Lecture 8: Alcohol
Lecture 8: Alcohol
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samuel Victoria Diaz on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
Alcohol Fermentation Products Fermentation Production of alcohol from sugars through the action of yeasts Forms the basis of all alcoholic beverages Raw materials Fruit contains sugar and will ferment with the addition of yeast Cereal grains require malt to convert starch into sugar Yeast has a limited tolerance for alcohol When the concentration reaches 1215 the yeast dies and fermentation ceases Distilled Products Distillation Evaporation and condensing of alcohol vapors to produce beverages with higher alcohol content Process perhaps discovered in Arabia around AD 800 Introduced into Europe in about the 10th century Proof A measure of a beverage s alcohol content Twice the percentage of alcohol by weight 90proof whiskey is 45 percent alcohol Beer and Wine Made by adding barely malt to other cereal grains Hops are added with yeast to give beer its distinctive avor Wine Production Made from fermented grapes Produced by both small and large wineries Most wines contain about 12 alcohol Forti ed wines Alcohol content near 20 percent Beer Production process Made by adding barley malt to other cereal grains Hops are added with yeast to give beer it39s distinctive Most beer sold in the United States it massproduced by the two largest brewers Imported beers and microbreweries are growing in popularity Types of Beer Ale Uses a topfermentation yeast Warm temperature and shorter fermentation Lager Most common type in US Uses a type of yeast that settles to the bottom of the mash to ferment Cool temperature and slower fermentation Light beer Fermented longer at a cooler temperature More sugar is converted to alcohol Then water is added Wine Production Made from fermented grapes Produced by both small and large wineries Most wines contain about 12 alcohol Factors in quality include Selection and cultivation of grapevines Good weather Timing of harvest Careful monitoring of fermentation and aging Varieties of Wine Generics vs varietals Determined by type of grapes and avor Red vs white Sweet vs dry Sparkling wines Forti ed wines Alcohol content near 20 percent Distilled Spirits Grain neutral spirits Clear tasteless nearly pure alcohol 190 proof produced by distillation Sold as Everclear to consumers and used in research Used to make various beverages Gin distillate ltered through juniper berries and then diluted with water Vodka mixture of grain neutral spirits and water Contains relatively few congeners Other alcohols and oils contained in alcoholic beverages Distilled Spirits Whiskey Distillate of fermented grain Distilled at a lower proof 160 and so contains more congeners and some avor from the grain Usually aged for at least two years Types of whiskey include Rye whiskey Corn whiskey Blended whiskey Early US Views on Alcohol Use Before American Revolution Most people drank more alcohol compared with water Drunkenness was viewed as misuse of positive product After American Revolution Alcohol itself viewed as the cause of serious problems Alcohol was rst psychoactive substance to become demonized in American culture Temperance Movement Benjamin Rush Wrote pamphlet quotAn Inquiry into the Effects of Ardent Spirits on the Mind and Bodyquot Heavy drinking Alcohol use damages morality Alcohol addictiona disease Temperance societies Initially promoted abstinence from distilled spirits only Later promoted total abstinence Became fashionable to quottake the pledgequot Prohibition States began passing prohibition laws in 1851 By 1917 64 of Americans lived in quotdryquot territory Laws re ected issues of class ethnicity religion immigration Federal prohibition 18th Amendment 1919 banned the sale of alcohol People still drank illegally in speakeasies and private clubs and legally through purchase of patent medicines Enforcement was challenging and expensive Outcomes of Prohibition included Organized crime became more organized and pro table Alcohol dependence and alcoholrelated deaths declined Prohibition Repealed by the 21st Amendment 1933 Reasons for the appeal Alcohol taxes had been a major source of revenue Concerns that widespread disrespect for Prohibition laws encouraged a general use of lawlessness Outcomes of repeal included Alcohol per capita sales and consumption increased Returned to preprohibition levels after World War II Regulation and Taxation Regulation after 1933 Some states remained dry initially But most allowed beer sales Mississippi was the last dry state Allowed alcohol purchase and consumption in 1966 In 19705 drinking ages were lowered to 1819 in 30 states But raised again to 21 following safety concerns Taxann Federal and state taxes and licensing feesabout half the price of an alcoholic beverage When the taxes go up consumption goes down But not dramatically Alcohol Consumption Patterns Consumption patterns are in uenced by cultural factors Trends in US alcohol consumption Similar to other drugs alcohol use peaked in 1981 and then declined American consumption per person per year Beer 27 gallons or over 1 gallon of alcohol Spirits 075 gallon of alcohol Wine 033 gallon of alcohol US Alcohol Consumption Regional differences in the US One third of US population abstain Half the alcohol is consumed by 10 of the drinkers Differences in urbanization Alcohol sales is higher in population centers for example DC and cities in Nevad
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