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fN0 h DI n 39 PBFL13GODi00843G Pasm m cw R r w PAPER We aasure mmpliamze with 535 Gcxvemmenzt wggtyright39 iaw Fermissimn to dupiicate 372 maieriais severed by wpyright aw has been secured Course Packet Reading List Portland State University HST 340U Fall 201 3 Women and Gender in the Parts of North America that become the United States to 1848 Patricia A Schechter Professor of History Portland State University 4921quot Cramer Hall sciiechnndxedn 5037253007 Carson James Taylor From Corn Mothers to Cotton Spinners Continuity in Choctaw Womerfs Economic Life AD 9501830 In Women of the American South A Multicultural Reader edited by Christie Farnharn pp 824 New York New York University Press 1997 Espiritu Yen Le Stretching Gender Family and Community Boundaries 1840s19303 In or Asian American Women and Men Labor Laws and Love pp 1641 Thousand Oaks Ca Sage Publications 1997 t Faderrnan Lillian ed quotquot39Enf1ily Dickson Chloe Plus Olivia An Anthology of Lesbian Literature froni the Seventeenth Century to the Present 436t N ew York Viking 1994 Griffin Farah Jnasrnine ed Beloved Sisters and Loving Friends Letters from Rebecca Primus of Royal Oak Maryland and Addie Brown of Hartford Connecticut 18541868 New York Alfred A Knopf 1999 pp 3 14 1825 5575 Schloesser Pauline The Fair Sex White Women and Racial Patriarchy in the Early American Republic pp53 82 New York University Press 2002 33 mvo3 may we man mHEu2 mEmU m2 gt3 wumuwmmx Hmuwws Ucm 9amp0 Er Um zmu mE9s her man Exam m 5 via 9 Ummonwmsm 33gt m 5 mmwvmb m dug aimk m mo MOHHQ mam Ema E mw mxm cam cw o 93 vwzumoummm Em mmwmio 56 53 533 aim 353 T aa m mmiu m m wan ms mm euonw 3 95203 mm mcom w ammo 291 rs 53m 9 Umautw m cm w om 98 amma x uou no mhsoy 9 wgt m5 wmmoowm mum wsmw aw Em o m 33gt um vmn gmmu 3mm mam E53 aw mvumm pm vmmi 8 33 mm wzm mi uozu m no xumxu 3 55 8 Mo 30653 mi 50 vmxoo qmmwmmwmmwg we mcmmura 3SuoLU m mmo m mvio oak Swab E Elt am we m a 5 mmEwD 82 mSEu U m E 2 mm 33 E mE m mm HEES Eewmz we cm E3 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H85 we 330 was 0 Baum m mn uoLU EEgtgt 2amp2 mm E may Umzmu mm mm owm use 33 3 wEgtHmm OH ao mmEgtE mm or Em mummmhwzw was 33 cm omz mou E E3 Asa w mommmmz ou UCM wu cou ma a w mumn ummw som u oam wgm St E mw we mm m same mm emLgtgt mEwm Em mm md uwiom mmEmowmmM we m w zmxum n may 2 Emma 5 Hmmsmmm 33 3 E3 MEMSSMMSOQ mamu wElt mbmwz us u 55 wad E ocoum mso mm m mm 25 mm mwmmma mME3u Hamumwa bw nmm Em Qr3 mmuwElt mm mmmmmousm mm wmmwmmm 333 mwE EoUAmom may 3 msmuiw Pena Z we musm Ea Evmoua mi wwmotw mwmzmw mhm mv mJ4 E dowmwmotmou mam EmEPgt m mm MHO3 B m om ES mm m5 um uowtmk M 4 m mam ENE w ME 3 E mm mcom Em we 3503 m mxm 9 93 3 E5ogtgt zommmu mog ltH mmEltM ow I2 IAMES TAYLOR CARSON to male work and the lack of prestige that was attached to female work The women39s rights movement of the early 1970s in uenced this interpre tation causing a later generation of historians and anthropologists to react against the imposition of contemporary understandings and interpreta tions on past gender relations8 In the case of the Mississippians the term quotstratificat139onquot39 rings hollow because there is no evidence to suggest that women39s work as farmers was held in lower esteem than men39s work as hunters and warriors or vice versa For these reasons scholars now use the term cornplernentar ity to describe gender relations among most Native Americans Activities like hunting and fighting for example carried men far and Wide Women however lived their lives in the fields and households that made up the many towns and chiefdoms of the Mississippian countryside Together both sexes provided for the sustenance of their societies How men and women in complementary societies like the Mississip pian partitioned economic and political power and in uence is the most pressing question confronting students of Native American women today Because of their association with warfare men controlled diplomatic rela tions with other tribes and dominated political offices Vested with the official power to make decisions on behalf of the communities they repre sented men held what scholars have defined as quot authority Lacking access to formal expressions of