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Chapter 13

by: Samantha R

Chapter 13 PSYC-1000-01

Samantha R
GPA 4.0
Intro to Psychology
Fabian, Melinda

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Intro to Psychology
Fabian, Melinda
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha R on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-1000-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 11/08/15
Chapter 13 Social Psychology Monday November 2 2015 354 PM Social Thinking I The Fundamental Attribution Error 0 O O I Dispositional Attribution or Situational Attribution I These are often valid attributions but sometimes it causes What Factors Affect our Attributions I Individualist cultures often attribute to personal traits since we39ve seen them in various contexts Consequences of our Attributions I I They often El Ex Do you blame the individual for being poor OR the cycle of poverty they are in I Attitudes amp Actions 0 O 0 Actions Affect Attitudes Attitudes Affect Actions I 2 Types of Persuasion El 9 Ex One39s appearance El I Role Playing Affects Attitudes El El 0 An actor may begin to adopt the traits of his character I Cognitive Dissonance Relief from Tension El 0 Ex I care about the wellbeing of animals I eat meat Social Influence Conformity Complying With Social Pressures 0 Automatic Mimicry Obedience I The unconscious mimicry of others in one39s current social environment El This is why people yawn when others yawn I Mimicry aids empathizing I Sharing of moodsemotions o Conformity amp Social Norms I El Unconformity is still a version of conforming I We are more liker to conform when we El Feel 9 Ex Even if you are 100 correct when the majority of the room gives an incorrect answer one might hesitate to believe that they are still correct to any response Attitude Behavior our behavior I Conformity is embraced amp shamed to different extents in different cultures 0 Obedience is Highest When Milgram Experiment was perceived to be I There were 0 Group behavior Milgram39s Experiment A person was ordered to shock the quotprisonerquot with increasingly powerful shocks DCI39KI IIIJRI 1 ix quotomn m s who bar1w iqur u w wmfl N r I l l lnlv w ilInmr Lurng IXX Slug Vn39uulw lung ery cruxg men 39 when I 39 Slim lvvll in IIIquot 0 I What you do well you are likely to do better in front of an audience Phenomenon Social Context Psychological Effect of Behavioral Effect Others Presence El They may I EX The UVA fraternity incident last year when the frat pledges raped that girl 0 I By magnifying amp connecting inclinations of likeminded people these inclinations are reinforced and boosted I This is a big concept when we think about interactions amp movements on 0 Power of Individuals I Social Control vs Personal Control I I Both have the nntential to exert a great deal of nnwer and influence Unit 3 Page 1 Easy task gt Better Performance Difficult task gt Worse performance Social Facilitation Individual being observed Increased arousal Diminished responsibility amp Decreased effort accountability Social Loafing Group project Group setting that fosters Reduced selfawareness Reduced selfrestraint arousal and anonymity Deindividuation N High n1 3 quot Higlrureiudice quot 39 group Dixussran arrow Inquot milcud 39l Uf pl lend 39u siren1mm uquot cxlzzirg altitude Preiudice r1 lowVermin I You 0 Power of Individuals I Social Control vs Personal Control III Both have the potential to exert a great deal of power and influence I When the power of a smallnumbered group sway majorities Antisocial Relations 0 Prejudice O o Prejudice it typically a mixture of ex hostility fear etc o How Prejudiced are People I Explicit amp Implicit Ethnic Prejudice III As has decreased lingers in the US brief and commonplace daily verbal behavioral or environmental indignities towards people of color Implicit Racial Associations 0 One was more likely to quickly associate good things with white names Unconscious Patronization 0 A women grading papers was more likely to be harsher on the white students39 writing than the writing of the black students RaceInfluenced Perceptions 9 People more often shot black men holding harmful objects than white men holding harmful objects Reflexive Bodily Responses 9 One may give off telltale signals as their body responds selectively to another39s race 9 El El El El 9 I Gender Prejudice El El El 40 of LGBT said it would be difficult to live openly in the US 80 of LG BT adolescents report being sexually assaulted in the past year 39 of LGBT has been rejected by a family member or friend In samesex marriage