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Lect 29 Notes

by: Abby Geiger

Lect 29 Notes 80132 - BIOL 1030 - 001

Abby Geiger
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

This lesson was extremely difficult and Espinoza said most of this week's info will not be in the textbook. I am adding notes after each lecture.
General Biology I
Nora R Espinoza
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abby Geiger on Monday November 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80132 - BIOL 1030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Nora R Espinoza in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 11/09/15
BIODIVERSITY: The Basics 11/09/2015 ▯ CHAPTER 15 ▯ Biodiversity: Numbers and kinds of species; how they change and evolve over time  Unity comes from common ancestry o Common properties and processes found in all life  Diversity from: o Ecological Circumstances: where it happens, where it is found o Accumulated Ancestry: history of life, when we started ▯ Where does Biodiversity come from?  BIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS: o Life’s properties ▯ ★MAIN THOUGHT FOR MULTIPLE POINTS IN BIOLOGY:★ ▯ -Take what you have and use it. Processes must begin with something.  Biodiversity  Translation  Evolution -Looking at the 3 birds from page 2 of lecture 29 notes:  Each bird has wings stemming from forearms, however each birds wings are different to a certain extent (ex: Eagle has feathers, Bat has wings expanding from fingers/arms to ankle with no feathers) o This convergence of similar characteristics, with regard to differences that are not different enough to take away similarity between the birds, is called convergent evolution o Books definition of convergent evolution: evolution of similar features in different evolutionary lineages, which can result from living in very similar environments ▯ Recall the distinction between patterns and processes: ▯ Pattern: Numbers and types of species and how they change over time ▯ Process: How you get to the pattern (ex: convergent evolution) ▯ The pattern used in biodiversity is the Geological Time Scale. This visualizes for us how the origins of single-celled and multi-cellular organisms were key events in life’s history; basically this is showing the origin of the Earth.  ★WILL BE ON TEST: The Earth is 4.6 billion years old★ ▯ Macroevolution: the changes occurring in life’s history over time  4.6 billion years of history read from the fossil record found in the layers of rock (called: strata) on Earth. ▯ -The fossil record is not complete, however a particular pattern is used for the ordered appearance of organisms  Random (NOT what we see): organisms are mixed with respect to time. Organized oldest to youngest.  Non-Random (what we see):beginning with fimbrae and flagellum, organized in relative order  Patterns o Single-celled to multicellular o Simple to complex celled o Oldest to youngest o Azoic to zoic  Azoic: no light  Zoic: light ▯ -Fossil Records indicate environmental change over time  Environmental change: pattern. Evidence of location for organisms unable to survive in the current type of environment  In the Andes, ocean organisms have been found at the tops of the mountains, indicating water used to be there; however, now the Andes are very high above sea level  Past distribution ▯ We should ask: What is the origin of life?? ▯ -Conditions on early Earth made the origin of life possible ▯ -Early Earth had different combinations of water vapor, ammonia, and other substances in the atmosphere. This is called atmosphere reducing because the atmosphere is gaining.  ★ the main difference between the atmosphere then and now is that the current Earth’s atmosphere has little or no oxygen.  Stromatolites: prokaryotes (3.5 billion y/o fossils) growing to mattes called cyanobacteria which are blue-green layers in a rock or fossil that are different colors or shades due to the changing ocean layer ▯ In ★1953 Stanley Miller★ found chemical evolution: abiotic synthesis of organic molecules(stage 1) conducted an abiotic system testing the synthesis of organic compounds to discover if it is possible to make sub- units (amino acids in particular). He heated ocean water with methane, hydrogen, and ammonia to make gas that he then condensed and added water and lightening to. He found that YES, you can make sub-units through the ★four stages★ ▯ 1. organic molecules ▯ 2. make macromolecules ▯ 3. have a membrane ▯ 4. replication ▯ In 1953, he found about 8, but in 2008 the study was repeated and ALL organic molecules were able to be found. ▯ ▯ Vocabulary: ▯ -Common Ancestry ▯ -Accumulated Ancestry ▯ -Ecological Circumstances ▯ -Convergent Evolution ▯ -Macroevolution ▯ -Cyanobacteria ▯ ▯ Life’s Common Properties Used: ▯ -Growth and Development  How do we get diversity? ▯ -Response to the Environment  Genotypic/Phenotypic diversity  Outside environment vs. inside environment ▯ -Evolutionary Adaption  How things change: processes, evolving ▯ ▯ Geological Time Scale (MEMORIZE): ▯ Hadeon Eon (4-3.6 billion y/a)  Precambrian Era o No life, molten rocks o Origin of Earth (4.6 billion y/a) ▯ Archaen Eon (2.5 billion y/a)  Precambrian sta o 1 evidence of oxygen in atmosphere o Origin of photosynthesis o 1 evidence of life-prokaryote ▯ Proterozoic Eon (542 million y/a)  Precambrian Era o First animals o Multicellular organisms o First evidence for complex cells-eukaryotes ▯ Phanerozoic Eon  Paleozoic Era (251 million y/a) o Cambrian Period (explosion)  1 evidence of vertebrates  Origin of many hard skeletons o Ordovician Period  Mass Extinctino (440 million y/a)  Invasion of land-plants, fungi, animals o Silurian Period  Origin of Jaws  Early vascular plants o Devonian Period  Tetrapods (4-footed verts), insects  Mass Extinction (365 million y/a) o Carboniferous Period  Origin of reptiles, first seed plants, amphibians dominant o Permian Period  Mass Exctinction (251 million y/a)  Mesozoic Era (65.5 million y/a) o Triassic Period  Mass Extinction (210 y/a)  Dinosaur ancestors start to appear (228 million y/a) o Jurassic Period o Cretaceous Period  Mass Extinction-Dinosaurs (65.5 million y/a)  Cenozoic Era (diversification of mammals: now) o Paleogene Period o Neogene Period  Youngest Ice Ages ▯ ▯


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