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Chapter 12 Notes

by: Alexa Rosenfeld

Chapter 12 Notes 80486 - PSYC 2010 - 003

Alexa Rosenfeld
Introduction to Psychology
Edwin G Brainerd

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About this Document

Introduction to Psychology
Edwin G Brainerd
Class Notes
Psychology, PSYC 2010, Dr. Brainerd, CU, Clemson University, Clemson
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Rosenfeld on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80486 - PSYC 2010 - 003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G Brainerd in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 11/08/15
Chapter 12 Personality Personality 0 an individual s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits 0 Trait 0 Enduring characteristic way of behaving O A way of describing people by their traits We all know something about this topic 0 We are all aware of a personality that we have 0 Evolutionary perspective 0 Judging and evaluating other peoples personality 0 Describing personality 0 Trait approach 0 Developing personality 0 Psychodynamic approach 0 Behavior The Trait Approach 0 The average person has used this approach for years 0 There are approximately 20000 different words that describe personality traits in the dictionary 0 There is a new trend that is being used to look for traits that can describe people universally Raymond Cattell s 16 PF 0 One of the first universal personality tests 0 Developed a list of 16 personality traits in which any person can be scored and a factor analysis was then used to find the clustered words that were together in order to score them 0 Factor analysis 0 1950 s and 1960 s 0 Correlates many variables of traits to identify the closely related clusters of variables 0 Gordon Allport O 1937 O Developed a list of thousands of personality traits which was then made more efficient by Cattell Big Five Personality Test 0 16 factors was still too large to use for a personality test 0 McCrea and Costa then reduced the list to just 5 basic personality factors Personality High Score Low Score Artistic Shallow Clever Simple Openness to Experlence Curious Unintemgent Independent Conforming Cautious Careless Conscientiousness Deliberate Disorderly Dependable Forgetful Disciplined Weakwilled Active Quiet Assertive Reserved Extraversmn Dominant Shy People person Loner Affectionate Cold Cooperative Cruel Agreeableness Friendly Unfriendly Trusting Suspicious Anxious Calm Selfpitying Selfsatisfied Neumtlusm Unpredictable Stable Unsecure Secure Freud s Psychoanalytic Theory 0 Attempts to explain everything there is to explain about the process of development 0 Unconscious 0 Mental Processes Fairness to Sigmund Freud 0 Freud s theory is the oldest still taught 0 Over 100 years old 0 There was a lot that he didn t know about psychology 0 Freud and many of his patients were greatly affected by the Victorian Era O Sexually repressive 0 Had a very severe effect on Freud and the many people he worked with 0 Only procreation was acceptable 0 Freud has a clinician 3 interest in abnormal behavior 0 Private practice 0 Forced to go into clinical practice 0 Because he is Jewish he was not able to receive a university position 0 Does very well in studies and was a gifted researcher but he had to go into private practice I Because of this he was questioned by personality 0 How did this person become abnormal 0 How do you fix this person I Focuses very heavily on abnormal behavior because he is in private practice 0 Has very little to say about people who live life successfully and have it all together he focuses on the abnormal people and people that have really severe problems 0 He was afraid of his father 0 Fathers were different then scary with severe punishment 0 He was so afraid he thought his dad would castrate him I Played a major role in shaping western society Freud s Theory starts with Structure of Personality 0 Freud divided personality into 3 components 0 First to develop Id 0 O O O O 0 Major source for Freud of our psychic energy Works by the pleasure principle Concerned with the gratification of our primary needs and wants I want that and I want it now No concern with the cost or consequences involved The id runs through primaryprocess thinking irrational 0 Second to develop Ego O O 0 000000 Conscious and Preconscious Mediates between the needs of the organism and the environment Wants you to have the good stuff like going to the movies but it wants you to do so in a way that is not going to ruin your life Considers the consequences Works by the reality principle The ego runs through secondaryprocess thinking the good guy Makes practical choices but not moral choices Doesn t deal with right or wrong I Wait until someone isn t looking