Psychology Lecture Notes - 11/5/2015
Psychology Lecture Notes - 11/5/2015 PSYCH 1100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by KR on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1100 at Ohio State University taught by Tara Benninger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
KR PSYCHOLOGY NOTES 11/5/2015 CH 13 The Connected Mind: Social Psychology (pg 489 519) I. Social Psychology A. What would you do? 1. You’re getting ready for a big date, not sure if your outfit looks quite right. a) ask for someone else’s opinion 2. You’re about to get on metro on DC, and you don’t know how it works. a) look at what everyone else is doing → normative influences 3. It’s about 15 min after class is supposed to start, and instructor is still not there. You’re trying to decide whether to leave. a) usually go off decisions of others B. Definition: The scientific study of how people influence others behavior, thoughts, feelings C. Why Study Social Psychology? 1. Humans are social creatures 2. Social interaction is a basic human need 3. Survival (Maslow's hierarchy of needs → includes love/belonging) II. First impressions and attributions A. First impressions = formed rapidly (sometimes seconds), longlasting (even in face of contradictory information) 1. lots of social media = make quick first impression of ppl 2. affect behavior B. Attributions = judgments about the causes of other people’s behavior (why) 1. Dispositional attribution = judging the cause of a person’s behavior to personal qualities/characteristics 2. Situational attribution = judging the cause of a person’s behavior to a situation a) Ex: neighbor’s dog poops over your yard (1) dispositional = he’s lazy, inconsiderate (2) situational = he didn’t notice it, he’s busy 3. Correspondence bias = view behavior as result of a person’s disposition, even when it can be explained by obvious situational factors a) aka Fundamental attribution error (1) failure to consider situational factors, leads to overestimating the amount that disposition contributed to behavior b) why this happens? (1) difficult for people to be aware of all situational factors (takes a lot of work and time) (2) easier and simpler to give dispositional attribution 4. ActorObserver Bias = tending to make situational attributions for our own behavior while making dispositional attributions for the behaviors of others a) Ex: You and a fellow classmate fail the Psych 1100 midterm. (1) You are the actor: “I wasn’t feeling well that day, test was really hard” (situational) (2) You are the observer: “He failed because he’s lazy, doesn’t work hard” (dispositional) b) SelfServing Bias = we view our successes differently than our failures (1) success = dispositional attribution (2) failure = situational attribution (3) can make you feel better, but more difficult to learn from failure (4) JustWorld Belief = assumption that good things happen to good people, but bad things happen to bad people (a) highly correlated w/ negative attitudes about (i) poor people, people w/ HIV/AIDS, elderly, unemployed, homeless (b) belief that the rich work hard, poor are lazy (c) affects political beliefs and how you feel about social political issues 5. Culture influence son attributions KR a) Individualist cultures (US, many Western nations) = stress individual achievement and composition, place more emphasis on dispositions, more likely to engage in defensive attributions like selfserving bias b) Collectivistic cultures (many Asian nations) = value cooperation to attain group goals, place more emphasis on situation, more likely to engage in selfserving bias on group level III. Attitudes and persuasion A. Attitudes = favorable or unfavorable evaluations that predispose our behavior 1. some more important than others, important in communication 2. ABC’s of attitudes a) affect (emotions) b) behavior c) cognition (thoughts) d) example: determining attitude toward Jenny’s ice cream (1) affect = happiness, joy (2) behavior = eat it every week (3) cognition = best ice cream, 3. how are attitudes formed? a) personal experience b) from those around us: family, friends, peers, teachers c) genetics = twin studies show similar attitudes among separated twins 4. cognitive dissonance = uncomfortable state when your behaviors don’t match your attitudes a) cognitive dissonance = inconsistency b) powerful tool for changing attitudes c) resolve it by: changing thoughts, introduce new 3rd thought, or reduce importance of topic d) ex: person smokes cigarettes (1) behavior = continues smoking (2) attitude = negative b/c knows it’s bad (3) creates discomfort (4) resolve dissonance by: (a) changing conflicting behavior = quit smoking (b) introduce 3rd thought = “I do a lot of risky things that don’t make me feel bad” (c) reduce importance of dissonance = “smoking isn’t really that bad for you” e) ex: (1) attitude = “I’m physically attractive (2) behavior = “I’m single and don’t go on any dates” (3) reduce dissonance by: (a) don’t have time to date (b) conclude that: not that attractive → changed attitude (c) or go on more dates (d) reduce importance: doesn’t matter to me, focused on school f) persuasion = attitude change in response to information provided by another person (1) elaboration likelihood model (ELM) = model predicting responses to persuasive messages by distinguishing 2 pathways leading to changes in attitudes (a) central route = when a person considers persuasive arguments carefully and thoughtfully (information, facts) (b) peripheral route when person responds to peripheral (or external) cues, rather than carefully examining the quality argument (c) example: ELM in Aveno lotion ads (i) central = price, actual ingredients, how it will affect skin (ii) peripheral = Jennifer Aniston looks young and pretty (2) what influences persuasion? KR (a) education (more likely to use central route), time, emotions, motivation/attention, characteristics of person (credibility of person), how persuasive message is communicated (social media, face to face [best method], written)
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