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Soc 205 Week 12 Notes

by: Angelina Notetaker

Soc 205 Week 12 Notes Soc 205 002

Angelina Notetaker
GPA 3.7
Crime, Public Policy, and the Criminal Justice System
Maria B. Velez

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About this Document

The topic for this week of notes is discussing the role of incarceration and immigration in the crime drop. We also discuss the role of police in the crime drop.
Crime, Public Policy, and the Criminal Justice System
Maria B. Velez
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angelina Notetaker on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 205 002 at University of New Mexico taught by Maria B. Velez in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Crime, Public Policy, and the Criminal Justice System in Sociology at University of New Mexico.


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Date Created: 11/08/15
Soc 205 Week 12 Notes Objectives 0 Discuss the role of police incarceration and immigration in the crime drop Policing 0 The 1990s witnessed major innovations in policing practices across American cities 0 As new policies and procedures introduced crime rates began to fall 0 Led to claims that enforcement changes yielded changes in crime declines 0 The argument by police and why policing should matter 0 Hypothesized largely due to its effect on deterrence andor incapacitation O Increases the costs of engaging in crime decreases benefits 0 Criminologists were very skeptical but often did not have much to argue with 0 Some things though are methodological I To determine a treatment effect one must 0 Observed trend must be plausibly linked to the characteristics of the intervention 0 Observed reduction must have occurred where and when the intervention was present and not where when intervention not present 0 Observed reductions must be shown to have exceeded the expected rate of crime decline the change that would have taken place absent the intervention 0 Findings are not consistent across studies on role of policing 0 Some find the adding police officers does reduce crime 0 Hot spots policing has been found to work in reducing crime and disorder minimal displacement 0 But aggressive order maintenance or broken windows policing has been evaluated for its impact on New York City s dramatic crime drop 0 The results of precinctlevel research that investigates the effects of ordermaintenance policing on New York s crime drop are decidedly mixed Incarceration 0 A leading contributor to the crime decline is the growth in rates of incarceration 0 Hypothesized largely due to its effects on deterrence andor incapacitation O Increases the costs of engaging in crime decreases benefits 0 Findings are somewhat stronger than for policing 0 A consistent result of longitudinal studies is that increases in incarceration are associated with reductions in crime Levitt 1996 Liedka Piehl and Useem 2006 Marvell and Moody 1994 Rosenfeld and Fornango 2007 0 But that effect varies by crime type and it is open to serious question for offenders engaged in illicit markets like drug dealers in which replacements can be recruited when offenders are sent to prison I Research finds that effect differ with the offender s age e g those in their 30s have the longest residual career length and with the length of the sentence being served Immigration and Crime Literature 0 Traditional perspective 0 Social disorganization theory Shaw and McKay 1942 0 Neighborhoods with large shares of the foreign born are disorganized because I Language barriers goal of crime control hard to achieve when different languages are spoken I Children of immigrants clashed with their parent s old world values and experience I Difficultly in forming strong ties among residents 0 All these elements lead to social disorganization weak ties that hamper neighbors regulation of other residents 0 Traditional perspective immigrants disrupt intra neighborhood relationships or adopt codes of the street 0 New approach foster relationships because of the need for survival 0 The Revitalization Perspective 0 Immigrants rather than destabilize communities contribute positively to neighborhoods Strong Ties Among Immigrants 0 Strong ties among residents in immigrant communities 0 Creation of fictive kin ties with compradazgo systems for example 0 Focus on the regulation that stems from informal ties among neighbors 0 Strong community organizations in immigrant communities ie churches legal agencies Immigration and Crime Theoretical Foundations 0 Thus current thinking is that immigrants and neighborhoods with relatively large shares of immigrants are vibrant socially organized and connected to mainstream institutions I Support by reading 7 by Wadsworth 0 According to data from the 2000 General Social Survey NORC about 73 percent of respondents agree that immigration leads to leads to increased crime in the US 0 This assumption implies that stricter polices that limit future immigration and curb access to programs and resources for immigrants already in the US are effective crime control strategies Indeed supporters of antiimmigrant polices including Arizona s recent SB 1070 often explicitly argue that tougher immigration laws and punitive antiimmigrant stances will translate to reductions in community violence The Symbolic Threat of Immigrants The Social construction of deviant immigrants Hagan Levi and Dinovitzer 2008 Objectives 0 Discuss the role of police in the crime drop Empirical Evidence 0 Rosenfeld Richard Robert Fornango and Eric Baumer Did Ceasefire Compstat and Exile Reduce Homicide Criminology amp Public Policy 4 no 3 2005 419449 0 Seeks to advance the study of policy impacts on crime trends through an assessment of homicide trends in three cities with widely publicized local law enforcement initiatives Boston s Operation Ceasefire New York s Compstat and Richmond Virginia s Project Exile Programs 0 Boston s Operation Ceasefire O Focused on firearms violence involving youth gangs I To deter firearm violence through direct communication with gang youth swift and tough punishment of violators 0 New York s Comstat O Tough zero tolerance policing 0 Draws from broken windows theory 0 Grill commanding officers about their knowledge of crime patterns and crime reduction activities 0 Richmond VA project exile O Sentence enhancement for violent or drug crimes involving firearms O Intended to deter firearm carrying and criminal use FIGURE u HOMICEDE TRENDS MN US CITIES WlTH HSUIUD OR MORE RESllDENTS 1902 2001 N 0539 While there are over all declines see average line the authors want to know if the declines in the three cities are especially more dramatic given the treatment of the intervention FI iBh mu n d omicidus per 100000 Population U1 Awezra gs Findings 0 The intervention of Cease Fire did not significantly reduce homicide rates from 1992 to 2001 in Boston 0 The intervention of Compstat did not significantly reduce the above period 0 But they find evidence consistent With an intervention effect on homicide trends for Richmond s Project Exile but it is a very small effect Why is this a problem 0 Federal crime control efforts like Project Safe Neighborhood inspired by presumed success of Richmond s Exile program 0 Implemented in every federal judicial district in the country End of Week 12 notes 0 Important There Will be a test next Friday 1 1 13 0 Also Week 13 Notes Will hopefully be upload by this Tuesday or Wednesday at the latest Thank you for using Studysoup Review Practice Short Answer 0 Describe the inherent tension between the due process and crime control models Be sure to define each model 3 points each model 4 point for tension 0 Due process Bill of Rights I is the idea of protecting the innocent more of a liberal view I try to help criminals get back involved in society 0 Crime Control I Guilty until proven innocent I Fall back on to the ideals of the Classical Theory 0 Tension Checks and Balances I Due process and Crime Control are always at odds with each other but they are still both used in the courts 0 Example from Central Park Five 0 There seems to be no tension in the case because crime control was the main model being used in the case for the past fifteen year until then due process began to play out but not as much as crime control had Reading 5 I What is the primary research question of this reading 0 The research question was to see if Zero Tolerance theory may have led to the crime drop 0 Arguments 0 Her argument was that there were many factors and not just one that led to the crime drop 0 Methods 0 She used a case study to look at the changes over time in New York and San Diego 0 Findings 0 She found that you could get the same numbers in the crime drop with less arrest but Zero Tolerance theory is not the only factor leading to the crime drop 0 Conclusion 0 When people are running for office in the J S those people are harsher on stopping crime to better themselves and there is many factors in the crime drop


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