Global Economy ANTH 1000
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Desiree Lynch on Monday November 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1000 at University of Connecticut taught by Dr. Elle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see ANTH 100: Other People's Worlds in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 11/09/15
Anthropology Notes- Global Economy A complex network- sense of connection it brings between people. How many people have actually used the money you have on hand now? Hundreds of thousands of exchanges every day. Anthropology views economy differently. We tend to think economy as currency, but economies are cultural systems of adaptation to an environment. Three key stages: Production- Pertains to how necessary goods are produced. When talking about production, anthropologists often focus on food production. Distribution- Involves how produced goods are distributed among the people who needs them. The way in which culture handles production and distribution have major impacts on da-to-day life. We usually see distribution as people who can afford to buy their food rather than it just being given out. Consumption- You eat the food, you wear the clothes, etc. If you do not consume the goods then you cannot survive. Adaptation practice- if you don’t survive, the culture dies. Five primary strategies to produce food. Foraging, horticulture, agriculture, industrialized agriculture, Pastoralism 1. Foraging- hunting and gathering. Majority of humans on this planet at one time lived as hunter- gatherers, hunting meat and gathering plants. Reality, both men and women participate in food gathering. The gather actually produces the greatest number of calories. Rough lifestyle, sometimes on the verge of starvation (but this is uncommon). But because it is a flexible diet, allows you to go to places where there is an abundance of food. 2. Pastoralism- involves raising domesticated animals as a primary food resource. Large range of domesticated animals are raised by humans such as chickens, goats, sheep cattle, etc. Pastorlists usually engage in trade and barter with horticulturalists. 3. Horticulture- raising domesticated plants through non-intensive means a primary food source. Simpler than agriculture and generally produces less food. 4. Agriculture- supports much larger populations, defined as the intensive production of domesticated plants. Agriculture intensification can be achieved through many means including: Irrigation systems, building raised fields in swampy territory, building terraces in hilly areas, etc. We don’t have mobility when it comes to agriculture. Begins the stratification of class- people have jobs assigned to them for agriculture. 5. Industrial Agriculture- modern machinery takes intensified agriculture to industrialized agriculture. Helps larger population with fewer people growing food- small group grows a majority of the communities’ food source. We make pesticides and other inputs to increase the food production, but is this safe? Debate on whether or not we should have this power over the growth of food. Rise of organic food but it can’t sustain the population as industrialized agriculture can. Distribution and Exchange Market exchange- concept of bringing goods together for the sake of exchange. Created and operated on barter system. Markets developed, the mediums of exchange have become more standardized. Reciprocity- is that if I do something for you, I expect that you will in turn do something for me. Helps kinship relationships when they are highly reciprocal- encourages long term relationships. Three types of reciprocity: Generalized, balances, and negative. 1. Generalized reciprocity- reflects exchanges where value is not closely monitored, and the timing and value of reciprocal exchange is left open. 2. Balanced reciprocity- represents a more formalized and regularized form of reciprocity. The value of the items exchanged is more carefully scrutinized and reciprocal exchanges are expected in short order (example being buying drinks for each other). 3. Negative reciprocity- when you are looking to get something for less and someone is trying to sell you something for more. You are trying to maximize your economic benefit and not your social benefit (black Friday sale- you don’t care about your relationship with the clerk). Redistribution- Involves the collection of goods by a central authority (usually a chief or other kind of ruler). Once collected these goods are later redistributed back to the people. Too frequently we find that powerful political or social institutions maintain support through forms of redistribution (example being governments offer protection from outsiders for the price of taxes). What are the roots of today’s global economy? Easy long-distance trade routes: have connected Asia, the Middle East, Europe, etc. The silk road- connected Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe into one enormous trade network. There was a big push by Europe to find more direct trade routes and more sources of gold and silver so they could sell more Columbus was looking for trade route to china for cheaper access- failed, but found silver mines in both Mexico and South America. Spaniards encountered the Inca Empire and led to them conquering the Americas. 60-90 percent of the people living in the Americas died of diseases and led to the conquering of those countries. From this they overcame the economic dominance that China had. Colonialism- 1500 AD- 1800 AD various European nations are trying to colonize all corners of the globe because that meant they had more resources. There’s a battle for land and therefore a division of land. Triangle Trade: the routes traveled by European ships from Europe, to Africa, to the Americas, and back to Europe. Sole purpose was to collect people to sell as slaves in the Americas. These slaves are sold into labor to create more goods to sell in Europe. The industrial revolution- European industry is mechanized. Hugely important for economic domination because it allowed improvements on transportation for cotton and could be shipped back. Competition under capitalism- began to have conflict over the colonies, who had access to certain regions of wealth. When there was conflict they drew different lines based on European diplomacy. 1884-85 Berlin conference- 14 nations came together to discuss the colonies. Divided Africa into 50 colonial states. Not a single African representative was at this conference. Anticolonial Struggles- these colonials were tired of being sources of labor and resources and began national independence movements. Many colonized nations won independence after WWII when European nation couldn’t afford to focus on rebelling colonies. Many colonized countries declared as independent Modern world economic system and how it effects these newly independent colonies- they didn’t do well in the economy even though they have an abundance of resources. Could not rebound economically. The modern world economic system- modernization theory: development and industrialization represented a natural path of economic development. Dependency theory- in contrast, held that the former colonies had become dependent on the aid that they were being given and the only way to for them to emerge as stable, independent nations, was to dismantle the system of foreign aid. Blamed the people for their economic failure (based off racism) Similar to Lewis’ Cultural Poverty theory (poor because minorities were lazy and unmotivated). Core and Periphery- Immanual Wallerstein published a new analysis of the Modern World Economic System. Said Core countries represented the economic powerhouses. 1. Majority of core countries are former colonial powers and peripheral countries were former colonies. We cannot think of countries as isolated economies any longer. We have to think globally of economic issues. We have to think of the role of the corporation- they aren’t responsible for any particular people. From Fordism to Flexible Accumulation- return to what Marx was talking about when he was discussing the disconnect between the laborer and the actual product. Fordism returns the connection between the individual to the product- the idea was to create consumers out of the employees (raised wages so they could afford the product they were making). This worked but began to fall by the wayside because of oil shortages and costs needed to be cut. Outsourcing Jobs- factories being moved overseas because it’s cheaper and closer to raw materials. Don’t have to be as worried about the working conditions or the well-being of the workers- they also don’t have to be paid as much. Modern world economic system is populated by nations and corporations. Capitalism, Economic, Liberalism, and the Free Market. 1. Adam Smith- argued that free market capitalism is the ideal- government should not interfere with the economy 2. Maynard Keynes- believed in Fordism- capitalism is prone to excess and corporations and that there should be a balance. Keynesian widely adopted by European nations to rebuild their economy after WWII, Roosevelt relied on Keynes ideas when crafting his “New Deal”. Economy falters in the 70’s, and thus Smith’s idea is adopted: Leads to Neoliberalism- modern philosophies of economic liberalism, built on Adam Smith’s initial concepts, are referred to as Neoliberalism. Favors small governments with minimal regulation. Favors the privatization of public property. Advocates that these assets should be sold to private investors.
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