Interstate Commerce Commission The Civil Rights Acts Food and Drug Act Creation of the Federal Reserve Business regulation at state amp federal level National Activism O O 0000 O The great depression and demands for action Action blocked by the supreme court until 1937 the switch in time that saved nine and the court packing plan Numerous govt agencies FCC CAB SEC FDIC FHA TVA ect Demobilization and the GI bill The postwar economic boom Cold ward and remobilization The depression and WWII a basis for active federal govt National Standards 0 00000000 The reinvigoration of national activism in the 1960s Johnson s Great Society Programs These were changed to standards Continued activity in federal policy making Creation of the EPA and environmental laws Wage and price controls Energy policy Birth of scientific study of public policy and problems There are still always unintended consequences End of BIG govt OOOOOOOOOO Started by Ronald Reagan Started by Jimmy Carter Examples Deregulation of airlines trucking Greater concerns w de cits Is the govt really that small anyway Yes if we look at employees No if we look at spending Did the Bush administration promote smaller govt Not with respect to terrorism and the DHS How do we define too big gt Spending gt Regulation gt Other things that make government too big Some of the features of the American system We have ideological and political stability 0 We have a shift in presidential power every 4 years and this happens very peacefully Bush vs Al Gore example Basic rules and norms Open government and policy restraint by design Fragmentation 2 major parties remain relatively stable Questions Changes are always in response to the situation at hand all while maintaining a very stable political and ideological structure Switching gears toward Immigration Immigration is people coming from this country If you are not native American your family immigrated to the US from somewhere Immigration is a separate conversation from naturalization We have always had a fear of immigrants As early as the 1750s Benjamin Franklin didn t want Germans 1790s Americans feared the French bringing Revolution 1840s some claimed the Irish were a separate race taking American jobs 1890s we didn t want the Jews Lack of Regulation The doors to immigrants at least to Western European immigrantswide open The nation needed settlers to full up the newlyorganized territories Think of the South they forcibly enslaved people and brought them to US The process of immigration was virtually unregulated Mid 1840 s the first great wave of immigration from the Irish during the famine We welcomed the Irish but not their religion Catholicism the founders were protestant feared they would have allegiance to the pope The need for labor coupled with a seemingly endless expanse of open country kept immigration wide open until 1880s In 1876 the Supreme Court declared that the regulation of immigration was the responsibility of the Federal Government similar issue wmarriage equality As the number of immigrants rose the Congress established the Immigration Service in 1891 The federal govt assumed responsibility for processing all immigrants seeking admission to the US Some of the laws 0 Specifically excluded Chinese Chinese Exclusion Act passed only after the West Coast railroads were built the lowcost labor the Chinese was no longer needed 0 The creation of Elis Island Anxiety about immigration rises o Racial and ethnic fears o Decreasing need for foreign labor 0 New groups this time from Eastern and Southern Europe arrived Immigration peaked about 1900 About 20 of the population was foreignbom Today is about 12 National Origins Act 1924 0 First major time we started to set quotas for the country 0 Census of 1890 2 bases small around of growth because it is based on an old number of people by nationality here 0 The act made it clear British German Scandinavian and Irish Immigrants were ne but everyone else was undesirable Kept a lid on their numbers 0 The rst time we made people get Visas before they arrived here NOA fallout The Depression 0 Didn t allow Jews from Europe to come in Relied on a quota system to keep refugees out Alien Registration Act 1940 0 We have legal residents and nonresidents Tolerance for refugees of communist countries If you had skills we would be more likely to take you If you had family here People from Africa Asia and most of Latin America were still out of luck Immigration Act of 1965 o Abolished the earlier quota system 0 Established new immigration policy focused on reuniting immigrant families and bringing people with skills we need Immigration Reform and Control Act 1986 o Increases Border Control Staffing and sanctions employers who knowingly hire or recruit unauthorized immigrants 0 Aliens who ve lived here since 1982 can become residents guest workers People who have worked here for 90 days in certain agricultural fields can become a permanent resident 27 M people residing here illegally become permanent residents There was very loose travel across the Canadian border Some of the tensions we have now stems from this law 0 We don t have any significant new laws Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act 1996 o Addressed border control and the use of social services by immigrants 0 Has only been enforced for the past decade or so 0 Increased the of border patrol agents introduced new border control measures 0 Reduced government benefits available to immigrants and Current immigration goals 0 O O O 0 OOO o Reuniting families 0 Workers that will help the economy musicians athletes tech workers doctors lawyers ect 0 Provide refuge 0 Ensure diversity admit people with historically low rates of immigration in to the US it is on a lottery system Naturalization completely different conversation Federal government has firmly confirmed this from the very beginning Two hundred years ago the process was very easy if you were male and white The naturalization Act of 1795 Only free white people No single women Their children were not eligible to be