power women possessed influence the power that came with ownership of houses domestic property and farmland Moreover Mjssissippians were rnatrilineal that is they traced kinship and descent through the female line so that when male chiefs died they were succeeded by their sisters sons Women thus used their power to in uence homelife town affairs and political succession but they still lacked the formal and publicly organized institutions that legiti mized the men39s authority The division between female farming and male hunting embodied the broader patterns of Mississippian cosmology Mississippians conceived of the world in sets of opposites The sun fire and eagles symbols of order were offset by the moon water and serpents symbols of disorder Similarly men who were associated with the symbols of order were counterbalanced by women who were associated with the symbols of disorder To ensure divine favor Mississippians had to prevent the mixing of opposites Otherwise their society would become polluted and their lives would be in jeopardy Mississippians and their Choctaw descendants regarded blood as a From Com Mothers to Cotton Spinners 13 particularly dangerous pollutant because it contained the unpredictable and dangerous power of life To avoid polluting themselves and their world with blood theyquot followed numerous taboos regarding blood all of which reinforced gender differences Men for example isolated them selves in sweathouses to purify themselves in preparation for war and afterwards they returned to the ceremonial buildings to cleanse them selves of the blood they had spilled so that they could reenter society without polluting it Likewise women isolated themselves during their menstrual periods in huts built speci cally for the purpose What went on in the menstrual huts is unknown but as ethnohistorian Patricia Gallo way has theorized they were meeting points for large numbers of women who undoubtedly performed special rituals much as the men did Men avoided contact with such women at all costs because as one French traveler noted the men think that if they approach a menstruating woman they will become ill and will have bad luck in battle 13 Each year when the first corn crop ripened the Mississippians of the American South gathered at Green Corn Ceremonies to absolve them selves of pollution and restore the equilibrium of their world The cere mony was in the words of one Choctaw quota sacred religious duty that was held in honor of and to conciliate and secure a continuation of favors from the great sunquot 15 Indeed the prosperity of the agricultural economy was linked inextricably with the sacred ideology on which the Mississip pian belief system rested Male and female moon and sun water and fire and farming and hunting counterbalanced one another in a dualistic cosmology that explained and ordered the Mississippian world For the corn to grow and for the society to prosper men and women had to remain separate but complernentaryd Contact with Europeans and Africans brought an end to the Mississip pian phase in the Southeast Recent scholarship in demography and ar chaeology has revealed that populations collapsed in the region because of the spread by the new arrivals of epidemic diseases to which Indians lacked immunity and the warfare and slave raiding that usually accompa nied European imperialism The demographic collapse that followed the early exploration and colonization of the Southeast however did not wholly obliterate the Mississippian cultures that had inhabited the region Rather Contact led to quotdeculturation In all respects from personal adornment to settlement patterns the polished culture of the prehistoric llississippians dulled to a dim reflection of its original lbrilliancef Many deculturated peoples were no longer 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lt Ea am Q m m n d wwo Emma aw Mm m mnrampu mm E EE om GOmU5 3 3 xmm mmv mw cam E23 3 umnmonw was 2353 E muEmE 32 wkwwwz S 330 Umm Svzwmuz mmm lt E543 was wz z mMmD 3 9 m xmmmu m oa x Mo bum 15333 HmmMoZV mmEmv lt 4 manna U36 vH m fam m guutmwn xtoz 352 E 85 3 uES E dmEogtgt mumsmm we m m w wzmau mi Emawm wuocmm mum m mm mo 25 Www gem a vie zwwzv muoummq Momm m mam mcdm m 953 e m uMumtm 3sE