Life Cycle Development - Week10 Notes
Life Cycle Development - Week10 Notes PSYC 2310
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cristina Saiz on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2310 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Lawrence Cohn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Life Cycle Developmemt in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
Week 10 Life Cycle Development Adolescence and Young Adulthood G Stanley Hall emerging researcher in the late 18005early 19005 proposed that adolescents were filled with storm and stress Ana Freud said that adolescents have unconscious impulses they are trying to repress she studiedworked with adolescents as a psychoanalyst she said that upholding of a steady equilibrium during the adolescent process is in itself abnormal because it s a period filled with stress emotions and hormones Brain Development Age Birth9 25 of adult brain weight 6 months 50 25 years 75 5 years 90 10 years 95 Lain Development in Adolescence Longitudinal Study 145 boygirls ranging from ages 420 years did MRIs and found that white matter increased with age gray matter in frontal cortex increased until age 11 in girls and then decreased gray matter in frontal cortex increased until age 12 in boys and then decreased similar patterns in parietal and temporal areas of the brain white matter is myelinated this was on one of the quizzes Another study people ages 1032 pictures of people displaying fearful expressions 16 people were ages 1018 the other 18 people ranged from age 1832 Found that adolescents looking at the pictures especially the younger adolescents display frenetic brain activity in the amygdala by comparison older adolescents and adults showed most activity in the frontal lobe Results suggest adults use frontal lobe for emotion regulation teens younger than 14 made more errors than adults saying the faces looked angryconfused older teens made more correct responses Adolescent Maturity quotAdolescents as a class are undoubtedly less mature and therefore less culpable for their misconduct than adults but at least some 17 year old murderers are sufficiently mature to deserve the death penalty in appropriate cases Sandra Day O Connor quote he showed us in class Pubertal Development HypothalamicPituitaryGonadal Axis was on the last quiz Hypothalamus Pituitary gonadotropins9 Gonads ovaries amp testes9 sex steroids testosterone amp estradiolesecondary sex characteristics such as beardmustachebreasts Adolescence thsical Changes Puberty Muscle Strength Height Heart Weight Weight Lung Capacity Typical Sequence of Pubertal Changg FEMALES Beginning of breast development Growth spurt Menarche first menstrual cycle MALES Growth of penis General growth spurt Beard development for external manifestations girls enter puberty between ages 1011 boys enter puberty between ages 1112 Growth spurt girls at age 105 peaks at age 12 and is completed by age 14 by age 10 girls are 84 of their adult height boys at age 12 peaks at age 14 and is complete by age 16 by age 10 boys are 78 of their adult height BOYS are taller than girls because their growth spurt closes later and it lasts longer Weigm girls are 59 of their adult weight by age 10 boys are 55 of their adult weight by age 10 Heart doubles in weight Age at menarche has declined in the past 150 years in different countries the earlier menarche the lower the risk of osteoporosis the earlier menarche the greater the risk of breast cancer Impact of Puberty Hormona Puberta Timing Puberta Stage Tanner Stage Hormonal changeswas on the last quiz Testosterone levels increase 2 fold in females Testosterone levels increase 1820 times in males Estradiol levels double in males Estradiol levels increase 8 fold in females BrooksGunn Studv Impact of estradiol on moods of adolescent girls greatest impact on girls with fastest rising levels greatest amount of depressive affect thus hormonal changes accounted for some variability in adolescent moods but negative life events accounted for much more of the variability in adolescent moods more than hormonal changes themselves as males move through pubertal stages they express increasing body satisfaction the opposite is true for girls puberta timing compared to peers Csikszentmihalv amp Larsen 75 teens in Chicago ecology of adolescent experiences and moods experience sampling they had the teens wear a beeper for a week and answer a two page survey each time it went off Beeper went off randomly every 2 hours and people had to report their mood and what they were doing at the time it went off random sample of adolescent s moods and experiences first time ever that we can look at adolescent minds most surveys were filled out within 10 minutes of the beeper going off semantic differential with words there was a ratio of 10 negative comments to 1 positive comment FINDING they reported positive affective states 71 of the time that they were beeped their moods were more positive than negative Conducted the same study including 10 different countries including the US of about 6000 teenagers ages 1315 were the young group ages 1619 were the older group supports that teens aren t so stressed as we may think and are happy almost 90 of the time Another Study 107 adults ages 1965 malefemale very diverse sample no differences between adolescentsadults in their cheerfulirritable and happysad moods adults more actively engages in tasks than adolescents except in structured activities like sports hobbies musicband Monitoring the Future a survey that asks about 16000 high school seniors about alcoholdrug use and their home life A study done in 1944 amp redone in 1972 assess personality and mood most people don t change very much and remember their teenage years being more stressful that they actually were compare the old survey with the new one