Chapter 13 Social Psychology
Chapter 13 Social Psychology PSY 2012
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Woy on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2012 at University of Florida taught by TBH in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
Ch 13 Social Psychology • social psychology: Study of how people inﬂuence others behaviors beliefs and attitudes ◦ also how society inﬂuences individual behavior ◦ focus on the individual and not society as a whole • Social comparison theory ◦ theory that we seek to evaluate our abilities and beliefs by comparing them with those of others ◦ Upward social comparison ‣ Comparing ourselves to people who are better than us at something ‣ we usually assume they are exceptionally good at something ◦ Downward social comparison ‣ comparing ourselves to people who are not better than us • Social cognition ◦ when we don't know what to think of a situation we look to others for cues about how to act ‣ turbulence on an airplane ‣ An oﬀensive speaker ◦ Mass hysteria: outbreak of irrational behavior that is spread by social contagion ‣ The war of the worlds scare ‣ Flying saucers ‣ Windshields pitted by secret nuclear tests ‣ Urban legends: usually emotionally charged, make good stories, get repeated so many times they become inaccurate • Our performance infant of others ◦ Social disruption ‣ Choking infant of others when we are preforming diﬃcult or unfamiliar task ◦ Socail Facilitation ‣ Bikers tend to bike faster when they are racing with someone ‣ mostly in tasks we know well (opposite to social disruption) • The fundamental attribution error ◦ attribution: ‣ process of assigning cause to a behavior ‣ dispositional inﬂuences: enduring characteristics such as personality traits, attitudes and intelligence ‣ situational inﬂuences: whats going on around the person ◦ The fundamental attribution: ‣ tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional inﬂuences on other peoples behavior ‣ less likely to do this when we had the same experience ‣ less likely to do this when we are encouraged to feel empathetic toward the people ‣ the tendency is sometimes reversed in depressed individuals ‣ may be cultural diﬀerences • Social inﬂuence: conformity (with our peers) ◦ the asch (line) studies: ‣ "study of perceptual judgements" ‣ asked subjects and confederates to report which line matched ‣ people often conformed to the others answers even when it was clear that the confederates were giving the wrong answer ◦ uniformity of agreement: ‣ if one person gave the correct answer the rates of conformity decreased ◦ Diﬀerence in the wrong answer ‣ if one person gave a diﬀerent answer from the group even if it was the wrong answer conformity decreased ◦ size ‣ greater amounts of conformity with more people • social conformity ◦ when the group gives incorrect answers our amygdala (fear) lights up ◦ people from individualistic cultures are less likely to conform ◦ no gender diﬀerences in conformity ◦ people with high self esteem are less likely to conform • milgram experiment: obedience (to authority) ◦ increased psychological distance between the person being told to obey and the authority ﬁgure leads to less obedience ◦ increase in psychological distance between the person giving the shocks and the person getting shocked = more obedience ◦ if the person orders someone else to give shock = more obedience ◦ no gender diﬀerence ◦ no cultural diﬀerence ◦ more morality= less obedience ◦ higher in authoritarianism = more obedience • deindividuation ◦ tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when they are stripped of their usual identities ‣ stanford prison experiment ‣ abu ghraib ‣ when others are being prosocial we will act more prosocial ◦ Mobs: ‣ can lead to "mob mentality" ‣ we also tend to avoid social interaction when we are in crowded situations • working in groups ◦ group think: emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking ‣ challenger explosion ‣ bay of pigs ‣ appoint a "devils advocate" within an organization • group polarization: ◦ tendency of group discussion to strengthen the dominate positions held by individual group members ‣ political debate • cults ◦ group o individuals who exhibit intense and unquestioning devotion to a single cause ◦ cult leader: ‣ persuasive ‣ foster loyalty ‣ disconnect group members from the outside world ‣ discourage questioning of the groups assumptions ‣ establish training practices that gradually indoctrinate members ◦ hazing and initiation rituals: ‣ when we have to go through something intense to get into a certain group we tens to try and convince ourselves it is more important and valuable ‣ people