Week9WildlifeNotes.pdf FW 104
Popular in Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2)
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaela Maldonado on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FW 104 at Colorado State University taught by Nicole K M Vieira; Ann L Randall ; Tyler Ryde Swarr in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2) in Animal Science and Zoology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
Disturbance and Ecosystem Management Disturbance Periodic change, destruction, or removal of ecosystem components May be large-scale Often followed by recovery period Flooding, dams, logging, drought, landslides, bark beetles, disease, avalanche, pollution, construction, roads, fires, invasive species Noise Affects behavior of wildlife, echolocation, etc. Light May alter behavior of animals Climate change Signs, changes in habitat, cascade effect Ranges in severity and extent Minor/local Tree falls, wallows Severe/regional events Fires, floods, hurricanes, development Discrete – clear beginning and end Windstorm, avalanche Constant – continuous, with no clear end Pollution Timber/wood harvesting Natural disturbance Often integral part of function of many ecosystems Biological diversity may depend upon natural disturbances Some species of plants need fire to function Anthropogenic disturbance Human caused change that occurs Negatively impact biodiversity Generalist will do better in an altered habitat, but the specialist that won’t Clicker Question: Which of the following represent an anthropogenic disturbance? Tornado Hurricane Pollution Lightning caused fire Ecological succession Reset the successional stage Process of community development over time until a relatively stable stage in community development is reached, called a climax community Succession stages Recovery process Sequence of species/groups of species present at various time since disturbance Primary vs secondary Usually will be secondary succession will occur after disturbances Climax community is not always reached R species is going to do better will do better in a more disturbed area Tropical rainforest deforestation 6-7% earth’s surface but 50% the species in the entire world logging, 10 removed, 1 planted clearing for pastures- hamburger connection cattle ranching is leading cause of deforestation in Brazil Slash and burn Small scale cultivation of crops Not sustainable beyond small population densities Trees removed- increase erosion- destroy nutrient base of soil Fires lead to wildfires Water supply/quality Desertification Short term gains from increased land value Implication These species have medicines and cures Loss of biodiversity Don’t even known what we are losing at this point Fragmentation Climate Ecosystem services Succession What is needed Education Changed behaviors and demand Sustainable agriculture and forestry International development assistance with ecological information Network of parks and reserves Use land already deforested for logging, grazing… Use better crops that are more sustainable Extracting reserved, ecotourism on remaining forests All forest represent the same type of concerns for deforestation and extreme demand for timber harvest - false The wildlife manager’s toolbox Foundations – knowledge Scientific method Techniques/populations Succession/disturbances Ecosystem management Systems thinking Spread the word! Management considerations… Tamarisk/salt cedar Bank stabilization, greatly increased song bird Now peregrine falcon Encroaching and negatively impacting the cottonwoods Nile Perch Sport fishing and food source Reduce Tilapia – graze on algae Created oxygen depletion Poor cover habitat for native fish Native culture depends on air drying tilapia Deforestation and erosion Commercial fishing Ecosystem management defined Common components Ecosystem function, structure, and processes Biodiversity Social/political aspects Value and perceptions Economic consideration Agencies National Park Service Preserve biological resources and ecosystem processes USFWS Develop partnerships to conserve ecosystems upon which listed species depend USFS Ecosystem management coordination staff TNC Conservation by design/protect lands and waters that plants and animals need to survive CPW Habitat restoration/healthy ecosystems and biodiversity Edward Grumbine’s ecosystem management Goals Viable populations Native ecosystem types Ecological processes maintained Long-time periods – enough to maintain and evolve Accommodate human use and occupancy Dominant Themes Hierarchical context Systems/scale Ecological boundaries Ecological integrity Data collection Monitoring Adaptive management Interagency cooperation Organizational change Humans embedded in nature Values Endangered Speciesthct December 28 , 1973 – President Nixon Purpose to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend US Fish and Wildlife Service and Department of Commerce’s national Marine Fisheries Service Protect endangered and threatened species and then pursue recovery Conserve candidate species and species at risk so that listing under the ERA is not necessary Five Factors determine if a species is endangered Habitat destructing Overutilization Disease/predation Inadequacy of regulation Natural or manmade factors Recovery phases Identification Endangered – any species or subspecies in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range Threatened – any species or sub-species likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future Crucial habitat- specific area with the welfare factors to accommodate the habitat 50% of the listed species have recovery plans 83 additional species are proposed status candidate species-sufficient info exists on