Chapter 21 Notes
Chapter 21 Notes 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Towe on Monday November 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Tamara L. McNutt-Scott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Functional Human Anatomy in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/09/15
Cardiovascular system blood transport medium heart pump blood vessels blood is unique because it s the only fluid tissue found in body What tissue system does blood belong to Blood belongs to connective ssue o What are the components of whole blood plasma nonliving fluid matrix cellular components formed elements o What are some physical characteristics of blood sticky because of glucose components metallic odor densermore viscous than water slightly alkaline pH 735 745 temperature slightly higher than body temperature 38 degrees C because blood is used to move heat within system c if you centrifuge blood how will divide out into different layers of components 0 plasma 55 o erythrocyte 44 o butty coat lt1 0000 When you centrifuge blood what are the colored layers white yellow red What does the white layer consist of puffy coat what does the red layer consist of erythrocytes what does the yellow layer consist of plasma What is plasma water proteins solutes electrolytes nutrients What are erythrocytes red blood cells what is a buffy coat white layer amp platelets and white blood cells hematocrit looks at percentage of erythrocytes number of RBC 0 males usually 45 females around 40 mainly because menstruation so during menstruation years women tend to be anemic during the years younger than 35 Functions of blood Performs numerous functions that are important in the maintenance of homeostasis Involved in substance distribution amp regulation of blood levels of particular substances as well as protection 0 How are these functions accomplished distribution transportation to and from tissues transporting oxygen nutrients enzymes amp hormones to tissues transporting carbon dioxide amp waste products away from tissues to kid neysliver maintaining body temperature moves heat from deep tissues to body s surface as you generate heat this helps to eliminate excess heat the surface of skin can come to outside temperature like if it s cold outside while maintaining a warm body core temperature maintaining levels of cellular components fluid electrolyte amp pH balance protecting body from diseasecarrying microorganisms foreign substances amp tumors cellular component of blood antibodies preventing blood loss platelets amp clotting factors Plasma fluid component that suspends elements of blood plasma serum proteins chemical substances strawcolored yellow color sticky fluid composed of mostly water 0 to get serum you let old blood clot and then spin it now and take the supernate off so serum is plasma without the clotting factors 0 plasma it s serum water portion array of proteins I what do you find in plasma o water proteins electrolytes o the most abundant plasma solute plasma proteins plasma is notjust a fluid it s a complex mixture that contains many different solutes homeostatic mechanisms serve to keep the composition of plasma relatively constant even though there are over 100 different dissolve solutes that can be found in plasma however if you look at blood in lungs or liver the makeup of plasma is different because the blood is constantly being added to as the body filters blood overall plasma is constant but at tissue level there are changes of solutes leavingentering newold substances Formed elements are the cellular components of blood o 3 players erythrocytes leukocytes and platelets o erythrocytes anucleated I go for about 20 days 0 leukocytes complete cell I may last 6 hours platelets cellular fragments in general formed elements are short lived and amitotic so they must be continually renewed they are formed in red bone marrow Erythrocytes used for internal micrometers because they are always 75 micrometers in diameter look like biconcave discs similar shaped to dumbbells why a concave disc shape of erythrocyte o it allows us to have a large SA which allows the movement of molecules like gases by utilizes diffusion which does not cost anything 0 also permit the stacking of erythrocytes next to each other rouleau formation is when they are stacked so that they can move through a small vessels capillary during development and as they go through erythropoiesis they lose nuclei and most organelles and just retains cytoskeletal elements with an interesting shape plasma membrane sac with hemoglobin a protein 0 other elements I antioxidant enzymes functional protein I spectrin structurally important enzyme attaches to plasma membrane and allows them to twistchange shape and allow them to spring back to original shape allows them to fit through blood vessels helps them flow through capillaries provides RBC flexibility erythrocytes contributes to viscosityfluidity of blood function of red blood cells transport gases oxygen and carbon dioxide Note what happens when they are damaged they are removed from circulation 0 they have little ability to heal itself because it doesn t produce proteins for cellular repair life cycle 0 red blood cells formed in red bone marrow 1 life cycle is 120 days 2 after 120 days they are phagocytized eaten by liver or spleen 3 in the liver the heme components of blood are recycled a globin portion is broken down and the amino acids are utilized iron keep but heme is eliminated through bile b iron is transferred and store by the protein ferritin in the livery i iron in free state is toxic it needs to be bound to transport protein taken to liver if not already there and bound to ferritin protein in liver than stores iron for us ii iron is absorbed easier from food rather than supplement c heme without iron is converted into biliverdin and then to bilirubin which is secreted in bite from the liver 4 the erythrocyte membrane proteins and globulin proteins are broken down into amino acids and some of these components are used to make new erythrocytes o What organ keeps the red blood cell numbers relatively constant 0 the kidney produces erythropoietin is in charge of looking at the balance of oxygen in the erythrocytes by looking at the oxygen content it doesn t count erythrocytes it just looks at oxygen content if correct oxygen content then correct red blood cell number Hemoglobin o quaternary protein two alpha and two beta