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Ch.14.1-14.8 notes

by: Filza

Ch.14.1-14.8 notes BIOL 3455.001


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I know this is really late but here are the ch.14 notes. I just finished the notes for section 14.1-14.8 so if chapter 14 was really difficult for you I suggest you look at this!
Anatomy and Physiology
Dr. Ramirez
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Filza on Monday November 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3455.001 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Ramirez in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Texas at Dallas.

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Date Created: 11/09/15
Ch.14 - The Brain and Cranial Nerves ▯ 14-1: Structures of the Brain (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 462) - brain weighs 1.3 kg (3 lb) and has volume of 1200 mL - male brains 10% larger than female brains - 6 major brain regions: cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata - cerebrum is largest portion - cortex - superficial layer of gray matter covering most of its surface - cerebral cortex forms series of elevated ridges (gyri) - gyri inc. its surface area - sulci - shallow depressions - fissure - deeper grooves - cerebrum is site of most higher mental functions - thoughts/sensations/intellect/memory/ complex movements - cerebellum 2nd largest portion - adjusts ongoing movements by comparing arriving sensations w/previously experienced sensations - diencephalon composed of right and left thalamus - hypothalamus involved with emotions, autonomic function, hormone production - infundibulum - narrow stalk - connects hypothalamus to pituitary gland - brainstem includes midbrain, pons, & medulla oblongata • Embryology of brain - CNS begins as hollow cylinder aka neural tube - neurocoel - fluid-filled internal cavity - primary brain vesicles - 3 prominent divisions created by enlargement by expansion of neurocoel • prosencephalon (forebrain) • mesencephalon (midbrain) • rhombencephalon (hindbrain) - secondary brain vesicles: prosencephalon and rhombencephalon - prosencephalon forms telencephalon & diencephalon - telencephalon forms cerebrum - metencephalon formed from rhombencephalon - dorsal part of metencephalon becomes cerebellum & ventral portion develops into pons - portion of rhombencephalon closer to spinal cord forms myelencephalon - myelencephalon becomes medulla oblongata • Brain Ventricles - neurocoel forms ventricles (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 464) - cells of ependyma line ventricles - each cerebral hemisphere contains lateral ventricle - septum pellucidum - thin medial partition - separates 2 lateral ventricles - third ventricle - ventricle in diencephalon - interventricular foramen - aka foramen of Monro - thru which each lateral ventricle - cerebral aqueduct - slender canal in midbrain - connects 3rd ventricle w/the 4th ventricle - ventricles filled w/CSF ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 463) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯ (Martini, Nath, & ▯artholomew 464) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Bartholomewath, & 465) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ 14Cranial meningesnges, CSF, BB-barrier protect Brain - cranial dura mater, arachnoid mater, & pia mater make up cranial meninges dura mater - outer periosteal layer & inner meningeal layer • arachnoid mater - covers brain • pia mater - sticks to surface of brain, anchored by processes of astrocytes ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ - Dural folds - provide additional stabilization & support to brain •3 largest dural folds are falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli, falx cerebelli - cranial trauma - head injury resulting from impact w/another object - CSF functions: • cushion delicate neural structures • support brain • transport nutrients, chemical messengers, waste products - free exchange occurs btw interstitial fluid & CSF - CSF produced in choroid plexus - spinal tap provide useful clinical info about CNS injury, infection, disease • Clinical note: • epidural hemorrhage - if blood is forced btw dura mater & skull by arterial break - elevated fluid pressure distort underlying tissue of brain - lose consciousness & lead to death if untreated - rare, less than 1% of head injuries • subdural hemorrhage - bleeding btw dura mater & arachnoid mater - twice as common as epidural hemorrhages - venous BPin sub. hemorrhage lower than arterial epidural hemorrhage - distortion is gradual - ependymal cells secrete CSF into ventricles & remove waste products from CSF & adjust its composition over time - hydrocephalus - “water on the brain” - caused by problem w/resorption of CSF in infancy • result in expanded skulls due to large volume of CSF (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 468) ▯ ▯ ▯ Blood Supply to the Brain - arterial blood reaches brain through the internal carotid arteries & vertebral arteries - venous blood