biological vulnerability and threat to support a proposal to list warranted but precluded needs attention but only after high priorities Critical habitat – include areas that are not currently occupied by the species but that will be needed for its recover Affect federal agency actions or federally funded or permitted activities Exclusions 846 species have critical habitat defined Protection Federal agencies must initiate consultation with the FWS if agency action may affect a listed species or critical habitat Also state and private individuals must initiate a consultation if actions need a federal permit or funding Regulation 70000 federal actions reviewed every year 1200 formal consultations/yr 6% in jeopardy finding Prohibitions and penalties Take Penalties 25000 – 50000 dollars or ruin habitat Recovery Reduce or eliminate threats Restore self-sustaining wild populations Remove species from the list Monitoring/5 years Incentives for conservation Sage Harbor Agreements Habitat Conservation Plans Candidate Conservation Agreements Population experimental Treated as threatened Flexibility Climate Change and Feral Species The Green House Effect Trapping in solar radiation from a gas blanket around the earth CO2, methane, NO, sulfate Climate forcing’s are things that change the balance between incoming and outgoing energy in the climate system Tipping points – at some point there is going to be too much green house gas than can be removed from the earth Global response to temperature change Lakes freezing later Glacial retreat Weather Coasts Sea ice/reflectivity Permafrost/methane Acidity of ocean/coral Polar Bears kingdom Animalia carnivore ursidae threatened ESA or vulnerable IUCN genetically closest to the grizzly largest living bear species upper level predator of marine ecosystem Marine Mammal Protect ACT, CITES, ESA Specialist Very k selected Indicator species – rely on ice hoes to hunt seals Sensitive to a variable of interest Early warning system Canary in a coal min Indicated heath of ice cap ecosystem Umbrella species - Save polar bear, save other artic ice species Starvation, drowning, “Take” from oil and gas conflicts, effects of pollution, diease Pika (Ochontona princeps) Lagomorph : related to rabbits and hares Not listed under ESA High elevations in rock fields Dry forbs/grasses in “hay piles” for winter Are active and forage even in winter in subnivean runways beneath the snow Narrow temp tolerance limits Cant live above 75 degrees Can freeze to death in winter Strips of mountains Coral Ecosystem engineer Stressed by changes in temperature, light, acidity, or nutrient Symbiotic relationship with algae breaks down, algae expelled, loose nutrient source Bleaching and disease 2005, US lost half its coral reefs in Caribbean Biodiversity Study release by WWF shows global warming could fundamentally alter one third of plant and animal habitats by the end of this century and a study published in Nature could result in the extinction of more than a million terrestrial species in the next fifty years Feral Species Wildlife-non domesticated animals in their natural habitats Feral species – previously domesticated animals established in the wild Invasive species – non native species whose introduction does/could cause harm to the economy, environment, and/or human health Feral Swine Damage dirt through rooting Clever Moving around In the middle of r/k spectrum Lots of babies Eat plants, eggs, deer/lams, reptiles, farm crops 800 million in damage each year to agriculture carry many diseases aggressive bait/trap hunting culling predation FL panther Feral cats Release by pet owners R selected Kill 1billion birds/small mammals per year Dangerous diseases Toxoplasmosis Feline leukemia No predators Hawaii Large problem Management Trap/neuter and release JUDAS method – one cat rats out all the rest of the pack Eradications Public values/participation Feral “Wild” Mustangs Brought over by Spanish Successful reproduction Polygamous: polygynous Protected from harvest Wild and free roaming horses and burros Act 1971 Few predators Damage riparian habitats and springs Over grazing habitat for native species Reduced range quality for grazing rights Fertility control Round-up and sell Public values Reptiles and Amphibians Collectively these animals are called herpetofauna, herptiles Study of herpetology 1/3 amphibian species are now threatened with extinction and are in decline Chordata Repitlia Scales, plates, shells Apendages have nails Ectothermic Have lungs Lay eggs/hard shell Miniature adult Amphibians Chordate Amphibian Moist, smooth skin, Lung/gills and breathe through their skin Lay eggs/soft like gel Metamorphosis Population Assessments Secretive and small Nocturnal Cryptic coloration Many are very wary of predators Hard to mark and capture Frogs/toad sounds Threats Habitat loss Salamanders like humidity Disease and parasites Boreal toad: high elevations Chytrid fungus Messes up breathing through skins 80% declin ESA under review IUCN: near threatened Climate change Pollution Metals, pesticides, acid rain, estogenic chemicals Deformities during development Sexual development Global warming Chytrid fungus interaction hypothesized Male/female temp changes affect normal sex development Invasive Species Burmese pythons Cane toads High reproductive potential Tadpoles develop quickly so outcompete native tadpoles Poisonous Eat native frogs and small mammals Unsustainable use over collection for food, pet trade, and biological studies ornate box turtle some k selected life histories (low repro 12 – 14 yr maturity) commercially harvested for pet trade listing on CITES can’t sell outside US 2002 Turtle Bill near threatened IUNC American Crocodile for the next life history