amino acid chains o in the center heme group 0 this group contains an iron atom at the center I oxyhemoglobin gives the bright red pigment color because high in oxygen I deoxyhemoglobin darker red coloration because lower oxygen I carbaminohemoglobin where carbon dioxide binds to molecule but does not compete for heme with oxygen the carbon dioxide binds to the amino acid portion of globin protein 0 why package hemoglobin in the erythrocyte since hemoglobin is so important 0 packaging is protective of organism and molecule itself 0 packaging prevents breaking of molecule into fragments because it has a membranous sac there s around 200 hemoglobin molecules in erythrocytes the packaging material contributes to blood viscosity and osmotic pressure which could adjust fluid balance btwn blood circulation and osmotic pressure Leukocytes o collection of cells distinguished by structural and chemical characteristics granules present or not 0 granulocytes neutrophils eosinophils basophils o agranulocytes monocytes lymphocytes mobile cells and very flexible found in blood circulation but also found in body tissues important in body defense against disease aids in inflammatory and immune response o represents small percentage of total blood volume less than 1 o Circulate in bloodstream primarily as means of rapid transport 0 use bloodstream for travel amp rapid transport to areas of invasion or injury 0 Can leave bloodstream for two reasons 0 diapedesis I passage of blood cells through intact vessel walls into tissue 0 amoeboid motion I the flowing movement of the cytoplasm of the cellphagocyte o how do leukocytes know to leave blood circulation 0 there are signaling molecules that are released by site of infection that attract leukocytes to a specific site of infection 0 signals positive chemotaxis laying down a chemical trail to lead leukocytes to infection 0 and use adhesion molecules to show leukocytes where they need to dive out of blood vessel and into the surrounding tissue 0 when signal molecules leave site of infection at specific points of endothelial cells they display adhesion molecules which is part of the family of selectins at the entrance of the site of inflammation to wthe leukocytes Granulocytes they are spherical shaped with lobed nuclei some have even shorter life cycle than erythrocytes functionally they are PHAGOCYTES operate like kamikaze pilots if they can t go in and phagocytize you then they are go in and bust open to release oxidizing substances so kills self to hopefully kill nearby intruder as well large funky nuclei polymorphonuclear leukocytes PMN s or polys most abundant lifespan 1012 hrs in circulation contain fine granules that are filled with lysosomal enzymes or antibioticlike proteins defensins also undergo respiratory burst involves formation of oxidizing substances P52 bombers drop granules and then take care of parasites in that manner their granules contain unique variety of digestive enzymes lysosomelike function mainly in the destruction of large parasitic worms that are too large to be phagocytized so they go to site and deposit granules picks up on immune complexes plays role during allergic reactions phagocytize immune complexes associated with allergies and release chemicals that inactivate inflammatory chemicals sets a little control element for them typically during allergic reaction eosinophils have role of allergic response to an antigen least abundant granules contain histamine and heparin histamine causes vasodilation leads to edemaswelling which is advantageous when treating an infection site histamine positive hemostatic agent can be a signaling agent to recruit in other neutrophils heparin anticoagulant makes sure there is not clotting occurring within injury site so that blood flow continues Agranulocytes o Lymphocytes o nucleus is very large 0 second most abundant WBC few found in circulation but mostly in lymphoid tissue 0 classified according to size nucleus occupies most of cell with cytoplasm in rim outer edge 0 play an important role in body s immune response 0 3 flavors I T cells destroy virusinfected cells amp tumor cells basically any antigens found within a cell I B cells give rise to plasma cells that produce amp release antibodies when it notices any antigens found outside the cell these are part of specific immune system I Natural killer cells attack abnormal and infected tissue cells 0 nonspecific they target anything that shouldn t be there 0 if they see foreign they kill that s why they are nonspecific o Monocytes 0 largest W80 0 don t stay long in circulation when they leave circulation they differentiate into macrophages I aggressive phagocytes I activate lymphocytes to mount immune response and assist lymphocytes mostly T and B cells 0 structural characteristic kidneybean shaped nucleus Platelets thrombocytes on a blood smear platelets are the fuzzy fragments that look like debris arise from megakaryocytes 0 cell fragments that break off from large cells in bone marrow megakaryocytes they go through many mitotic divisions but never undergo cytokinesis so they become multinucleated nothing more than plasma membrane enclosed packets of cytoplasm that contain granules which consist of numerous chemicals 0 function in blood coagulation helps with blood loss hemostasis amp blood thrombus formation I thrombus is a clot that forms in an unbroken blood vessel Hemopoiesis production of formed elements Process of blood cell formation 0 confined to red bone marrow Each blood cell type is produced in different numbers in response to changing needs of body amp regulatory factors so the body directs red bone marrow and the number of cell types it makes 0 all formed elements arise from a single population of stem cells called hemocytoblasts differentiate to one of two lines o lymphoid stem cell line makes only lymphocytes so B cells T cells and natural killer cells 0 myeloid stem cell line makes erythrocytes thrombocytes platelets eosinophil basophil neutrophilamp monocyte These two lines of stem cell types are regulated by two domains 0 erythropoiesis is regulated by ehtryoporientin o thrombopoiesis regulated by thrombopoietin o leukocytes a lot of factors regulate them so basically lot of hormones regulate what cell type is made it s depended on what is needed in average adult bone marrow produces an ounce of new blood containing 100 billion new cells per day
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