from brain leaves cranium in the internal jugular veins - cerebrovascular disease - cardiovascular disorder that interferes w/normal blood supply to the brain - cerebrovascular accident (CVA) - aka stroke - occurs when blood supply to a portion of the brain is shut off - blood-brain barrier (BBB) isolates neural tissue from the general circulation of blood - BBB formed by capillary endothelial cells that are interconnected by tight junctions - only lipid-soluble compounds can diffuse across membranes of endothelial cells into interstitial fluid of brain & spinal cord - permeability of endothelial lining of brain capillaries dependent on astrocytes - astrocytes release chemicals that control the permeabilities of the endothelium to various substances - if astrocytes are damaged or stop stimulating the endothelial cells, the BBB disappears - blood-CSF barrier - interconnected by tight junctions, surround capillaries of choroid plexus - BBB remains intact throughout the CNS except in small areas knowns as circumventricular organs (CVOs) which have fenestrated capillaries - bc they are outside the BBB, they provide direct link btw CNS & the peripheral blood - exceptions include: • portions of hypothalamus (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 469) • capillaries in posterior lobe of pituitary gland • capillaries in the pineal gland • capillaries at a choroid plexus ▯ 14-3: Medulla oblongata contains vital centers (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 470) - medulla oblongata (MO) most inferior of the brain region - All communication between the brain and spinal cord involve tracts that ascend or descend through the medulla oblongata - Medulla oblongata is a center for the coordination of complex autonomic reflexes and the control of the visceral functions - Medulla oblongata includes three groups of nuclei: 1. autonomic nuclei controlling visceral activities • reticular formation - loosely organized mass of gray matter that contains embedded nuclei - extends from MO to midbrain • processing centers that regulate vital autonomic functions • reflex centers receive inputs from cranial nerves, cerebral cortex, & brain stem • output controls or adjust the activities of one or more peripheral systems • Two major groups of reflex centers in MO: cardiovascular centers and respiratory rhythmicity centers - cardiovascular centers - adjust heart rate, strength of cardiac contractions and the flow of blood through peripheral tissues • subdivided into cardiac & vasomotor centers - respiratory rhythmicity centers - set basic pace for respiratory movements activity regulated by inputs from the apneustic & pneumotaxic respiratory centers • of the pons 2. sensory and motor nuclei of cranial nerves - provide motor commands to muscles of pharynx, neck, back, visceral organs of thoracic & peritoneal cavities - associated with 5 of the cranial nerves (VIII, IX, X, XI, XII) - cranial nerve VIII carries sensory info from receptors in internal ear to vestibular & cochlear nuclei 3. relay stations along sensory & motor pathways - nucleus gracilis & nucleus cuneatus pass somatic sensory info to the thalamus - decussation - tracts leaving these brain stem nuclei cross to the opposite side of the brain before reaching their destinations; crossing over at site decussation of pyramids - solitary nucleus receives visceral sensory info that reaches the CNS from the spinal & cranial nerves - olivary nuclei relay info to the cerebellar cortex about somatic motor commands as they are issued by motor centers at higher levels • bulk of the olivary nuclei creates the olives - prominent olive-shaped bulges along the ventrolateral surface of the MO (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 471) ▯ (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 471) ▯ ▯ ▯ (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 472) (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 472) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ 14-4: The pons contains nuclei & tracts that relay sensory/motor info - the pons contains 4 groups of components • sensory & motor nuclei of cranial nerves - cranial nerves (V, VI, VII, VIII) innervate jaw muscles, anterior surface of face, one extrinsic eye muscle (lateral rectus), & sense organs of internal ear • nuclei involved w/the control of respiration - 2 respiratory centers: apneustic center & pneumotaxic center - these centers modify activity of respiratory rhythmicity centers in the MO • nuclei & tracts that process & relay info sent to or from the cerebellum - pons links the cerebellum w/the brain stem, cerebrum, & spinal cord • ascending, descending, & transverse tracts - middle cerebellar peduncles are connected to the transverse fibers, which cross the anterior surface of the pons 14-5: Cerebellum coordinates patterns of muscular activity at the subconscious level (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 473) - cerebellum is an automatic processing center that has 2 primary functions: • adjusting the postural muscles of