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Week of November 9th

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by: Iliana Elias

Week of November 9th BIO 106 - M001

Marketplace > Syracuse University > Biology > BIO 106 - M001 > Week of November 9th
Iliana Elias
GPA 3.75

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Ocean Life
S. Parks
Class Notes
25 ?




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Abrar Aljiboury

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Iliana Elias on Monday November 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 11/09/15
MARINE MAMMAL BEHAVIOR Challenges in diving  Can not obtain oxygen underwater o Low oxygen to vital organs (brain, heart)  Increasing pressure on gases with depth o Every 10m adds another atmosphere of pressure o Marine mammals dive into more than 1,000 meters  Terrestrial appendages not efficient for swimming Decompression sickness  “the bends” – increased pressure with depth that causes nitrogen gases to dissolve into the body o gas released when pressure is reduced o rapid surfacing from depth causes bubbles to release rapidly (into skin, joints, and blood stream)  can be fatal o extremely painful o treatment: re-pressurization Marine mammals DO get the bends Diving world champ: Cuvier’s beaked whale  lung collapse reduces gas behavior (Ziphius cavirostris)  decompression sickness shows with age *confirmed to dive more than o damages to bones 1900m!  some deep diving mammals take shallow decompression dives  studies show bubbles within veins of marine mammals Thermoregulation  ALL marine mammals are endothermic and must maintain their body temperature  Solutions to limit heat loss in water: o Be big  Larger the animal, smaller the surface area o Insulation  Heat generated inside body is maintained with insulation  Two types:  Fat and air o Blood flow changes  Countercurrent exchange o Not getting too warm Heat Loss  Heat loss is 25 times faster in water than in air  Higher density of water leads to greater conduction  Hypothermia – the condition of having an abnormally low body temp Insulation  Fat is the most efficient form of energy storage and heat insulation o Found in many warm-blooded marine animals: penguins, polar bears, whales, seals, and sea lions MARINE MAMMAL BEHAVIOR o Polar bears  Thick water repellent coat  Dark skin for heat absorption in sunlight  Up to 11cm of fat  Need to shed heat on land o Seal fat  Most pinniped species have significant fat layers  Polar pinnipeds have greater fat storage  Hooded seal pups gain all needed fat from only 4 days of nursing o Sea otter insulation  No thick fat layer to stay warm  Densest fur of any animal  > 100,000 hairs per cm  waterproof oily hair Counter-current heat exchangers  Heat naturally flows from higher temps to lower temps  Humans – tend to lose heat to the environment in cold weather and gain heat in hot weather  Layout of blood vessels near body’s surface allows for counter-current heat exchange Bowhead cooling system  Have a high heat signature on the organ on roof of mouth that is used to dump heat Specialized foraging behaviors  Plankton feeders o Filter feeding  ex. Right whale – feed on plankton  feed in V shape to efficiently collect food  In summer, whales feed in 125m of depth  In winter, whales feed in 5m of depth  Fish feeders o Engulfment  Ex. Humpback whale  Cooperate in groups to feed  Bubble net feeding to encircle large schools of fish o Echolocation  Ex. Crater feeding uses this method o Strand feeding  Risk: jump too far out, they will be stuck on land  Mammal eaters o Ex. Killer whales  Pods – family groups MARINE MAMMAL BEHAVIOR  Will jump onto shore to eat sea pups o Populations of whales declined during industrial whaling o Humans have been taking whales for 1000’s of years Clicker questions Decompression sickness caused by: nitrogen All marine mammals have thick fat layers for insulation: False Marine mammals do not ____ to avoid the bends: avoid rapid swimming in the deep Human survival time in 45 degree water: 1 to 3 hrs Which marine mammal eats other marine mammals: killer whales


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