at what you are about to do 0 Third and last to develop Superego O O O O Conscious preconscious and unconscious Deals with right and wrong decision making Just as irrational as the id I Automatically responds to everything you want with no you can t have it I Doesn t matter about what you deserve I You can t have things both ways and one structure will be unhappy no matter what happens Two parts I Ego ideal I Part of the personality that rewards you when you behave properly 0 Good part of the superego I Conscience 0 Makes you feel guilty I What punishes you when you misbehave I The top of the ice berg is conscious part of our personality I The bottom of the ice berg is unconscious making us irrational Con ict Two Major Types of Abnormal Behavior 0 If the id becomes too controlling a person becomes amoral abusive of others impulsive and in trouble with the law most of the time 0 This was once called being a psychopath and sociopath 0 It is now changed to antisocial personality because in psychology when a label becomes too negative it is not to be used to describe someone s personality I Very different from a normal individual I Convincing liars calm in bad situations I Limbic system doesn t fire I When the superego becomes too powerful a person becomes anxious perpetually guilty rigid and unhappy O This was once called Neurotic because the neurons do not work correctly 0 It is now changed to Anxiety Disorder 0 Worries and feels guilty about everything Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms 0 Intrapsychic Con ict I Anxiety I Reliance on Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms 0 Sometimes the ego runs out of steam because the others do not want to compromise I To protect itself Freud created defense mechanisms 0 Freud s Pearls of Wisdom Defense Mechanisms Controlled by the ego Unconscious Don t know you are using them Distort reality In denial Below persons level of awareness May help the situation at first but it then turns into a major problem Defense mechanisms are basically lies Makes you feel better about yourself Protects you from unpleasant truth Repression I Push a painful memory into the unconscious 0 Projection 0 0000000000 Deny that you are the one doing the hating 0 You really hate your dad but you turn it into your dad hates you 0 Saves you from feeling guilty 0 Reaction Formation O Rationalization Development Psychosocial Stages 0 5 psychosocial stages 0 Oral 0 Anal 0 Phallic Counter conditioned Different for children 0 Toilet children Learning to eliminate or control body waste more or less on cue Fixation occurs if you have a mother that is too authoritarian and punishing in your toilet training stay hopelessly stuck in the anal stage of development Two things can happen 0 Anal Retentive Personality Become a compulsive and hopeless neat nick organized 0 Live up to the mothers expectations 0 Anal Expulsive Personality Become a total compulsive destructive slob 0 Rebels against mothers expectations Going to get creepy The principle area of gratification for males and females is the genitals Oedipus complex Male child develops a romantic attachment towards his mother and a sexual attraction age 35 fantasize about having his mother Begins to fear the father as a result of this 0 Fantasize on how to get rid of his father so that he can have mom all to himself For females Freud did not know how to handle after thought so he thinks it is the same thing as males just towards the father 0 Detested Women develop envy of males and their genital make up Identifying with the parent of the same sex is how you resolve the phallic stage 0 Latency Age 612 Sexual fires die down Expand social contacts makes friends Dr B thinks there is no such thing as a latency stage O Genital I Age puberty onward I Normal adult pattern of sexuality I Sexually intimate Freud Probes Unconscious 0 Goal get into the unconscious mind to resolve all problems 0 Find out what is going on in the unconscious mind 0 4 major methods 0 Hypnosis I Joseph brewer I What you see on tv I Didn t consider it reliable I Took too long I There are people that can t be hypnotized I Gave up on it very quickly 0 Free association I Lay down on a comfortable couch therapist sits behind you to not look interested encouraged to talk about anything that comes to mind no matter how sillymundaneembarrassing therapist will periodically comment on things notice trends complexes 0 Freudian Slips I Accidently reveal the unconscious I Telling the truth on yourself I You don t mean to say it but it tells the truth 0 Dreams I Royal road to the unconscious I Get the person to talk about their dreams I 2 distinct parts 0 Manifest content 0 Story line of the dream 0 What a person tells you 0 Latent content 0 Interpretation of the dream 0 What