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Drugs and Justice NOTES

by: Marrissa Wilson

Drugs and Justice NOTES JUS222

Marketplace > Arizona State University > JUS222 > Drugs and Justice NOTES
Marrissa Wilson
Drugs and Justice
Deb Henderson

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Drugs and Justice
Deb Henderson
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marrissa Wilson on Friday January 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JUS222 at Arizona State University taught by Deb Henderson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 103 views.

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Date Created: 01/23/15
Drugs and Justice Professor Deb Henderson January 15th 2015 Song of the day Purple Haze by J imi Hendrix Hendrix died of prescription drugs How drugs affect the bodV Basic Definitions Addiction Factors that in uence the way drugs affect the user How mixing drugs affects the body What DAWN statistics tell us 6 How drugs are eliminated from the body U PP Pi Basic Definitions Drug A chemical substance that when taken into the body alters the structure or functioning of the body in same way excluding those nutrients considered to be related to normal functioning Psychoactive drug A drug that in uences the functioning TWO TYPES OF DRUGS Legal and Illegal TWO TYPES OF DRUG USE Instrumental Use a person is taking a drug with a specific socially approved goal in mind Recreational Use a person is taking the drug for the psychoactive properties to get high Drugs are USED ABUSED and we get ADDICTED The authorities do not de ne these terms They assume that anyone who uses ILLEGAL DRUGS could be an ABUSER Drug Abuse The misuse of certain substances the non medical use of a substance to alter the mental state of the user that is detrimental and is illegal Drug Addiction preoccupation addict assigns high priority to acquiring drugs compulsion addict continues to use drugs despite consequences relapse addict returns to normal abuse after attempts to quit 1202015 Song of the day When You39re a Viper highlights the use of of marijuana in the 193039s by jazz and blues musicians The Stamp Act no stampno weed and no weedno stamp this eliminated the possession of weed all together TWO TYPES OF ADDICTION gtgt Physical Addiction Characterized by actual withdrawal symptoms Your body begins to get used to the effects of the drug and when you quit cold turkey you begin to have the opposite effect gtgt Psychological Addiction Characterized by an uncontrollable psychological need You conVince yourself that you are completely dependent upon the drug for happiness or that feeling of euphoria Physical Addicti Classic Addiction is based on WITHDRAWAL symptoms Chills Fever Goose esh Diarrhea muscular twitching Spasms Nausea Vomiting Cramps general bodily aches and pains especially in the bones and joints Narcotics heroine morphine painkillers Barbiturates alcohol Psvch0102ical Addiction Drug Dependence Some drugs like COCAINE do not cause typical withdrawal symptoms but users become highly dependent Especially when the drugs effects are highly pleasurable PSYCHOLOGICAL REINFORCING Psychological VS Physical gtgt They have different causes of continued use PSYCHOLOGICAL The avoidance of withdrawal PHYSICAL the motive to seek pleasure Immediate sensual appeal cocaine amphetamine heroine you don39t have to LEARN to LIKE these drugs you simply just use it Unlike ALCOHOL which doesn39t have a pleasant taste right away Continuum of Use NON USER NONCOMPULSIVE USER ADDICT What is a NONCOMPULSIVE USER gtgt The recreational user Uses a drug only on weekendsparties moderate alcohol consumption don39t not experience psychological or physical withdrawal symptoms The Drugs of ABUSE 1Depressants alcohol narcotics opiates heroine morphine codeine pain killers Sedatives tranquilizers anti depressants anti anxiety inhalants paint thinner 2Stimulants caffeine nicotine cocaine meth 3Hallucinogens LSD PCP MDMA mushrooms peyote 4Marijuana 5Steroids How Drugs Work gt Pharmakon is a Greek word meaning both remedy and poison at the same time gt Pharmacology the study of drug effects how substances affect liVing tissue gt The pharmacologist studies matters such as administration absorption and distribution of drugs in the body specifically in certain organs and sites in the body IMPORTANT TO NOTE Drugs are taken in CERTAIN WAYS by CERTAIN PEOPLE for CERTAIN REASONS they are a social cultural political and symbolic phenomena that is perceived dealt with and talked about in a specific society in certain ways that must be understood What does this mean Well studying lab rats cannot tell the ENTIRE story of the way that PEOPLE will react to drugs being tested There are too many variable that cannot be tested DRUG ACTIONS VS DRUG EFFECTS What is the difference Psychoactive Drugs Different drugs affect different neurons in the brain in various ways Each effect of each drug is determined in large by the fit between the drug39s chemistry the key and the receptors located at specific sites in the brain the lock A Drug39s Action the result of a chemical reaction between a given laboratory substance and the physical makeup of a given organism Pharmacologist will test drugs in an ideal process ie Controlled environment specific dosage purity and conditions of the organisms such as being health or young so how are we supposed to know how the drug will affect a REAL PERSON in the REAL