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by: Mikaela Maldonado

Week9WildlifeNotes.pdf FW 104

Mikaela Maldonado
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2)
Nicole K M Vieira; Ann L Randall ; Tyler Ryde Swarr
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2)

Popular in Animal Science and Zoology

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaela Maldonado on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FW 104 at Colorado State University taught by Nicole K M Vieira; Ann L Randall ; Tyler Ryde Swarr in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2) in Animal Science and Zoology at Colorado State University.

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Popular in Animal Science and Zoology


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Date Created: 11/08/15
 Disturbance and Ecosystem Management  Disturbance  Periodic change, destruction, or removal of ecosystem components  May be large-scale  Often followed by recovery period  Flooding, dams, logging, drought, landslides, bark beetles, disease, avalanche, pollution, construction, roads, fires, invasive species  Noise  Affects behavior of wildlife, echolocation, etc.  Light  May alter behavior of animals  Climate change  Signs, changes in habitat, cascade effect  Ranges in severity and extent  Minor/local  Tree falls, wallows  Severe/regional events  Fires, floods, hurricanes, development  Discrete – clear beginning and end  Windstorm, avalanche  Constant – continuous, with no clear end  Pollution  Timber/wood harvesting  Natural disturbance  Often integral part of function of many ecosystems  Biological diversity may depend upon natural disturbances  Some species of plants need fire to function  Anthropogenic disturbance  Human caused change that occurs  Negatively impact biodiversity  Generalist will do better in an altered habitat, but the specialist that won’t  Clicker Question: Which of the following represent an anthropogenic disturbance?  Tornado  Hurricane  Pollution  Lightning caused fire  Ecological succession  Reset the successional stage  Process of community development over time until a relatively stable stage in community development is reached, called a climax community  Succession stages  Recovery process  Sequence of species/groups of species present at various time since disturbance  Primary vs secondary  Usually will be secondary succession will occur after disturbances  Climax community is not always reached  R species is going to do better will do better in a more disturbed area  Tropical rainforest deforestation  6-7% earth’s surface but 50% the species in the entire world  logging, 10 removed, 1 planted  clearing for pastures- hamburger connection  cattle ranching is leading cause of deforestation in Brazil  Slash and burn  Small scale cultivation of crops  Not sustainable beyond small population densities  Trees removed- increase erosion- destroy nutrient base of soil  Fires lead to wildfires  Water supply/quality  Desertification  Short term gains from increased land value  Implication  These species have medicines and cures  Loss of biodiversity  Don’t even known what we are losing at this point   Fragmentation  Climate  Ecosystem services  Succession  What is needed  Education  Changed behaviors and demand  Sustainable agriculture and forestry  International development assistance with ecological information  Network of parks and reserves  Use land already deforested for logging, grazing…  Use better crops that are more sustainable  Extracting reserved, ecotourism on remaining forests  All forest represent the same type of concerns for deforestation and extreme demand for timber harvest - false  The wildlife manager’s toolbox  Foundations – knowledge  Scientific method  Techniques/populations  Succession/disturbances  Ecosystem management  Systems thinking  Spread the word!  Management considerations…  Tamarisk/salt cedar  Bank stabilization, greatly increased song bird  Now peregrine falcon  Encroaching and negatively impacting the cottonwoods  Nile Perch  Sport fishing and food source  Reduce Tilapia – graze on algae  Created oxygen depletion  Poor cover habitat for native fish  Native culture depends on air drying tilapia  Deforestation and erosion  Commercial fishing  Ecosystem management defined  Common components  Ecosystem function, structure, and processes  Biodiversity  Social/political aspects  Value and perceptions  Economic consideration  Agencies  National Park Service  Preserve biological resources and ecosystem processes  USFWS  Develop partnerships to conserve ecosystems upon which listed species depend  USFS  Ecosystem management coordination staff  TNC  Conservation by design/protect lands and waters that plants and animals need to survive  CPW  Habitat restoration/healthy ecosystems and biodiversity  Edward Grumbine’s ecosystem management  Goals  Viable populations  Native ecosystem types  Ecological processes maintained  Long-time periods – enough to maintain and evolve  Accommodate human use and occupancy  Dominant Themes  Hierarchical context  Systems/scale  Ecological boundaries  Ecological integrity  Data collection  Monitoring  Adaptive management  Interagency cooperation  Organizational change  Humans embedded in nature  Values  Endangered Speciesthct  December 28 , 1973 – President Nixon  Purpose to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend  US Fish and Wildlife Service and Department of Commerce’s national Marine Fisheries Service  Protect endangered and threatened species and then pursue recovery  Conserve candidate species and species at risk so that listing under the ERA is not necessary  Five Factors determine if a species is endangered  Habitat destructing  Overutilization  Disease/predation  Inadequacy of regulation  Natural or manmade factors  Recovery phases  Identification  Endangered – any species or subspecies in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range  Threatened – any species or sub-species likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future  Crucial habitat- specific area with the welfare factors to accommodate