report increased commitment to the armed force • bystander non intervention "bystander eﬀect" ◦ people are less likely to help someone when there are more people around ◦ pluralistic ignorance: error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do ‣ "maybe no one else thinks this person needs help" ◦ diﬀusion of responsibility: reduction in feelings of personal responsibility in the presence of others ‣ "someone else will call for help" • more likely to help when: ◦ we are alone, we have previous training, if the person we are helping has a cane, if we cannot escape the situation, if we are in a good mood, if we have role models of someone helping, we are less concerned about social approval, we have taken a psychology class that discusses this topic, we have time to help, we ﬁnd the person needing help to be physically attractive, we are extroverted • less likely to help when: ◦ we are in a large group of people, the person is obviously drunk, the person does not have a cane, we can easily escape, we are in a hurry, we are a women and the situation involves physical or social risk ‣ car on the side of the road ‣ women still call the police • social loaﬁng ◦ phenomenon where individuals become less productive in groups ◦ more likely to happen in individualistic cultures rather than collectivistic cultures • altruism ◦ helping others for unselﬁsh reasons ◦ we help when we feel empathy for the other person ◦ enlightenment eﬀect: learning about psychological research can change real world behavior for the better • Aggression ◦ behavior intended to harm others, either verbally or physically ◦ personal provocation ‣ when someone has insulted us ◦ frustration ◦ media inﬂuences ‣ violent video games? ◦ arousal ‣ automatic nervous system arousal (exercising) ◦ aggressive cues ‣ presence of a gun ◦ alcohol and drugs ‣ more likely to act out ‣ shuts down frontal lobes ◦ temperature ‣ more violence during hot days ‣ excessive heat makes us more irritable ◦ personality traits ‣ high in impulsivity ‣ high in irritability ‣ low in closeness to others ◦ sex diﬀerences ‣ related to testosterone? ‣ men are more likely to report they want revenge ‣ men age 12-28 are most aggressive ◦ relational aggression ‣ form of indirect aggression prevalent in girls, involving spreading rumors, gossiping • attitudes ◦ attitude: belief that includes an emotional component ◦ self monitoring: personality trait that assess the extent to which people's behaviors reﬂects their true feelings and attitudes ‣ low self monitoring= stronger correlation b/w behavior and how we act in a social situation ◦ cognitive dissonance: unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from 2 conﬂicting thoughts or beliefs ◦ self perception theory: theory we acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviors ◦ impression management theory: theory that we don't really change our attitudes but report that we have so that our behaviors appear consistent with our attitudes • persuasion:sales ◦ the central route: ‣ evaluate the merits of persuasive arguments carefully ‣ focus on informational content ◦ the peripheral route ‣ snap judgements ‣ look at surface aspects of the argument ‣ can aﬀect short term choices • persuasion techniques ◦ foot in the door ‣ involving making a small request before making a bigger one ◦ door in the face ‣ make an unreasonably large request before making the small request we're hoping to have granted ◦ but you are free ‣ convincing someone to perform a favor for us by telling them they are free not to do it ‣ GUILT ◦ low-ball: ‣ the seller of a product starts by quoting a low sales price and then mentions all of the add on costs once the customer has agrees to purchase the product • characteristics of the messenger ◦ high credibility ‣ doctors, nurses, lawyers ◦ is similar to us ‣ race, age, region ◦ implicit egotism ‣ we like things and places that are similar to us ◦ a celeberity ‣ if its someone we like ◦ attractive ‣ we tend to trust attractive people more • marketing pseudo science ◦ creation of a phantom goal ‣ extraordinary claims ‣ learn a new language in 5 months ◦ vivid testimonials ‣ someone shares their story ◦ manufacturing and source credibility ◦ scarcity heuristics ◦ concensus heuristics ‣ if everyone agrees ◦ the natural commonplace ‣ if it is natural it must be good ◦ the goddess within commonplace • prejudice and discrimination ◦ prejudice ‣ the drawing of a negative conclusions about a person, group of people or situation prior to evaluating the evidence ◦ stereotype ‣ a belief, (+) or (-) • nature of prejudice ◦ adaptive conservatism: ‣ evolutionary principle
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