WORLD in REAL LIFE SITUATIONS Here are some things that can in uence a DRUG39S AFFECT identity is it advertised or not talked about Do you know what you39re taking What are you expecting to feel Dose what are the drugs affects at certain levelsamounts Purity is the drug mixed with any fillers Potency how strong is it route of administration how do you take the drug Habituation how often Are you becoming amune to the effects Set setting drug mixing LD and ED Measures Lethal Dose how much will kill you Effective dose how much will make you high ED50 The dose has an effect on half of the testing population ED100 The dose has an effect on all of the testing population LD50 The dose kills half of the testing population LDlOO The dose kills all of the testing population 1222015 Song of the day Good 0139 Mountain Dew by Grandpa Joe about Moonshine an alcoholic drink during prohibition Route of Administration drugs must get into and act on the Central Nervous System CNS that is the brain and the spinal column To do this drugs must enter the BLOOD STREAM and cross the BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER 0 Smoking Snorting Inhaling Injecting 0 SMOKING is the quickest and most powerful way to administer a drug into your system This is because smoking the drug enters your lungs and directly to the blood stream and pass the blood brain barrier gtgtThe route of administration is VERY IMPORTANT to how you experience the drug and how fast it gets into your system The form of the drug can be limiting to how the drug is taken Habituation How accustomed the user is to taking a certain drug 0 Drugs decline in effectiveness with repeated doses This means that it will take a longer time to produce an effect the user than someone who has never taken the drug 0 When a drug is taken in a sufficient quantity over a long time can produce diminishing e ects 0 The body basically becomes less and less effected by the drug over many uses Set mind set The mood or the personal characteristics of the person taking the drug Setting Where you are and how do you react with your setting Drug Mixing 4 ways 1 Additive Effect Taken together the two drugs39 effects are more or less the same except greater one Asprin and one Tylenol pretty much the same effects as a dose of two asprin or two tylenol 2 Synergistic effect multiplier effect Two drugs have similar action but when combined the effect of their joint action is more than cumulative Depressant Depressant death 113 3 Potentiating effect two drugs have different actions but when taken together one enhances the effects of the other cocainezstimulant heroinzdepressant or death 114 4 Antagonistic effect Some drugs BLOCK the effect of the other drugs HeroinNarcanavoiding an OD Alcohol Antabuse puking antabuse not only blocks the effects of alcohol it also makes drinkers violently ill if they do take a drink hence the effects of antabuse are antagonistic to those of alcohol 110 This could be bad because prescription drugs that need to do a certain thing could be blocked by another drug and lead to death but it could also be good in the case of ANTABUSE which stops drinkers from taking drinks Differences in the USER that might change a drug39s effect body weight gender ethnic background Asians tend to ush when drinking some people are tolerant by their ethnic background expectations of the drug user set Elimination of Half Life The length it takes the drug to reduce to 50 of it39s equilibrium level in the bloodstream 0 Elimination halflife of Nicotine a few hours Cocaine a few hours Marijuana much longer DAWN Statistics Drug Abuse Warning Network 0 ED episode An instance of a person coming to the emergency department ED of a hospital seeking treatment for a drugrelated problem 0 ED mention The substances mentioned referred to by the patient during a given ED episode 0 ME mention The substances involved in a particular drugrelated death as reported by the medical examiner ME Drug Regulations OBJECTIVIST vs PROTECTIONIST vs CONTRUCTIONIST 0 The OBJECTIVIST and PROTECTIONIST approach sees the passage of drug laws as a medical and public safety matter Protectionist see societies criminalizing drug use possession and sale to protect their members from harming themselves and others 0 in contrast the CONSTRUCTIONIST approach sees drug legislation as a cultural political and even an economic matter ZERO TOLERANCE vs HARM REDUCTION 0 a zero tolerance policy means that the objective is to totally eliminate illicit drugtaking behavior 0 A harm reduction policy means that the objective is to minimize the medical psychological and social costs associated with drugtaking behavior 0 A zero tolerance policy cracks down on the casual user not drug lords etc Constructionists see the criminalization process as a product of social and historical forces partly an overreaction partly selective perception partly a need to stigmatize less than respectable groups and categories partly the outcome of a struggle for respectability partly the desire to protect existing priVileges and a way of life gtgt This is the perspective we Will attempt to adopt for this class Race and Drug Legislation It39s alright because it39s all White Chris Rock While drug use may still be seen as a problem the nature of the problem will be regarded as quite different and the laws that are passed and enforced to deal with the problem Will also differ


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