Islamic World after 750 to the Rise of National Monarchies
Islamic World after 750 to the Rise of National Monarchies Hist 101
Popular in Western Civilization I
Jasmene Monique Ramirez
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
HIST 161 001
verified elite notetaker
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmene Monique Ramirez on Monday November 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 101 at University of New Mexico taught by Professor Davis-Secord in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization I in History at University of New Mexico.
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The Islamic World after 750 to the Rise of European National Monarchies in the Middle Ages Umayyad Caliphate- Damascus-660-750c. Deposition of Ali in 660. Civil war breaks out between Sunni and Shi’ite. The Umayyad caliphate dynasty begins. Architecture- the dome of the rock- octagonial shape, golden dome. Meant to be an elaboration on distinctive muslim art. Abbasid Revolution 750 Baghdad End of Umayyad dynasty. Had occupied N Africa, Arabia and the Persian empire/central asia (today Afghanistan), and the Iberian peninsula. Umayyads were overthrown by the abbasid. Not just a dynastic change. Claimed Umayyads were corrupt and lacked morality. Wanted to restore morality as they saw it tin the caliphate. Capital was moved to Baghdad and it became a splendid city of art learning, patronization of art and scholars, etc. Commercial and linguistic connections persist across territory. Common tongue of Arabic. Makes scholarly travel expected because of linguistic connection and makes travel easier. Highly monetized society and in possession of land and sea trade routes. During time of abbasid revolution, a man arrives in Spain claiming to be surviving prince of Ummayads and establishes Omayyad Emirate of Cordoba as an Emir. His decendents rule for about 200 years as Umayyad Emirs. 929 decendent claims right to be called caliph. Not settling for Emir. Also Sunni. Rules until 1031. Establish advanced culture with artists, scholars, poets and riches. When muslim forces moved across what becomes their territory, conquerors put into practice conversion of pagans, but monotheists can keep their faith. These monotheists are dhimmis (people protected by the pact). Dhimmis however had to acknowledge political superiority of Islam. Could not worship louder than muslims or build churches or synagogues bigger or taller than mosques. Dhimmis however could gain political and cultural power. After 1031, taipha period. Breakdown of ummayad caliphate. Allows remnants of Christian kingdoms to take vulnerable lands back. 11-13 centuries. Christian kingdoms take over taipha kingdoms. Crusade language used. This is called the Reconquista. 1250 only independent muslim region is Granada until 1492, independent to semi-independent. Great mosque of Cordoba. Originally Christian Visigothic church. Portion of it served as a mosque. 1236 King Ferdinand III conquers Cordoba and changes mosque back into a church. Fatimid Caliphate 969-1171 Shi’ite. North Africa. Large but kind of underground sect. 909 one of the leaders had enough followers in Tunisia to rise up and declare new caliphate. Took Algeria to Israel and Lebanon and west strips of Arabia. Turks Peoples from central Asia. Move to black sea region to tops of Mesopotamia. 2 establishments. One goes to asia minor and aggresses against Constantinople. Others into Syria. They are the Seljuks. Leaders called sultans. Threaten caliphs of Baghdad. Caliphs declare them sultans to appease them. Seljuk sultanate in Asia minor quickly takes over. In 1071 Battle of Manzikert was a battle against the byzantine emperor. They capture the emperor and his side loses. When the emperor is released, he write to the pope and asks for help. There seemed to be something lost in translation because this sows the seeds for the first crusade. Thriving intellectual world in Arabic/Islamic world. Scholars read and translate Socrates, Aristotle, etc and built upon their ideas. Universities established during this time. Studied everything under the sun. Nothing was off limits for inquiry. Developed lots of scientific methods and technologies. Medicinal and pharmacological knowledge exploded. The Crusades Knights- men effective in sword fighting and hand to hand combat and fighting on horseback. Interest in land and power acquired through parceling out land in exchange for loyalty. As a knight, you are concerned for your soul and to ensure a spot in heaven, you could donate land or money to monasteries or churches or build your own if you were wealthy enough. Constantinople falls under muslim rule. No one cares until around 1000 when the pope gets involved. Idea that pope should control Christendom because seat of pope was once held by Saint Peter becomes a popular idea. In 1000 Gregorian reform took place. The new belief that the pope should reign supreme over secular leaders is established. 1095 the pope begins to speak to nobles and knights and urges them to fight in the service of the church to “take back the land from the infidels”. Jerusalem- considered the navel of the world. Place where Christ lived and died. Very important to christains. Christains could freely visit even when it was under muslim control. However the pope was unhappy about Jerusalem being under muslim control. The Muslims later take Constantinople and the emperor appeals to the pope for aid. 1071 some plans formulated but never enacted. The emperor now asks pope for help again. In 1095 a plan is formulated. The pope sends a message that knights can take Jerusalem from the Muslims in the service of God. This Holy War could be a path to salvation for knights. Pope Urban II. At the end of a church meeting, the pope goes out to the field and preaches a sermon. We really don’t know if the pope ordered attacks on Jerusalem, due to conflicting source testimony. Cannon lawyers come up with a way of describing he crusades. If you go on a crusade, your sins are wiped away. Peter the Hermit- popular preacher who preaches to the rabal (peasantry). The Rabal follows, including poor knights. Rhine River valley region, rabal causes trouble. Rabal in this region begin to attack “enemies of God” in this case Jews. Later crusades specify that Jews are not enemies of God. Upon arrival in Constatninople, towns are raided. Emperor at Constantinople sends out troops to try and stop raiding. The Rabal then move into the dominion of the Seljuk Turks. The Rabal are decimated. Peter the Hermit flees and returns with official army. The army goes to Edessa. Skirmishes and battles with Turks. In 1098 a strange ceremony was performed and an Armenian christain leader “adopts” a crusader. This leader