citizens either Today Less prejudice Much more difficult Must be a permanent residence green card Take a test Go to court Probably need a lawyer It is expensive Guest worker visas mean that they will be here with no representation few legal protections and no chance to earn citizenship There is no way some people can ever enter the country K12 unauthorized kids are ne once they get to college they are shut out Not eligible for scholarships not eligible for loans or aid not eligible for in state tuition If they managed to get through college they wouldn t be able to prove citizenship for a job Present Challenge About 11 million unauthorized immigrants in the US today Millions of undocumented youth who were brought to the country as children unable to get jobs or gain admission to college Current quotas and preferences mean there is no way some people can ever enter the country Guest worker visa means no representation or protection Options from the reading Open Ourselves to the World adjust for past immigration provide more opportunities Make Emigration Unnecessary improve everyone else s standard of living Admit the Talent We Need be selective only bring people we really need Restrict Immigration reduce visas strengthen border control introduce national ID card So what do we do about this Need clarity for 11 million that are here And clarity for the ones who want to come in the future Foreign aid from the US biggest country receiving foreign aid from the US Israel then Egypt A lot of it goes to weapon Our government is not very generous in foreign aid Our nonprofits are very generous We could increase foreign aid would that also help us 0 The way we live now cant support everyone in the world global warming 0 Could be that decreasing aid might help people more Open immigration makes perfect sense within the context of capitalism 0 So is the only reason we don t prejudice 0 Some people will be a challenge in the short hand not knowing English not educated Brain drain taking the best and the brightest from other countries leaves them worse off Are we really taking anybody People are attracted to the US 0 We do take the best of our applicants 0 The same way universities recruit 0 Our education system sucks so are we really helping them out with our education system AND with healthcare 12215 Why is the federal government involved in housing Part of its role is to protect us Protection of quality of life Provide shelter for quality of life To aid with racism and prejudice To aid the elderly So post civil war The slaves are free to leave plantation moving north for more opportunities 0 This is the beginning of a long process of Black Americans pursuing equality 0 There was a lot of discrimination renting purchasing a home getting a job ect They could and would turn them away because of their race 0 People saw as a financial issue to keep Black Americans out of white neighborhoods to protect property values 0 States closest to the south began to adapt zoning ordinances that enforced residential segregation no Black Americans within the city limits of Eugene small area near the other side of the river why the river These were the days before we had dams on the river Their homes would get damaged and people even harmed Dams came in the 40 s Lane who lane county was named after was the leader of the KKK O 0 Louisville Kentucky forbade a colored person from moving into a home in a neighborhood with a majority of white residents Because that would lower property value 1917 Buchanan v Warley Supreme Court case declaring that cities could not mandate racial zoning Individual property owners could do it that remained with the property Even after that owner passes away that stipulation remains This is one of the reasons Fed involved in housing In the 1940 80 of property in Chicago and LA carried restrictive covenants barring black families Racially restrictive covenants became common after 1926 Carrigan v Buckley decision validated their use One of the federal government goals was to chip away at this issue but we dragged our feet quite a bit 1920 s 0 O O O Socially acceptable to rent more than half of families rented Easy to nd places to live Loans were hard to get CRAZY why people didn t buy homes I 40 down payments I 35 year loan I High interest rates Part of the reason we had this was because of the banking system Now you can get a 30 year loan I George Bailey from A Wonderful House he took one person s savings to give someone else a loan If he didn t have enough savings he couldn t give out loans I Now the banking system is different BECAUSE the federal government plays a role 1930 s 0 O the great depression led to foreclosures primary motivation action with housing was to help the economy get going not to alleviate prejudice and discrimination National Housing Act of 1934 I Stimulate release of private credit by banks and lending institutions for home repairs and constructions I Created the FHA the main federal agency handling mortgage insurance 9 Banks could feel comfortable giving out loans the government would pay back loans if people could not pay them back I The FHA s assumption of rates made it possible to decrease interest rates and lengthen loan times US Housing Act 1937 1940 s I WWII caused a temporary moratorium on domestic housing construction except for defense purposes I All focus was on the war effort I In ux of soldiers returning from war 9 million become civilians in one year I Housing shortage of epic proportions I The 1944 authorization of the Veterans Administration VA home loan program GI Bill guaranteed singlefamily and mobile home loans that also aided people with college The GI bill still exists I Increase in housing in the late 40 s I Growth was signi cant in suburban areas I The turn to suburbia led to a need for new housing programs to deal with declining urban areas Housing act of 1949 O O Effort to deal with housing decay in our inner cities I The invention of the bull dozer knocking down buildings Title 1 of the act authorized funds to localities to assist