the body - coordinates rapid, automatic adjustments that maintain balance/equilibrium • programming & fine-tuning movements controlled at the conscious & subconscious levels - refines learned movement such as playing a piano or riding a bike - performs this function indirectly by regulating activity along motor pathways at cerebral cortex, basal nuclei, & motor centers in brain stem - compares motor commands w/proprioceptive info & makes adjustment to make movement smooth - folia - folds of cerebellum surface - vermis - narrow band of cortex that separates the cerebellar hemispheres - cerebellar cortex contains huge, branched Purkinje cells • dendrites of each Purkinje cell receive input from up to 200,000 synapses - arbor vitae - “tree of life” - internal white matter that connects cerebellar cortes & nuclei w/the cerebellar peduncles - cerebellum receives proprioceptive info from spinal cord & monitors all proprioceptive/visual/ tactile/balance/auditory sensations received by the brain - info about motor commands issued at the conscious/subconscious levels reaches the Purkinje cells indirectly, after being relayed by nuclei in the pons or by the cerebellar nuclei - tracts that link cerebellum w/the brain stem, cerebrum, & spinal cord leave the cerebellar hemispheres as the superior, middle, & inferior cerebellar peduncles: • superior cerebellar peduncles - link cerebellum w/nuclei in the midbrain, diencephalon, & cerebrum • middle cerebellar peduncles - are connected to broad band of fibers that cross the ventral surface of the pons at right angles to axis of the brain stem - also connects the cerebellar hemispheres w/sensory & motor nuclei in pons • inferior cerebellar peduncles - communicate btw the cerebellum & nuclei in the MO and carry ascending/descending cerebellar tracts from the spinal cord - cerebellum can be permanently damaged by trauma - cerebellum also affected temporarily by drugs and alcohol - ataxia - disturbance in muscular coordination; result of alcohol, etc. • in severe ataxia, individual cannot sit or stand w/out assistance 14-6: Midbrain regulates auditory & visual reflexes & controls alertness (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 475) - tectum - roof of the midbrain • contains 2 pairs of sensory nuclei known collectively as corpora quadrigemina • these nuclei - superior & inferior colliculi - process visual & auditory sensations • each superior colliculus receives visual inputs from the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus on that side • each inferior colliculus receives auditory input from nuclei in the MO & pons • superior colliculi control reflex movements of the eyes, head, & neck in response to visual stimuli • inferior colliculi control reflex movements of the head, neck, & trunk in response to auditory stimuli - anterior area to cerebral aqueduct is called the tegmentum • tegmentum contains a red nucleus & the substantia nigra on each side • red nucleus - red bc contains numerous blood vessels - receives info from the cerebrum & cerebellum & issues subconscious motor commands that affect upper limb position & background muscle tone • substantia nigra is the largest midbrain nucleus - lies lateral to the red nucleus - gray matter in this region contains darkly pigmented cells (melanin) that look black - pigment (melanin) is byproduct of dopamine synthesis - substantia nigra inhibits activity of the basal nuclei in the cerebrum - basal nuclei involved in subconscious control of muscle tone & learned movements - Parkinson’s Disease is characterized by loss of neuronal activity in substantia nigra - cerebral peduncles - nerve fiber bundles on the ventrolateral surfaces of the midbrain • contain descending fibers that go to the cerebellum by way of the pons & descending fibers that carry voluntary motor commands issued by the cerebral hemispheres - reticular activating system (RAS) - in midbrain - specialized component of the reticular formation • stimulation of the RAS makes you more alert & attentive • damage to RAS produces unconsciousness ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ figures: (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 476) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 477) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 478) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ 14-7: Diencephalon integrates sensory info w/motor output at the subconscious level (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 477) - diencephalon consists of the: epithalamus, thalamus, & hypothalamus - epithalamus is the roof of the diencephalon superior to the 3rd ventricle • anterior portion contains area of choroid plexus that extends thru the interventricular foramina into the lateral ventricles • posterior portion contains pineal gland (which secretes melatonin) - melatonin regulate day-night cycle & reproductive functions - most of neural tissue in diencephalon concentrated in left & right thalamus which form the lateral walls - hypothalamus forms floor - ascending sensory