later dies and the crusader takes over. The emperor of Constantinople argues with crusaders over land ownership of captured lands of Eddessa and Antioch. Some muslim leaders allow crusaders passage in exchange to for safety from raids. Muslims at the time were for the most part unaware this was considered a holy war. Jerusalem falls quickly as muslims are taken by surprise. Muslims and Jews are slaughtered in the streets. A kingdom of Jerusalem with a ruling patriarch was established. Second crusade Edessa is taken back by the muslims. The Crusaders respond and arrive in Jerusalem and call those in Jerusalem to battle. They then travel up to Damascus which was well defended. After two day sat Damascus, the effort was deemed a failure and Edessa remained in Muslim control. Around this time, critics of the crusades and papacy arise. Crusades help develop a culture of war and of castles. These new castles are large and made of stone. Crusader society becomes monetized and the coins appear to be imitations of muslim coins. The Crusades also become established as a plenary indulgence, meaning that going on crusade expunges past and future sins. Crusaders struggle from lack of manpower, leading to the creation of military orders or monastic warriors. They include the hospitallers, Templars and teutonic knights. Third Crusade. Muslim territories come under the control of a single ruler named Saladin who uses Jihad rhetoric to call people to fight Christian crusaders. Jerusalem falls to him. The Battle of Hatlin 1187 Saladin prevails over all crusader forces. Only handfuls of crusaders escape. Saladin marches on crusader lands. Jerusalem falls. Richard the Lionheart leads third crusade. Richard and Saladin try to establish peace through Richards Sister marrying Saladins brother. This falls apart when Saladin learns Richard expects Saladin’s brother to convert to Christianity upon marriage to Richards sister. Fourth Crusade Venetians supply ships for the fourth crusade, but only 1/3 of the expected men show up. Venice says it will forgive any mans debt if they are willing to attack Constantinople. They take over Constantinople and establish a latin kingdom under Venetian control. They never went to the holy land. Society and Government of the High Middle Ages 1000-1300 There is a population boom in the latin west which produces more people than there are needed to farm. This results in the rise of cities, specialization in commerce and more complex social systems. Towns that get revived are former roman cities built upon Roman foundations. Presence of incentives in cities such as proximity to relics are places where city revival take place. With this pilgrim traffic, we see a rise of the hospitality industry including inns, taverns, restaurants, trinkets, goods, food, trade, brothels, etc. Trade contributed to the revival of cities. When a manor produces an agricultural surplus, surplus items could be traded regionally until it evolves into major trade. Market centers become urban centers. Trade outposts begin to take over sections of large trade routes. Luxury goods from the east are imported into Italy for the most part. Italian merchants then bring goods into western Europe to trade with western and northern European markets. The imported goods included spices, silks, opiates, herbs, dyes, and gums. For some reason, a popular export to North Africa and the Levant is wool. Rise of trade results in the rise of the guild. Guilds control and regulate the training of apprentices in a craft or trade. Guilds also regulate prices of goods and services and wages. Guilds also had social service commitments to their workers. For example, a widow of a guild stonemason would be entitled to support from other guild members. Around this time, a monetized system begins to make a comeback when the precious metal trade resumes. Sicily has the first gold coinage in the Latin west. Silver however is the most well minted. The rise of credit and exchange of credit also starts and we see the precursor to what we would today call checks. Social mobility and stratification Budding middle class of merchants and artisans are called burgesses. These people live in cities and make a living on urban activity. Knights- hereditary identification. Knights were often able to trace their lineages back to the Carolingian kingdom and see themselves as an elite due to their linages and the fact that they dwell in castles. They feel threatened by the burgesses, some of which have more wealth than the knights, as land holding during this time was not as profitable as it had been before the rise of cities. The knights responded with the creation of the chivalry code, a code of conduct that set them apart and above burgesses. Knights owe one another respect, loyalty and military service. The idea of courtly love also develops during this period, in which women are considered objects to be pursued and as items of beauty. Rise of National Monarchies. Norman the conqueror of England dies without an heir. William of Normandy in France prevails, taking it in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings. England is then ruled by dukes of Normandy, under the control of the French king. England becomes a well centralized monarchy. Areas called Shires are controlled by sheriffs who answer to the king. At the end of the Capetian dynasty, France ends up having a more organized system than England. They did this by giving scholars land, and then sending them off to administer lands that they were not personally tied to in an effort to prevent corruption. This turns into a bureaucracy. England- during the 1100’s the popes are undergoing reform via the crusades. At the same time, they are using this power to assert primacy over secular leaders. Henry II came into conflict with Thomas becket who was the Archbishop of Canterbury. They were initially friends but that eventually changes. The popes were angry that secular leaders were appointing abbots, abbesses, archbishops, etc. Thomas was on the side of the pope and championed a papal nation. Thomas was martyred in 1170, killed while he was praying. He was immediately canonized as a saint. Richard the Lionheart was captured while on crusade. Paying his ransom put England in debt. His brother, Prince John took over and tried to steal a betrothed woman in Normandy. Her husband to be didn’t take too kindly to that and reported the incident to the French kings. All of France turned on England and England lost all influence in France. John, to keep the support of the English barons was required to codify their rights in the charter of Liberties. This distributed power and now the king needed the barons to be on board with major decisions he made in order for action to be taken.