HENE3 U ES mEogtgt S u3Em m m EVESO B mum mmmmm mumcmm ucammz 93 W5 mam og m H mom om mama m dosEm 3 HmEoMmMgtwH a mom T3 559 mmmm mSgtED Ecmc m nmmowa mv exmmmwwwmww oxmsm E mm cm HmmoU wausmam mam m m u mmS5 m m E 3 w um kmwmmw E zd mmwvm van Hm mww we m bwmaw wmmm b m w a orwa Moxm wm mw oxai Eam mam EEQU mab amwm ma mum mEo3 mmu w mpsmz we m vsmwmawwms bmmm wwm mucwmmummu 1 H mmmi mmgtED mzows m uawc mv wamam mq manned wan ovwmmom mmmnEN mmmjumz w Kbmwuom was 3230 9383 E mr wgtO mumm omarw lt r wwuom tam wmU mmEQgtgt oEmmom EmwnEwN mmmxumxa m mm m 3 Kmmmr mvmm mz mo bmgtED n ou d bwsozw QM Euwmmm 3 Kmuxmkwaueu w nz metcu E m Menu mGux x u ov EEoEm U uE om EH E R mmoa mm m oLmU SE com o xm 4 HUHOEmU D may mam mwm mm Hwmm omuw m m mm a w R 09 xmmmmnw wmwgommv mo bwmumbunb Hmaw dd bT aam mmuva f Sn 5 m Em Eu m Hmmrummmo E c SE rmwm uwmmww mmgtm U mmEmmU aw comvsm mmimau Em 83 Emmmum mmwmnrm w we bmmuwb Zomm u M053 mm xl mm 24 JAMES TAYLOR CARSON Press 1951 21 22 76 Fortescue Coming Sketches of ct Tour to the Western Country Pittsburgh Palmer Spear and Eichlaaum 1810 33536 BerquinDuvallon Travels in Louisiana and the Floridas 23911 the Year 1802 Giving 2 Correct Picture of Those Cozmirzes Tr from the French with Notes fro by John Davis New York I Riley 1806 96 Paul Wilhelm Duke of Wiirttemberg Travels in North America 18221824 trans W Roberl Nitske ed Savoie Lottirwille Normarr University of Oklahoma Frees 1973 33 Gideon Lineecom Life of Apushirraiahaquot Publications of the Mississippi Hisforicai Sociefy 9 1906 480 25 A Partial Biography of the James Ware Davis Family 3 4 William Penn Davis Papers Special Collections William R Perkins Library Duke University Durham NC 26 Treaty of Fort Adams December 12 1801 Uni ed States Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs National Archives Record Group 75 Documents Relating to the Negotiation of Ratified and Unrati ed Treaties with Various Indian Tribes 1801 1869 microfilm series T494 reel 1 27 Harriet Owsley ed quotTravels through the Indian Country in the Early 1800s Memoirs of Martha Philips Martin lenrzessee Historical Qruzrterly 21 March 1962 75 Latrobe 1m1ress39ons 80 and Jacob Young Az4folz39ogmh3 of a Pioneer CiI1CiI1I1ampl l39 L Swormstedt and A Poe 1857 21314 28 Choctaw Tracllng House Daybooks United States Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Naitional Archives Record Group 75 Records of me Choctaw Trad ing House 18031824 microfilm series T500 29 Young Autobiography of a Pioneer 213 14 30 Missiomzry Herald 17 April 1821 no 31 Calculating livestock statistics for Americans much less Choctaws prior to the 1840 federal census is extremely difficult However figures do exist that give some indication of how large the Choctaw herd was The American Board mission aries took a census of the people and the animals in the eastern clivision of the Choctaw Na on in 1828 Using these figures I reconstructed a ration of people to cattle for the district and applied this figure to the total Choctaw population of twentyayne thousand Missionary Herald 17 April 1821 11025 May 1829 153 25 February 1829 61 153 Reporr on lnclian Tribes Senate Documerit 27 Pzrlalic Doczmmrfs Printed by Order of the Serlafe of the Uniterl States 2d sees 20th C0rig 182849 Washington DC Gales and Seaton 1829 6 and Lewis Cecil Gray History of Agriculture in the Southeastern United States to 1860 2 vols Washington DC Carnegie Institution of Washington 1933 2812 1042 32 Niles Weekly Register 38 July 5 1830 345 Emphasis in original 33 Cyrus Byington A Dictiorlary of the Clzoctczw Language ed John R Swanton and Henry S Halberl Bureau of Axnerican Ethnology Bulletin 46 washinglon DC US Government Printing O ice 1915 77 34 Ibicl 77 Mary Haas Men s and 39W0men s Speech in Iltoasati in Language in Czcliure and Society ed Dell Hymes New York Harper and Row 1964 228 33 From Com Mofhers to Cotton Spinners 25 Amelia Rector Bell Separate People Speakirtg of Creek Men and Womenquot Amer cm Anthropologist 92 June 1992 332 45 Antoine Simon Le Page do Pratz The History of louz39si1rza Translated from the French of M Le Page do Praiz ed Joseph Tregle Jr Baton Rouge Louisiana State University Press 1975 234 Lauren C Post quotThe Domes c Animals and Plants of French Louisiana