the habitat  50% of the listed species have recovery plans  83 additional species are proposed status  candidate species-sufficient info exists on biological vulnerability and threat to support a proposal to list  warranted but precluded needs attention but only after high priorities  Critical habitat – include areas that are not currently occupied by the species but that will be needed for its recover  Affect federal agency actions or federally funded or permitted activities  Exclusions  846 species have critical habitat defined  Protection  Federal agencies must initiate consultation with the FWS if agency action may affect a listed species or critical habitat  Also state and private individuals must initiate a consultation if actions need a federal permit or funding  Regulation  70000 federal actions reviewed every year  1200 formal consultations/yr  6% in jeopardy finding  Prohibitions and penalties  Take  Penalties 25000 – 50000 dollars or ruin habitat  Recovery  Reduce or eliminate threats  Restore self-sustaining wild populations  Remove species from the list  Monitoring/5 years  Incentives for conservation  Sage Harbor Agreements  Habitat Conservation Plans  Candidate Conservation Agreements  Population experimental  Treated as threatened  Flexibility  Climate Change and Feral Species  The Green House Effect  Trapping in solar radiation from a gas blanket around the earth  CO2, methane, NO, sulfate  Climate forcing’s are things that change the balance between incoming and outgoing energy in the climate system  Tipping points – at some point there is going to be too much green house gas than can be removed from the earth  Global response to temperature change  Lakes freezing later  Glacial retreat  Weather  Coasts  Sea ice/reflectivity  Permafrost/methane  Acidity of ocean/coral  Polar Bears  kingdom Animalia carnivore ursidae  threatened ESA or vulnerable IUCN  genetically closest to the grizzly  largest living bear species  upper level predator of marine ecosystem  Marine Mammal Protect ACT, CITES, ESA  Specialist  Very k selected  Indicator species – rely on ice hoes to hunt seals  Sensitive to a variable of interest  Early warning system  Canary in a coal min  Indicated heath of ice cap ecosystem  Umbrella species -  Save polar bear, save other artic ice species  Starvation, drowning, “Take” from oil and gas conflicts, effects of pollution, diease  Pika (Ochontona princeps)  Lagomorph : related to rabbits and hares  Not listed under ESA  High elevations in rock fields  Dry forbs/grasses in “hay piles” for winter  Are active and forage even in winter in subnivean runways beneath the snow  Narrow temp tolerance limits  Cant live above 75 degrees  Can freeze to death in winter  Strips of mountains  Coral  Ecosystem engineer  Stressed by changes in temperature, light, acidity, or nutrient  Symbiotic relationship with algae breaks down, algae expelled, loose nutrient source  Bleaching and disease  2005, US lost half its coral reefs in Caribbean  Biodiversity  Study release by WWF shows global warming could fundamentally alter one third of plant and animal habitats by the end of this century and a study published in Nature could result in the extinction of more than a million terrestrial species in the next fifty years  Feral Species  Wildlife-non domesticated animals in their natural habitats  Feral species – previously domesticated animals established in the wild  Invasive species – non native species whose introduction does/could cause harm to the economy, environment, and/or human health  Feral Swine  Damage dirt through rooting  Clever  Moving around  In the middle of r/k spectrum  Lots of babies  Eat plants, eggs, deer/lams, reptiles, farm crops  800 million in damage each year to agriculture  carry many diseases  aggressive  bait/trap  hunting  culling  predation  FL panther  Feral cats  Release by pet owners  R selected  Kill 1billion birds/small mammals per year  Dangerous diseases  Toxoplasmosis  Feline leukemia  No predators  Hawaii  Large problem  Management  Trap/neuter and release  JUDAS method – one cat rats out all the rest of the pack  Eradications  Public values/participation  Feral “Wild” Mustangs  Brought over by Spanish  Successful reproduction  Polygamous: polygynous  Protected from harvest  Wild and free roaming horses and burros Act 1971  Few predators  Damage riparian habitats and springs  Over grazing habitat for native species  Reduced range quality for grazing rights  Fertility control  Round-up and sell  Public values  Reptiles and Amphibians  Collectively these animals are called herpetofauna, herptiles  Study of herpetology  1/3 amphibian species are now threatened with extinction and are in decline  Chordata  Repitlia  Scales, plates, shells  Apendages have nails  Ectothermic  Have lungs  Lay eggs/hard shell  Miniature adult  Amphibians  Chordate  Amphibian  Moist, smooth skin,  Lung/gills and breathe through their skin  Lay eggs/soft like gel  Metamorphosis  Population Assessments  Secretive and small  Nocturnal  Cryptic coloration  Many are very wary of predators  Hard to mark and capture  Frogs/toad sounds  Threats  Habitat loss  Salamanders like humidity  Disease and parasites  Boreal toad: high elevations  Chytrid fungus  Messes up breathing through skins  80% declin  ESA under review  IUCN: near threatened  Climate change  Pollution  Metals, pesticides, acid rain, estogenic chemicals  Deformities during development  Sexual development  Global warming  Chytrid fungus interaction hypothesized  Male/female temp changes affect normal sex development  Invasive Species  Burmese pythons  Cane toads  High reproductive potential  Tadpoles develop quickly so outcompete native tadpoles  Poisonous  Eat native frogs and small mammals  Unsustainable use  over collection for food, pet trade, and biological studies  ornate box turtle  some k selected life histories (low repro 12 – 14 yr maturity)  commercially harvested for pet trade  listing on CITES  can’t sell outside US  2002 Turtle Bill  near threatened IUNC  American Crocodile for the next life history


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