banned states LGBT experience a 0 37 increase in depressive disorder rates 0 42 increase in alcohol disorders 0 248 increase in anxiety disorders 0 Social Roots of Prejudice I Social Inequalities El El El El El 9 BIametheVictim Dynamic Victims of discrimination often selfbla me amp outsiders often blame the victim as well El I Us amp Them Ingroup amp Outgroup El El El 0 Emotional Roots of Prejudice III EX Hitler blaming the Jews for Germany39s economic depression created a wave of antisemitism 0 Cognitive Roots of Prejudice I Forming Categories III We all categorize by race those of a El 0 They aren39t all the same stupid III Ex Since 911 there has been a disproportional connection drawn between Islam amp terrorism I Believing the World is Just III Victim blaming see previous notes 0 Aggression o 0 Biology of Aggression I Genetic Influences El 0 gtAggressive tendencies III The Y chromosome is a common genetic marker for aggressive behavior Men have this I Neural Influences III gtncreased aggressive tendency I Biochemical Influences III gtncreased aggressive tendency III induces violent tendencies o Psychological amp SocialCultural Factors in Aggression I Aversive Events have been shown to increase individual violence wars amp revolutions have shown to increase violent outbreaks I Reinforcement Modeling amp SelfControl III In situations where experience has taught us that aggression pays off we are likely to act aggressively again III When we are exposed to aggression we are more likely to act aggressive as well Biological in uences Psychological In uences c genelic in uences dominating behavlot which boosls I biochemical In uences 5LcI as testosterone levels In the blood lesloslelore and alcohol believing yoWe dmnk alcohol whether Unit 3 Page 2 Prejudice r Belo39e dixusaiu group DIMLSSIDH amrm Inle milcurl any lend 39u sirenul39mn are 0023quot altuludr IOW39F EIUUICP gmLp39 After dlzruuon Temperature amp Retaliation 012 U I l 39 UlU 39 009 DCllB 39 03 Mean Predicted Probabilin of Hit Baffler 006 39 Number of Teammales Hit by Opposing F39i39lohers 3 or More 2 w p 59 and 60439 Til TB 30 89 90 and Below Above Temperature Fj Biological in uences Psyd39lologicd influences I genetic in uem es 0 dominating behavior which 5005 I biochemical in uences scch as testosterone levels In the blood testostelore and alcohol believing yoWe dmnlt alcohol whether 0 neural influences such as severe head you actually have at no injuries frustration o aggressive role models 0 rewards tor aggressive behavior Aggressive behaviOr Socialcritural In uences 0 demdmduauon from being In a rum challenging environmental tartars such as crowding heat and dlrert provocations parental models of aggression 0 minimal lather involvement being reiected from a group 0 exposure to violent medla Prosocial Relations 0 Attraction o The Psychology of Attraction I Proximity El 9 Within certain limits 0 Typically what is familiar is typically safe h survival I Modern Matchmaking When given our choices become A much higher percentage of homosexual couples meet online than heterosexual couples After talking online for 20 minutes people took more of a liking to the person than if they had met face a to face I Attractiveness EIEIEI El socially skilled sensitive successful happier p is beautiful a is attractive not extreme features I Similarity a The arwl stick with it El O 0 Including those who are both able amp willing to help us achieve our goals 0 Romantic Love U Usually present the beginning of a love relationship depending on how we interpret amp label the arousal a Increased presence of El El 0 Establishes trust a Positive Support 0 Altruism o o Bystander Intervention yes Interprets Notices d Yes Assumes Yes Attempts incident quotm emas responsibility to help emergency No No No No No No help help help 0 The Norms for Helping o Peacemaking o ElementsofConflict I Enemy Perceptions El 0 Each side sees itself as ethical amp sees the other as immoral El 0 Promoting Peace I Contact Unit 3 Page 3 in r39 Tl pmn Amr Mm nM n I w quotquot l 59 and 69469 Til T9 80 89 30 and Below Above Temperature quotFl 3939I139rll Armu 1w Hrquot try4 f39lr lw Hetero in Couples sameSex Couplls V r a h l 7quot quotI A l I I v wn 2 I 0 UR P a i 14 i 3 anna U Percenlage 90 attempting 1 help You I L443 Mu Fewer peopleI help i l39 lthl rl werrl available 1 3 1 Number ofn lhem UIEEUITIIEEI available to help El Negative contact provokes disliking vice versa El 0 Same goes for homosexual amp heterosexuals I Cooperation El I Conciliation El 9 Unit 3 Page 4


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