the dream actually means 0 We dream in code 0 Even in our dreams we are embarrassed Carl Jung 0 Disagreed with Freud about sex I Considered the unconscious mind to be more important than Freud thought it was O Analyzed his own dreams for his whole life which ended up saving himself Jung s View of Consciousness 0 Conscious mind 0 Very small part of the mind that contains out immediate awareness 0 Personal Unconscious 0 Material that has been forgotten or repressed I Ex first kiss Collective Unconscious 0 Collective experiences and memories that we have of all of our human and animal ancestors 0 Accounts for many of our preferences 0 Accounts for our fears and dislikes O The dark bugs reptiles Archetypes 0 Reside in the collective unconscious 0 Complexes of thoughts emotions and images that have a universal meaning 0 Mother God Mighty hero Alfred Adler 0 Believed that sex was not the key to human motivation 0 Believed that social interest is the key 0 Humans are capable of change and growth without years of therapy 0 The role of the unconscious in people s behavior is not particularly important Adler s Inferiority Complex 0 We are born feeling inferior because as children we are small and weak making us strive for superiority and we compensate for real and imagined inferiorities 0 We can change by our style of life and our creative power of self 0 These thoughts are moving towards humanism Problems with the Psychodynamic Approach 0 Poor testability 0 Unrepresentative samples 0 Upper class 0 Inadequate samples 0 Sexist bias against women BF Skinner 0 Behavioral approach 0 Personality is learned by reward and punishment 0 Personality is the sum of the things you have been rewarded for 0 Life is a series of stimulus situations 0 Classes parties athletic events personal interactions 0 These all have a related personal hierarchy of response tendencies 0 Dominant tendencies define personality 0 Response tendencies 0 You are the person you are the tendencies can change if you have been rewarded or punished O Stimulus Situation large party where you only know a few people I R1 circulate speaking to others but only if they approach you first I R2 keep close with the people that you already know I R3 politely withdraw yourself by getting wrapped up in a host s book collection I R4 leave at the first opportunity Response Hierarchies Change 0 Change according to reinforcement and punishment 0 Reinforcement 0 Meeting an attractive individual and go out afterwards for drinks 0 Punishment 0 Ignored or snubbed by everyone you try to talk to Albert Bandura 0 Social cognitive theorist 0 Response I Rewarding Stimulus Presented I Adds modeling and imitation to the way that we learn behaviors I Reciprocity 0 Walter Mischell believes that the environment ultimately determines personality I Selfefficacy 0 Belief in ourselves 0 High I Model the behavior I Believe in yourself 0 Low I Not likely to model the behavior I Doesn t believe in yourself 0 Vicarious reward I Seeing model go somewhere with each other I Likely to model behavior I Successful O Vicarious punishment I Model says something wrong becomes insulted I Unlikely to model behavior 39 Unsuccessful 0 In terms of skateboarder Humanistic Perspective 0 Emphasizes the unique human qualities of people 0 Especially potential to grow and change 0 Overcoming base animal desires 0 People are conscious rational beings 0 People are not helpless victims of the world around them Carl Rogers 0 One of the founders of the humanist movement 0 The movement was a reaction to behavioral and psychodynamic theories 0 Congruence O Selfconcept 0 Actual experience 0 Incongruence O Selfconcept 0 Actual experience Roger s Unconditional Love 0 In order to develop congruent personalities children must have unconditional positive love from their parents 0 Conditional worth causes an incongruent personality with anxiety and defense mechanisms Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs 0 This theory was very popular 0 Need for selfactualization Aesthetic needs Cognitive needs Esteem needs Belongingness and love needs Safety and security needs 0 Physiological needs 00000 0 Must meet the lowest need in the pyramid first and then it can move onto the next need Selfactualizing persons 0 Characteristics of SelfActualizing People 0 Spontaneity simplicity and naturalness O Autonomy independence of culture and environment 0 Feelings of kinship and identification With the human race 0 Balance between polarities in personality etc Hans Eysenck 0 Personality traits I aspects if brain structure and function 0 Evolutionary perspective 0 Traits conductive to reproductive fitness 0 Interdependent SelfSystem 0 Self I Mother I Father I Friend I Sibling I Coworker


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