in slum clearance and urban redevelopment Sweeping expansion of the federal role in mortgage insurance and issuance and the construction of public housing I To support people in getting their own homes This program as earlier programs once again emphasized new construction Unintended Consequences 0 Because of this massive urban renewal we were being sloppy I Poor planning I Corruption I Failing to consider social and ethnic discrimination I Urban renewal also came under fire for discriminating against minorities I Resulting in minorityheavy slums being destroyed and replaced with more expensive housing I Nonresidential public works that were not accommodating to the original inhabitants I The slogan adopted by critics equated urban renewal with negro removal I red lining no banks can loan any money to Black or Jewish Americans to live in a specific area in order to keep that area white 1948 Shelley v Kraemer o supreme courts found that raciallybased restrictive covenants are not unconstitutional but enforcing those covenants is illegal Housing act of 1954 0 Amended 1949 act to provide funding not only for demolition for rehabilitation and conservation of deteriorating areas 0 Represented a substantive change in the evaluation of housing problems 0 Shift to rehabilitation and conservation had a major impact on todays housing policies where demolition was once encouraged 1960 s 0000 O O O 0 Legislation in the 60 s expressed the social concerns of providing decent housing and ensuring that such housing is made available to all Executive order 11063 Equal opportunity in housing 1962 was the first major effort by the federal government to combing civil rights with housing The draft caused tremendous upheaval in society Title 6 of civil rights act of 1964 prohibited discrimination in federal housing programs key word there is federal Fair housing act 1968 prohibited discrimination in the sale financing or lending of housing recently come back in the news Additional amendments in 1988 prohibited discrimination based on family status or handicap The housing community development act of 1974 I Section 8 leased housing assistance payment program still exists The community development block grant CDBG program The home mortgage disclosure act of 1976 and the community reinvestment act of 1978 attempted to have lending institutions reveal where they were making their housing loans I These laws forced banks to turn in the data to determine whether or not they were discriminating against people How does this trickle down to the state level Even though the federal government prohibited the enforcement of discrimination did it have an impact I Exclusion acts probably existed until federal government outlawed them or federal law superseded Late 70 s and 80 s A little more stingy on spending for housing Cut housing for domestic issues Cities fell in to neglect after the white ight to the suburbs Rioting in the cities cities got burned housing educational police brutality Consequences of federal action 70 s great s of black americans moved to outer city the government sponsored home building binge helped to depopulate inner city causing decay of cities slum conditions decreased Rise in housing for low cost lowincome people and the excess of dwelling units for low income Housing research Income assistance would have aided people more directly and effectively than subsidized housing Subsidized housing did not help people who were living in physically adequate housing but who without sacrificing other necessities cannot afford to pay their rent Giving landlord money to rent does not give incentive to keep it nice giving the renter money to rent wherever they want gives landlords competition and therefore incentive to improve quality Present 0 National homeownership rate for all Americans is 651955 down from record 68 but minority homeownership rates lag far behind 0 Why is homeownership a national goal I If you own a home and you live in it you will take pride in it I If it is a rental used just for income they are not going to take as much pride in it and therefore won t take as good of care of it there is an accepted belief that increases risk for the bank that is why there will be a bigger down payment on a rental 0 Create capitol buy at a low rate sell at a higher rate and make a pro t Homeownership is a better long term nancial decision 0 Part of the reason the banks weren t invested in whether or not people could really afford their loans in the recent housing crisis because the bank can SELL that promise of the loan payments Because the loan could be sold the bank immediately got the money back right away they could make more loans I In the bay area SF people were making loans interest only I Buy a home of 1000000 I To be able to get a traditional loan you would have to make 250000300000 a year I Banks were saying you don t have to pay the loan just pay the interest I You would have to pay 4250 a month You aren t paying back the million dollars you own I In 5 years say the house is worth 1200000 you sell it and then you have enough money to pay back the interest I Say in 5 years the house decreases in value and then you have to pay the one million back cant even sell the home for that much and you cant afford it you loose money 0 Minorities don t own homes at the same rates as majority Analysis 0 Public housing was used by the federal government to create segregated metropolitan areas we know today 0 Federal and local government increased the isolation of minorities in inner cities and ghettos 0 Combination contributed to the creation of segregated neighborhoods and schools 0 Disadvantaged minority students are isolated in povertyconcentrated areas end up in the same place 0 Without these public policies the racial achievement gap that might be a very different and lesser challenge Mindset of current 20 somethings o Attracted to cities 0 Not as dependent on automobiles 0 Could this mean a change 0 0 Think about the witticar district used to abandoned now it is an attractive place to be