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Chapter 15 Notes

by: Alexa Rosenfeld

Chapter 15 Notes 80486 - PSYC 2010 - 003

Alexa Rosenfeld

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Introduction to Psychology
Edwin G Brainerd
Class Notes
Clemson, Psychology, PSYC 2010, Dr. Brainerd, CU
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Rosenfeld on Monday November 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80486 - PSYC 2010 - 003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G Brainerd in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 11/09/15
Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Abnormal Behavior is hard to define  Behavior that is normal in one situation could be abnormally higher in another situation  3 Criteria (questions) that define Abnormal Behavior: o Deviance   Behavior that is inappropriate for your role  How deviant is that behavior?  Differing from the norm   Statistically rare   The effect of your behavior on other people (scare or frighten other people)   Ex: gender, age, job, status  o Personal Distress  When a behavior causes negative emotions such as fear, guilt, shame, or  sadness   How much guilt, anxiety, shame, and negative emotions does your behavior  cause?  If you are feeling bad about what you are doing   Relates to one of the biggest psychological cures: homosexuality and  lesbianism (used to be automatically considered abnormal)  o Maladaptive Behavior   Is the behavior maladaptive?  Does it cause you to fail in some area of your life repeatedly?  When a behavior causes trouble or fail consistently in on area of a person’s  life.   Ex: job loss, lack of friends, failed relationship, drug and alcohol  problems o Not able to put these criterions on one side or the other (normal or abnormal)  o No clear cut boundary   Formally Defining Mental Disorders   The book that is used to defined and identify abnormal behavior is called the Diagnostic and  Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders o Published in 1952 by the American Psychiatric Association  o Abbreviated with DSM­5 o Used to be considered “top secret” and had to be purchased by a clinician  o Afraid people could use this book to fake mental illness in order to get away with  things like crimes Anxiety Disorders  0%­18% will experience the symptoms of anxiety disorders at one time or another   Categories: o Generalized Anxiety Disorder   Moderately high level of anxiety   Always worried about something   Chronic   “free floating” anxiety   Tightly wound (as soon as something is over, they have something else to  worry about)  Have physical problems like shaking, sweating, immune issues   Sleep poorly   Constantly in a state of worry  Prone to overmedicate with prescription drugs o Phobic Disorder  Types of phobias:  Bugs, mice, snakes, bats  Heights  Water  Storms  Closed places  Animals   Types of Agoraphobias (fear of going into open places)   Public transportation  Tunnels and bridges  Crowds  Being alone  Going out by yourself   High heritability ratio   3 interesting facts:  If you are afraid of something and there is a genuine danger involved,  it is not considered to be a phobic reaction   Not considered a phobia unless it is considered an irrational, intense,  and a fear that is disruptive to your life style   Having knowledge on how you got the phobia can very seldom help  you overcome the fear (can tell people exactly how they got the phobia but it doesn’t help the person overcome the fear)  o GABA Synapses   Inhibit activity by a neurotransmitter (GABA)  May have some problems with the neurotransmitter GABA   Fires freely causing stress and nervousness  Can be the main cause of the phobias   Helps to inhibit anxiety  o Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (OCD’s)   Obsessions are recurring thoughts of an upsetting and frightening behavior   Compulsions are acting out and going through rituals (stepping on a crack on  the side walk, something bad will happen)   Can occur separately or together (fearing germs and washing your hands all of the time) o PTSD  Long term after effect of a traumatizing event such as a combat or natural  disaster   Symptoms  Nightmares, flashbacks, emotional numbing, alienation, readjustment  problems, anxiety, anger, and guilt  o Panic Attacks   Shot periods of extreme terror usually associated with the detection of a  physical system  Dissociative Disorders  Class of disorders where people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory  which then results in disruptions in their sense of identity  Amnesia: sudden loss of memory of important information that is extensive to be due to  normal forgetting   Fugue: the loss of memory and personal identity for their entire lives o Name, family, where they live o Still can do math and drive a car  Identity: the coexistence in one person that have two or more completely different  personalities o Each personality has its own name, memories, traits, mannerisms, talents and skills o Used to be called multiple personality  o Rare disorder that is faked often  Mood Disorder  Major Depressive Disorders o Unipolar depression­go down and stay down (one direction)   o Low self esteem o Profound sadness o Negative thought o Loss of interest with things that used to make them happy o So severe that a person will not be able to continue college  Physical problem that affects neurotransmitters   Can’t