Week of November 9th
Week of November 9th BIO 106 - M001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Iliana Elias on Monday November 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/09/15
MARINE MAMMAL BEHAVIOR Challenges in diving Can not obtain oxygen underwater o Low oxygen to vital organs (brain, heart) Increasing pressure on gases with depth o Every 10m adds another atmosphere of pressure o Marine mammals dive into more than 1,000 meters Terrestrial appendages not efficient for swimming Decompression sickness “the bends” – increased pressure with depth that causes nitrogen gases to dissolve into the body o gas released when pressure is reduced o rapid surfacing from depth causes bubbles to release rapidly (into skin, joints, and blood stream) can be fatal o extremely painful o treatment: re-pressurization Marine mammals DO get the bends Diving world champ: Cuvier’s beaked whale lung collapse reduces gas behavior (Ziphius cavirostris) decompression sickness shows with age *confirmed to dive more than o damages to bones 1900m! some deep diving mammals take shallow decompression dives studies show bubbles within veins of marine mammals Thermoregulation ALL marine mammals are endothermic and must maintain their body temperature Solutions to limit heat loss in water: o Be big Larger the animal, smaller the surface area o Insulation Heat generated inside body is maintained with insulation Two types: Fat and air o Blood flow changes Countercurrent exchange o Not getting too warm Heat Loss Heat loss is 25 times faster in water than in air Higher density of water leads to greater conduction Hypothermia – the condition of having an abnormally low body temp Insulation Fat is the most efficient form of energy storage and heat insulation o Found in many warm-blooded marine animals: penguins, polar bears, whales, seals, and sea lions MARINE MAMMAL BEHAVIOR o Polar bears Thick water repellent coat Dark skin for heat absorption in sunlight Up to 11cm of fat Need to shed heat on land o Seal fat Most pinniped species have significant fat layers Polar pinnipeds have greater fat storage Hooded seal pups gain all needed fat from only 4 days of nursing o Sea otter insulation No thick fat layer to stay warm Densest fur of any animal > 100,000 hairs per cm waterproof oily hair Counter-current heat exchangers Heat naturally flows from higher temps to lower temps Humans – tend to lose heat to the environment in cold weather and gain heat in hot weather Layout of blood vessels near body’s surface allows for counter-current heat exchange Bowhead cooling system Have a high heat signature on the organ on roof of mouth that is used to dump heat Specialized foraging behaviors Plankton feeders o Filter feeding ex. Right whale – feed on plankton feed in V shape to efficiently collect food In summer, whales feed in 125m of depth In winter, whales feed in 5m of depth Fish feeders o Engulfment Ex. Humpback whale Cooperate in groups to feed Bubble net feeding to encircle large schools of fish o Echolocation Ex. Crater feeding uses this method o Strand feeding Risk: jump too far out, they will be stuck on land Mammal eaters o Ex. Killer whales Pods – family groups MARINE MAMMAL BEHAVIOR Will jump onto shore to eat sea pups o Populations of whales declined during industrial whaling o Humans have been taking whales for 1000’s of years Clicker questions Decompression sickness caused by: nitrogen All marine mammals have thick fat layers for insulation: False Marine mammals do not ____ to avoid the bends: avoid rapid swimming in the deep Human survival time in 45 degree water: 1 to 3 hrs Which marine mammal eats other marine mammals: killer whales