Lecture: Sexual Abuse
Lecture: Sexual Abuse APSY.UE.0002
Popular in INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.
Reviews for Lecture: Sexual Abuse
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/27/16
Lecture: Sexual Abuse The Statistice 1 in 4 girls are sexually abused before the age of 18 1 in 6 boys are sexually abused before the age of 18 1 in 5 children are solicited sexually while on the internet Nearly 70% of all reported sexual assaults occur to children ages 17 and under An estimated 39 million survivors of childhood sexual abuse exist in America today Children are at risk, even within their own homes 30-40% of victims are abused by family members Another 50% are abused by someone outside of the family whom they know and trust The fact that much of sexual abuse is perpetrated by family or close friends aﬀect the outcome of the abuse: Reluctance to disclose Worried they will not believed/will upset the parents They are ashamed Confused - Parents are supposed to protect kids Children are threatened They are not completely sure what is happening to them is wrong If the abuse happens at a young age, they are unable to tell its wrong Child ﬁnds enjoyment / thinks it is a game / experiences pleasure Child goes to an adult and is not believed/ minimized feels unprotected + confused if it is a bad thing Sexual Abuse Can Occur at All Ages the median age for reported abuse is 9 years old More than 20% of children are sexually abused before the age of 8 Nearly 50% of all victims of forcible sodomy, sexual assault with an object and fondling are children under 12 How might their developmental levels aﬀect how the child reacts to the abuse? Child may not have a context to be able to understand what has happened Do not have a solidiﬁed sense of self - may develop who they are Eﬀects attachment: Negative /Insecure attachment Eﬀects sex attachment: not able to trust anyone sexually Believes all men want sex for a relationship Most Children Don’t Tell evidence that a child has been sexually abuse dis not always obvious many children do not report that they have been abused Young victims may not recognize their victimization as sexual abuse Over 30% of victims NEVER disclose that they have been abused to ANYONE Why do children not Disclose: too young to remember what happened / suppress memory Trying to protect younger siblings from the abuse Cultural barriers - very concerned with what might happen if they talk about it In some muslim cultures (Extreme): daughters who were raped -> murdered, considered dirty and unpure Lack of openness - too upsetting for the family to hear Risk Factors Parental inadequacy, unavailability, conﬂict, and poor parent-child relationship Girls are sexually abused 3X more often than boys Boys are more likely to die or be seriously injured forms heir abuse Fabricates Equal Abuse Reports 1-4 % of all reported cases 75% are falsely reported by adults and 25% are falsely reported by children Gener Diﬀerences One study by Valence et al. 2005 which was a review of literature found the boys experience symptoms very similar to females who have been sexually abused anxiety denial dissociation self-mutilation Ullman et al 2005: sample of 733 college students who completed a survey about their sexual abuse experiences, disclosure characteristics, post-abuse coping, and social reactions from others Results: Females reported greater prevalence and severity Females reported more distress and self blame post the assault Females were more likely to have disclosed the assault and were more likely to receive positive reactions Females were also more likely to report PTSD symptoms Holmes et al - Literature review: Explores the reasons why comparatively few adult males with a history of sexual abuse receive help from professionals for the diﬃculties relating tot he abuse Found two recurrent myths across the literature Relatively few males experience abuse Abuse has little eﬀect on the males What they found: Males are unlikely to disclose their history of abuse Males are more likely to deny the impact that abuse has on their lives Professionals fail to hypothesize that their male clients have been abused Professionals do not crease the conditions that would allow male clients to talk about their abuse 1998 study by Penn found: 8-16% of the general male population had a history of sexual abuse Boys at highest risk were: younger than 13 non-white Low SES Not living with their father Abuse most commonly: Occurred outside the home By known, but unrelated males Involved penetration and took place more than once Celebrities Coming Forward very inﬂuential on the public Help survivors come forward Tyler Perry & Lady Gaga Intergenerational Sexual Abuse Study by Oats et al compared mothers of children who had been sexually abused with mothers of children who had not been sexually abused Results: 34% of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods compared to 12% of controls Sexually abused children had no diﬀerences in measures of self-esteem or depression over time whether or not their mothers were sexually abused This study found that sexual abuse in a mother’s childhood was related to an increased risk for sexual abuse int eh new generation Consequence of Sexual Abuse Increased sexually inappropriate behaviors Increased episodes of running away adn truancy Decreased sense of self and self esteem increased episodes of depression Increase substance use Increased suicidality Increased rates of teen pregnancy Increased rates of abuse of others; 40% of sex oﬀenders