info from spinal cord & cranial nerves synapses in a nucleus in the left or right thalamus before reaching the cerebral cortex & our conscious awareness - hypothalamus forms the link btw the nervous & endocrine systems The Thalamus - thalamus is the final relay point for sensory info ascending to the primary sensory cortex - acts as a filter - coordinates activities of the basal nuclei (in cerebrum) & cerebral cortex by relaying info btw them - 3rd ventricle separates left & right thalamus - each thalamus consists of rounded mass of thalamic nuclei - interthalamic adhesion - projection of gray matter that extends into the ventricle from the thalamus on either side - thalamic nuclei deal w/the relay of sensory info to the basal nuclei & cerebral cortex - 5 major groups of thalamic nuclei: anterior, medial, ventral, posterior, & lateral groups: • anterior group - involved w/emotion & motivation; includes anterior nuclei which is part of limbic system • medial group nuclei - awareness of emotional states by connecting emotional centers in hypothalamus w.the frontal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres - also receives/relays sensory info from other portions of the thalamus • ventral group nuclei - relay info from basal nuclei to somatic motor areas of the cerebral cortex - relay sensory info about touch, pressure, pain, temp, position • posterior group include pulvinar & geniculate nuclei - pulvinar nuclei - integrate sensory info for projection to cerebral cortex - lateral geniculate nucleus - receives visual info over optic tract • output goes to the occipital lobes & midbrain - medial - geniculate nucleus relay auditory info to cerebral cortex from specialized receptors of the internal ear • lateral group nuclei - form feedback loops w/the limbic system & parietal lobes - affects emotional states & the integration of sensory info ▯ ▯ The Hypothalamus - extends from area superior to the optic chiasm to posterior margins of the mammillary bodies - mammillary bodies - process sensory info & olfactory sensations; involved in memory • contain motor nuclei that control reflex movements associated w/eating - tuberal area - floor of the hypothalamus btw the infundibulum & mammillary bodies • contain nuclei that are involved w/control of pituitary gland function - hypothalamus contain control & integrative centers - hypothalamus centers stimulated by: • sensory info from cerebrum/brain stem/spinal cord • changes in compositions of CSF & interstitial fluid • chemical stimuli in the circulating blood that move across highly permeable capillaries to enter the hypothalamus (where there is no BBB) - Hypothalamus performs following functions: 1. subconscious control of skeletal muscle contractions 2. control of autonomic function 3. coordination of activities of nervous & endocrine systems • regulatory hormones - produced at tuberal area - inhibit/stimulate endocrine cells 4. secretion of 2 hormones:ADH & oxytocin • supraoptic nucleus - producesADh • paraventricular nucleus - produce oxytocin (smooth muscle contraction in uterus, mammary glands, prostate gland) 5. production of emotions & behavioral drives • feeding center stimulation - sensation of hunger • thirst center, satiety center, drives 6. coordination btw voluntary & autonomic functions 7. regulation of body temp. • preoptic area - thermoregulation • coordinates activities of other CNS centers & physiological systems • vasomotor center - autonomic area in MO that controls blood flow by regulating diameter of peripheral b.vessels 8. control of circadian rhythms • suprachiasmatic nucleus - coordinates daily cycles • receives input from retina • output adjusts activities of other hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, & reticular formation 14-8: Limbic system function in emotion, motivation, memory -AKAmotivational system - includes nuclei & tracts along border btw cerebrum & diencephalon - functions of limbic system include: 1. establish emotional states 2. link conscious, intellectual functions of cerebral cortex w/unconscious & autonomic functions of the brain stem 3. memory storage & retrieval - amygdala - role in regulating heart rate, fight or flight, link emotions w/memories • interface btw limbic system, cerebrum, & sensory organs - limbic lobe - consist of gyri (superficial folds) - 3 gyri in limbic lobe: • cingulate gyrus - sits superior to corpus callosum • dentate gyrus - posterior portion of limbic lobe • parahippocampal gyrus - inferior portion of limbic lobe - hippocampus important in learning, storage/retrieval of new long-term memories - fornix - tract of white matter that connects hippocampus w/hypothalamus - diencephalon, several other nuclei in thalamus/hypothalamus are components in limbic system (figure: Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew 481) ▯ ▯ Works cited Martini, Frederic, Nath, and Bartholomew. Fundamentals ofAnatomy & Physiology. Tenth ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, 2015. Print.


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