talk someone out of it, it is a medical problem   Physical aliments  o Almost impossible for them to have a happy thought (cognition is almost impaired)  o Dysthymic Disorder: more mild depression   Stay in college but is chronically down   Bipolar Disorder  o Can go from one mood to another o Swinging between depression and elation  o Elation=manic reaction   Feeling TOO good   Take the best you have ever felt and x100, that is how manic state feels  Loaded with energy  Stay up all night talking to people (excited)   Enthusiastic  Biological Factors of Depression  Serotonin synapse  Norepinephrine synapse Role of Neurotransmitter in Depression   A link could exist between mood disorders and neurotransmitter activity in the brain  Alterations in norepinephrine release isn’t as important as the synaptic receptors that the  norepinephrine binds to when there is a change in sensitivity  Anti­depressants inhibit the reuptake of serotonin which then increases the activity at the  serotonin synapses   When your serotonin levels are low, it could contribute to some depressive disorders  Cognitive Factors of Depression  Learned helplessness was made into a model by Martin Seligman  This model postulates the roots of depression  o Negative Events  Attribution to Personal Flaws  Sense of Hopelessness   Depression   People will remain depressed longer if they ruminate about their depression   It is best to distract yourself from your depression  Behavioral Factors of Depression  Poor social skills  acquire fewer reinforcers such as good friends, top jobs : court rejection  because of irritability, pessimism: gravitate to people who confirm negative self­views   increased vulnerability to depression    This type of approach emphasized the interpersonal roots of depression   Some people lack personal finesse that is needed to acquire important reinforcers   If reinforcers are thought to be scarce, it then leads to negative emotions and depression Schizophrenic Disorders  Paranoid schizophrenia o Dominated by delusions of persecution and delusions of grandeur  Catatonic schizophrenia o Marked by striking motor disturbances ranging from immobility to frenzied motor  activity   Disorganized schizophrenia  o Involves a particularly sever deterioration of adaptive behavior, frequent incoherence, and virtually complete social withdrawal   Undifferentiated schizophrenia  o People who are clearly schizophrenic but cannot be placed in the three other  categories  Biological Factors in Schizophrenic Disorders   Dopamine Synapse   Accompanied by a change in the neurotransmitter activity   Having too much dopamine cans possibly cause schizophrenia but there is no hard evidence  to debate with   Schizophrenics have too much of one of the dopamine receptors, D2 sites  Neurological defects o There is a link between an enlargement of the ventricles in the brain o Right ventricle, left ventricle, third ventricle, fourth ventricle   Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis o Prenatal viral infection : prenatal malnutrition : obstetrical complications : other brain insults disruption of normal maturational process before or at birth subtle  neurological damage : minor physical anomalies  increased vulnerability to  schizophrenia  Environmental Factors in Schizophrenic Disorders  Parental communication deviance  poor sense of reality  withdrawal into personal world  schizophrenic thinking  Early family communication deviance o More likely to develop when people grow up in a home that consists of these  communication issues   Negative emotional expression from family Stress­Vulnerability Models of Schizophrenia Disorders   Assume that stress and vulnerability that when together bring on schizophrenia  o Environmental factors in present stress  intersection of high stress and high  vulnerability  onset of schizophrenic disorder o Biological factors  psychological factors in personal history  vulnerability  intersection of high stress and high vulnerability  onset of schizophrenic disorder  Insanity Plea and Involuntary Commitment   Insanity  o Legal status that indicates when a person cannot be held responsible for their actions  because they are mentally disabled o This is used in criminal justice trials for the defendant to claim that they did not know what they were doing when they committed the crime  Involuntary Commitment o When people are forced to be put into a psychiatric facility against their will due to  the person being a danger to themselves or others  Culture and Pathology  Culture based disorders: diversity of abnormal behavior around the world, cultural influence  o Koro  Obsessive fear  o Windigo  Cravings for human flesh, cannibalism  Eating Disorders   Anorexia Nervosa  o Intense fear of gaining weight o Disturbed by your body image o Refusal to maintain normal weight  o Use of dangerous measures in order to lose weight   Bulimia Nervosa  o Out of control overeating  o Unhealthy compensatory efforts  Self­induced vomiting   Fasting  Abuse of laxatives   Excessive exercise   Binge eating disorder o Distress induced eating binges that are not accompanied by fating and the other  symptoms seen with bulimia  What causes eating disorders?  Cultural factors o Thinness  attractiveness  o Social media o Models, attractiveness   Genetic vulnerability  o Obsessiveness, personality traits, rigidness 


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