report sexual abuse as children Increased rate of prostitution What are the signs of sexual abuse in children? Sexual abuse should be considered if: The children has diﬃculty walking or sitting Suddenly refuses to change for gym or participate in physical activity Reports nightmare or has sudden onset bedwetting Experiences a sudden change in appetite Demonstrates bizarre, sophisticated, or unusual sexual behavior or knowledge Becomes withdrawn or isolated Has frequent somatic complaints Child Prostitution and Exploitation The number of prostituted children is thought to be increasing and could be as high as 10 million Locating these children can be diﬃcult because they are often moves and managed by organized crime organizations In some communities, child prostitution is accepted and laws against prostitutions re not enforced Male clients often believe children are less likely to have HIV and other STD’s and thus consider them more desirable than adult prostitutes. Risks for Child Prostitution Being a child of sex worker Being homeless, runaway, or abandoned Countries wherein international sex tourism or travel solely for the purpose of sex is a signiﬁcant cause of child prostitution Poverty Abuse Risks of Child Prostitution HIV and other STD’s Mental illness Substance abuse Violence Malnutrition Boys in Child Prostitution Sri Lanka 20,000-30,000 child prostitutes are primarily boys.. From Europe, pedophiles can arrange to have one or more boys waiting for them when they arrive In the DR, young boys, known as Sanky Panky boys, stay with foreign tourists on the beaches of Boca Chica and Sousa. The beach boys became the sex tourists annual partners In Haiti, sex between local boys and adult male tourists from the US has existed in the tourist industry for decades In Africa, boys are recruited into the armed forces not only to ﬁght but also to sexually service the soldiers Sexual Exploitation: Facts and Figures In Lithuania 20-50% of prostitutes are minors In Cambodia, 31% of sex workers were between the age of 12 to 17 Debt bondage is often the way many girls enter prostitution in Asian countries. The girl must work oﬀ the money given to parents and cannot leave prostitution until the debt is paid In south-eastern Europe, women and children are often traﬃcked through the same routes used to smuggle drugs and arms Factors the Increase Risk of Child Maltreatment and Entry Into Foster Care Factors that lead to child removal Stress, parental substance use, psychopathology, poverty, and violence are frequently present in cases of child abuse Child abuse is 22 times more common among families who make less than 15K per year, when compared to families who make 30K or more 60% of cases involved in protective services have histories of severe domestic violence Close to 80% of parents who lose custody of their child have a history of substance abuse Maternal Mental Illness 65% of women who had a mental illness in 2000 were mothers 30% of mothers with serious mental illness are the primary caretaker in their familes Serious mental illnesses in mothers is associated with poor parenting and decreased nurturance Maternal well being is very important in the development of psychopathology in young children Parenting eﬀect of maternal mental illness on children attachment Cognition: Maternal depression associated with lower IQ and attention problems in oﬀspring Behavior: behavioral problems are more common among children of women with mental illnesses Excessive/ineﬀective discipline Abuse/Neglect Parental Substance Use Substance abuse is a factor in at least 75% of all cases in children in out-of-home care 8.3 million or 11% of all children in the US live in household in which at least one parent is either alcoholic or in need of substance abuse treatment Children of parents with substance abuse problems who are in the CWS tend to be younger are more likely to be victims of severe and chronic neglect Have families with more problem overall Adults with a history of alcohol or drug problems 3X more likely to physically abuse their children More than 4X more likely to neglect compared to control subjects How does Alcohol lead to abuse? Miscommunication among family members Overestimation of a perceived threat Underestimation of consequences for aggression increase in the likelihood of violence Suppression of brain centers responsible for the control of socially unacceptable behaviors Parental Substance Abuse 64% of substance abusing women report having been sexually or physically abused Even with interventions, 50% of children of drug-abusing women entered Child Protective Services after 5 years of follow-up Alcohol and nicotine most commonly used during pregnancy Domestic Violence The number of children annually exposed to domestic violence is close to 15.5 million Children who have been exposed to domestic violence are 158% more likely to be victimized by violence themselves than counterparts form non-violent households Battered women are more likely to abuse their children than non-battered women Battered women frequently don’t seek out help Direct threat to the integrity of their family Removal of the violent partner Possible removal of her children Treatment of domestic violence is challenging Couple therapy approaches Concern about ongoing violence Anger management Barriers to seeking services Stigma, poverty, ﬁnancial insecurity, inadequate housing, scarcity of jobs, and lack of reliable and aﬀordable childcare needed to take on regular employment
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'