Bio 110 Week 12 Notes
Bio 110 Week 12 Notes BIOL 110 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angelina Notetaker on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 110 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Thomas L. Kennedy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Biology Non-Majors in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
Bio 110 Week 12 Notes Chapter 10 Vertebrate Diversity An animal of a large group distinguished by the possession of a backbone or spinal column, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. Earth History o The Earth was 4 billion years when animals appeared Questions? What were the ancestors of modern vertebrates? o Pikaia – all vertebrates o Tiktaalik – tetrapods (First vertebrates) o Phanerozoic Eon – 542 million years ago to present Modern groups evolve during the Cambrian Early Chordate o An animal of the large phylum Chordata, comprising the vertebrates together with the sea squirts and lancelets. Modern Mammals How does this early chordate evolve into modern mammals, including humans? Earth 375 million years ago – Devonian (Paleozoic Era) What are the defining features of vertebrates? o Dorsal hollow nerve cord A single hollow tract of nervous tissue that constitutes the central nervous system of chordates and develops into the spinal cord and brain in vertebrates. o Notochord A cartilaginous skeletal rod supporting the body in all embryonic and some adult chordate animals. o Postanal tail An extension of the spinal chord that extends beyond the animal's anus. Postanal tails are a feature of all chordates, which is a phylum that includes vertebrates. All chordates have a postanal tail at some point, but they may not have that tail for their entire lives o Pharyngeal Slits Are filterfeeding organs found in Invertebrate chordates What is the modern diversity of vertebrates? o Animals: Tunicates (our closet invertebrate relatives) o Overview of vertebrate Diversity – 63,000 species o Jawed Fish (It’s Shark Week!) Sand Tiger Shark – The Eagle Wreck 1999 Modern sharks by the Triassic Of, relating to, or denoting the earliest period of the Mesozoic era, between the Permian and Jurassic periods. Characteristics Electroreception o The detection by an aquatic animal of electric fields or currents. Great White Counter Shading o Protective coloration of some animals in which parts normally in shadow are light and those exposed to the sky are dark. Max Size 21 ft. 70 year lifespan Epipelagic o Relating to, or constituting the part of the oceanic zone into which enough light penetrates for photosynthesis. Endothermy o Internally regulated to hunt seals Ambush predators Not necessarily the top predator (Killer Whales) Population: 3,500 (It is declining) o Mostly being killed for their fins Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii o 450 species o Selachii – sharks (Galeomorphii) Mating unknown o Rayfinned fish (Nemo) 20,000 Species Fish Diversity o Freshwater Cichlids A cichlid is a fish in the Family Cichlidae. This is an immense family of freshwater fishes of almost unbelievable diversity. Model of adaptive radiation o Tropical Reef Fish Some fish are poisonous Ray finned fish: jaw specializations Elephant fish o African Native o Large Brain o Sperm lack a flagellum A slender threadlike structure, especially a microscopic whip like appendage that enables many protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa, etc., to swim. o Generate weak electric fields Electric Catfish o Generate an electric field to stun their prey (Generate a field of 350 volts) o From Africa in the Nile River Eels Flying Fish – fin adaptions Bluefin Tuna o 15 ft. long o Swim 50 miles/hour o Endothermic o Heart operates at ambient temperature Sea Horses Males carry the eggs wither in a pouch or in their tails (Mola mola) Ocean Sunfish Prey on Jellyfish Deep Sea Fishes Gape Limited Lungfish o Ancestor to modern tetrapods Amphibians (anurans) 4300 species Characters o Poison Arrow Frogs (defense mechanisms) Batrachotoxin: permanently blocks nerve signal transmission ten times more potent that tetrodotoxin Reproduction o Colostethus carries tadpoles on back Amniotes (Internal Reproduction) Green Sea Turtle o Slightly Endothermic Leatherback Sea Turtle o Counter current exchange to retain heat from muscles Giant Tortoise Boidae 52 species, New World Anaconda – world’s largest snake 347 species of venomous snakes with hollow fangs o Round pupils o Smooth Scales o Active hunters o Most are oviparous Producing young by means of eggs that are hatched after they have been laid by the parent. o Example: Sea Snake Elapidae: Batesian Mimickry Prairie Rattlesnake Eastern Collared Lizard Venomous Lizard Anolis Kunyale: Described by Poe and Hulebak 2007 o Anolis Orcesi o Anolis Proboscis Birds Jame’s Flamingo o A tall wading bird with mainly pink or scarlet plumage and long legs and neck. It has a heavy bent bill that is held upside down in the water in order to filterfeed on small organisms. Hummingbirds o A small nectarfeeding tropical American bird that is able to hover and fly backward, typically having colorful iridescent plumage. Cuckoos o A mediumsized longtailed bird, typically with a gray or brown back and barred or pale underparts. Many cuckoos lay their eggs in the nests of small songbirds. Herons (opportunist) o A large fisheating wading bird with long legs, a long Sshaped neck, and a long pointed bill. Cooper’s Hawk o A diurnal bird of prey with broad rounded wings and a long tail, typically taking prey by surprise with a short chase. Sandhill Cranes Burrowing Owl Great Horned Owl (Hearing) Redbilled Hornbill Acorn Woodpeckers and Cache trees North American Parulas Alligators A large semiaquatic reptile similar to a crocodile but with a broader and shorter head, native to the Americas and China. Monotremes A primitive mammal that lays large yolky eggs and has a common opening for the urogenital and digestive systems. Monotremes are now restricted to Australia and New Guinea, and comprise the platypus and the echidnas. Marsupials A mammal of an order whose members are born incompletely developed and are typically carried and suckled in a pouch on the mother's belly. Marsupials are found mainly in Australia and New Guinea, although three families, including the opossums, live in America. Eutherians (New Beast) A mammal of the major group Eutheria, which includes all the placentals and excludes the marsupials and monotremes Rodents brown rats and extinctions Rodentia Muridae o Are the largest family of rodents and indeed of mammals, containing over 700 species found naturally throughout Eurasia, Africa, and Australia. Bats Echolocation o The location of objects by reflected sound, in particular that used by animals such as dolphins and bats. Primates Prosimians o A primitive primate of a group that includes the lemurs, lorises, bushbabies, and tarsiers. Simians o Relating to, resembling, or affecting apes or monkeys. Cetaceans Toothed Whales End of Week 12 notes! Important! There will be a test next Friday (11/13) Also Week 13 Notes will hopefully be upload by this Tuesday or Wednesday at the latest. Thank you for using Studysoup!