Week 11 notes - psych 324
Week 11 notes - psych 324 Psych 324
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allie S on Monday November 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 324 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Claudio Cantalupo in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Brain and Behavior Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/09/15
1 Sound Localization a Three types of binaural involving use of both ears cues brain locates the source of a sound based on differences between the sound at the two ears i Phase difference a sound arriving from one side of the body is at a different phase of the wave at each ear works for low frequency sounds 1 Picture of animals cocking head ii Intensity difference the head creates a sound shadow near ear receives a slightly more intense sound than far ear iii Difference in time of arrival sound reaches near ear slightly before the far ear b Neurons in the superior olive for these three types 11 Vision a Stimulus visible light form of electromagnetic energy9it s just a fraction of the electromagnetic spectrum i The reason eyes have become specialized to visible light because these are the most informative They bounce off objects and you can gather information 111 The Eye a Eye i Cornea focuses most of the light on to the retina laser surgery here ii Lens only focuses about 20 of the light onto the retina 1 Series of transparent onion like layers Its shape can be changed by contraction of ciliary muscles iii Retina neural part 1 The neural tissue and photoreceptors located on the inner surface of the posterior portion of the eye IV Retina a Structure i Photoreceptors l Cones a Mostly in the fovea and not many outside of that area b None in blind spot optic nerve 2 Rods a High number increasing towards fovea but on fovea there are none b None in blind spot optic nerve ii Horizontal cells connect photoreceptors horizontally iii Bipolar cells connects laterally iv Amacrine cells connects ganglions cells horizontally v Ganglion cells axons gather together making the optic nerve vi Middle layer called bipolar layer horizontal bipolar Amacrine vii Blind spot retina is backwards so the axons have to be gathered in front of where photoreceptors would be b Photoreceptors Test Q Pigment epithelium 00000000000000 Photo Rod cell receptors Cone cell Bipolar neuron Ganglion cell Optic nerve bre I DIRECTION OF LIGHT i Picture 1 Dark Na channels OPEN9 membrane is depolarized9release inhibitory neurotransmitter9inhibits activity of bipolar and ganglion cells 2 Light membrane becomes hyperpolarized9 release of inhibitory neurotransmitter is reduced9 activity of bipolar cells is less inhibited9 firing rate of ganglion cell increases ii Rods about 120 million 1 Contain photopigment Rhodopsin a Very sensitive to light 9 rods work best in dim light b Detect different levels of light and dark not colors 2 Most concentrated away from fovea 3 Receptive field iii Cones about 6 million 1 Contain photopigment Iodopsin a Require high level of light9work best in day light b 3 kinds of Iodopsin cones9each react to a different wavelength9 2 Detect different colors red blue green a Most concentrated in fovea b Red long wavelength green middle length wavelength blue short wavelength iv Receptive fields in center of retina fovea 1 Area of the retina from which a a ganglion cells receives input 2 One bipolar cell per ganglion cell 3 Right to the fovea higher visual acuity a Visual acuity ability to distinguish details of a visual scene v Receptive fields in periphery of retina 1 Multiple bipolar cells per ganglion cells 2 Size of receptive field is much larger for ganglion cells attaching to the receptive fields traviolet shortwave gamma Xrays rays Infrared radar TV AM rays rays 1039 10 quot3 10 j v39 10 9 10quot 1 0 10392 1 102 10 I u Wavelength meters dquot quot39 g quotquot Visible Light H aquot quoth 400 500 600 700 Wavelength nanometers displacement Wavelength J 1 l Crest ridge Trough distance in direction of wave travel a Amplitude TEST Q cone peak rod peak 39 O m D O l I l mnnaa OQDN 0960 I39ll OPTIC DISK b O l RECEPTOR DENSITY mmquot2 x 103 N o I O 7b 6b 5b 40 30 2390 f0 0 1396 50 3b do 5390 60 in 50 9390 TEMPORAL FOVEA NASAL ECCENTRICITY degrees CODES Most CONES are found tightly packed into the fovea region Whereas there are NO RODS IN THE FOVEA Most rods are outside
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