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Bio 110 Week 12 Notes

by: Angelina Notetaker

Bio 110 Week 12 Notes BIOL 110 001

Angelina Notetaker
GPA 3.7

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The topic for this week of notes is about Chapter 10 Vertebrate Diversity.
Biology Non-Majors
Thomas L. Kennedy
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angelina Notetaker on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 110 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Thomas L. Kennedy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Biology Non-Majors in Biology at University of New Mexico.


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Date Created: 11/08/15
Bio 110 Week 12 Notes Chapter 10 Vertebrate Diversity   An animal of a large group distinguished by the possession of a backbone or spinal  column, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.  Earth History o The Earth was 4 billion years when animals appeared  Questions?   What were the ancestors of modern vertebrates? o Pikaia – all vertebrates o Tiktaalik – tetrapods (First vertebrates)  o Phanerozoic Eon – 542 million years ago                                                                   to present  Modern groups evolve during the Cambrian  Early Chordate o An animal of the large phylum Chordata, comprising the vertebrates together with the sea squirts and lancelets.  Modern Mammals  How does this early chordate evolve into modern mammals, including humans? Earth 375 million years ago – Devonian (Paleozoic Era)  What are the defining features of vertebrates? o Dorsal hollow nerve cord   A single hollow tract of nervous tissue that constitutes the central nervous  system of chordates and develops into the spinal cord and brain in  vertebrates. o Notochord  A cartilaginous skeletal rod supporting the body in all embryonic and  some adult chordate animals. o Post­anal tail  An extension of the spinal chord that extends beyond the animal's anus.   Post­anal tails are a feature of all chordates, which is a phylum that  includes vertebrates.   All chordates have a post­anal tail at some point, but they may not have  that tail for their entire lives o Pharyngeal Slits  Are filter­feeding organs found in Invertebrate chordates  What is the modern diversity of vertebrates? o Animals:  Tunicates (our closet invertebrate relatives)  o Overview of vertebrate Diversity – 63,000 species  o Jawed Fish (It’s Shark Week!)  Sand Tiger Shark – The Eagle Wreck 1999  Modern sharks by the Triassic   Of, relating to, or denoting the earliest period of the Mesozoic era,  between the Permian and Jurassic periods.  Characteristics   Electroreception  o The detection by an aquatic animal of electric fields or  currents.  Great White   Counter Shading  o Protective coloration of some animals in which parts  normally in shadow are light and those exposed to the sky  are dark.  Max Size 21 ft.  70 year life­span  Epipelagic o Relating to, or constituting the part of the oceanic zone into which enough light penetrates for photosynthesis.  Endothermy o Internally regulated to hunt seals   Ambush predators  Not necessarily the top predator (Killer Whales)  Population: 3,500 (It is declining) o Mostly being killed for their fins  Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii o 450 species  o Selachii – sharks (Galeomorphii)  Mating unknown o Ray­finned fish (Nemo)  20,000 Species   Fish Diversity  o Freshwater Cichlids  A cichlid is a fish in the Family Cichlidae. This is an immense family of  freshwater fishes of almost unbelievable diversity.  Model of adaptive radiation  o Tropical Reef Fish   Some fish are poisonous   Ray finned fish: jaw specializations   Elephant fish  o African Native  o Large Brain  o Sperm lack a flagellum  A slender threadlike structure, especially a  microscopic whip like appendage that enables many protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa, etc., to swim. o Generate weak electric fields   Electric Catfish  o Generate an electric field to stun their prey (Generate a  field of 350 volts) o From Africa in the Nile River   Eels  Flying Fish – fin adaptions   Bluefin Tuna  o 15 ft. long  o Swim 50 miles/hour o Endothermic  o Heart operates at ambient temperature   Sea Horses   Males carry the eggs wither in a pouch or in their                              tails   (Mola mola) Ocean Sunfish   Prey on Jellyfish   Deep Sea Fishes  Gape Limited   Lungfish  o Ancestor to modern tetrapods  Amphibians (anurans)  4300 species   Characters  o Poison Arrow Frogs (defense mechanisms)   Batrachotoxin: permanently blocks nerve                                                      signal transmission ten times more potent                                                      that tetrodotoxin  Reproduction o Colostethus carries tadpoles on back  Amniotes (Internal Reproduction)  Green Sea Turtle  o Slightly Endothermic   Leatherback Sea Turtle  o Counter current exchange to retain heat from muscles  Giant Tortoise  Boidae­ 52 species, New World  Anaconda – world’s largest snake   347 species of venomous snakes with hollow fangs o Round pupils  o Smooth Scales  o Active hunters  o Most are oviparous   Producing young by means of eggs that are hatched after they have been  laid by the parent. o Example:  Sea Snake  Elapidae: Batesian Mimickry   Prairie Rattlesnake  Eastern Collared Lizard  Venomous Lizard   Anolis Kunyale: Described by Poe and Hulebak 2007 o Anolis Orcesi o Anolis Proboscis Birds   Jame’s Flamingo o A tall wading bird with mainly pink or scarlet plumage and long legs and neck. It  has a heavy bent bill that is held upside down in the water in order to filter­feed  on small organisms.  Hummingbirds o A small nectar­feeding tropical American bird that is able to hover and fly  backward, typically having colorful iridescent plumage.  Cuckoos o A medium­sized long­tailed bird, typically with a gray or brown back and barred  or pale underparts. Many cuckoos lay their eggs in the nests of small songbirds.  Herons (opportunist) o A large fish­eating wading bird with long legs, a long S­shaped neck, and a long  pointed bill.  Cooper’s Hawk o A diurnal bird of prey with broad rounded wings and a long tail, typically taking  prey by surprise with a short chase.  Sandhill Cranes  Burrowing Owl   Great Horned Owl (Hearing)  Red­billed Hornbill  Acorn Woodpeckers and Cache trees   North American Parulas Alligators   A large semiaquatic reptile similar to a crocodile but with a broader and shorter head,  native to the Americas and China. Monotremes   A primitive mammal that lays large yolky eggs and has a common opening for the  urogenital and digestive systems. Monotremes are now restricted to Australia and New  Guinea, and comprise the platypus and the echidnas. Marsupials  A mammal of an order whose members are born incompletely developed and are  typically carried and suckled in a pouch on the mother's belly. Marsupials are found  mainly in Australia and New Guinea, although three families, including the opossums,  live in America. Eutherians (New Beast)  A mammal of the major group Eutheria, which includes all the placentals and excludes  the marsupials and monotremes Rodents   brown rats and extinctions   Rodentia Muridae  o Are the largest family of rodents and indeed of                                                          mammals, containing over 700 species found naturally                                             throughout Eurasia, Africa, and Australia. Bats   Echolocation  o The location of objects by reflected sound, in particular that used by animals such  as dolphins and bats. Primates  Prosimians  o A primitive primate of a group that includes the lemurs, lorises, bushbabies, and  tarsiers.  Simians  o Relating to, resembling, or affecting apes or monkeys. Cetaceans   Toothed Whales  End of Week 12 notes!  Important! ­  There will be a test next Friday (11/13)   Also Week 13 Notes will hopefully be upload by this Tuesday or Wednesday at the latest. Thank you for using Studysoup!


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