as Mentioned in the Literature with References to Sources Varietiesfand Usesquot Lazzisiana Historical Qrmrterly 16 October 1933 560 and U P Ileclriek The Peaches of New York Albany l lY J 8 Lynn 1917 44 45 35 White Roots of Dependency 1o35 13037 Missiamzry Herald 25 November 1829 350 36 Panoplist and Missionary Herald 16 July 1820 320 37 John Forbes to Juan Venture Morales February 11 1802 Papers of Parzton Leslie and Co Woodbridge Conn Research Publications 1986 microfilm reel 14 James Wilkinson Benjamin Hawkins and Andrew Pickens to Henry Dearlgtorn December 18 1802 United States Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs National Archives Record Group 75 Office of the Secretary of War Letters Received 1824 1881 microfilm series M271 reel 1 and Samuel Mitchell to David Henley January 17 18o0 David Henley Papers Special Collections William R Perkins Library Duke University Durham NC 38 Elias Cornelius December 2 1817 Indian Missionary Journals part 1 Elias Cornelius Papers Special Colleciions William R Perkins Library Duke Urxlversity Jeclidiah Morse A Report to the Secretary of War of the Llnited States New lrlavent Howe and Spalding 1822 182 Nfles Weekly Register 38 July 3 1830 345 and L R Bakewell to James Barbour September 2 1825 United States Records of the Office of Indian Affairs National Archives Record Group 75 Correspondence of the Office of Indian Affairs and Related Records Letters Received 18004823 microfilm series M234 Choctaw Agency reel 169 39 Francis Dul ose Richardson Memoirs 27 33 micro lm 3o1o Manuscript Division Wilsorr Library Southern Historical Collection University of North Caro line at Chapel Hill George S Gaines Gaines Reminiscences AZabcznm Historical Quarterly 26 fall and winter 1964 184 Horace Smith Fulkerson Random Recollec tions of Early Days is Mississippi Vicksburg Vicksburg Prirxtirxg and Publishing 1885 12 Mary J Welsh quotRecollections of Pioneer Life in Mississippi Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society 4 1906 330 H G Hawkins History of Port Gibson Publications of the Mississippi Historlcal Society 30 1909 283 40 quotPapers of George S Gaines 10 F B Young quotNotices of the Chactaw or Choktah Tribe Edinburgh Joumzzl of Natural and Geograpltical Science 2 1830 14 and Willard H Rollings The Osage An Etlmohisiorical Study of Hegemony on the Prai139iePlains Columbia Urniversity of Missouri Press 1992 18 41 Hemy S Halberlt Story of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creelcquot Publictt tions of ihe Mississippi Historical Society 6 1902 37477 42 Il3icl 38491 39 CHAPTER 2 Stretching Gender Family and Community Boundaries 1849519333 Asians were an indispensable labor force that helped to build the American West and Hawaii During the second half of the 19th century and the first few decades of the 20th almost a million people from China Japan Korea the Philippines and India emigrated to the conti nental United States and to Hawaii Chan 1991a p 3 Although these five Asian groups came under different sets of circumstances all were recruited as workers by US capitalists to meet the need for cheap and manipulable labor in the stilldeveloping US capitalist economy Chan 1991a p 4 Because what US interests desired was muscle power they gave little attention to the family and community life of Asian irnrni grants except as it related to the latter s economic productivity In most instances families were seen as a threat to the efficiency and exploita bility of the workforce and were actively prohibited US immigration laws also treated Asian workers as temporary individual units of labor rather than as members of family groups Mohanty 1991 p 23 During the preWorld WarII period US policies barred the entry of most Asian women Because men predominated in this period most research has ignored questions of gender altogether as if men were without gender However a rereading of the historical materials indicates that the shortage of women affected gender relations within Asian America in profound ways It prevented the formation of patriarchal nuclear families forced men in womanless households to learn domestic skills and enhanced the social value of the few Women in these immigrant communities Kim 1990 p 74 Dill 1994 p 164 In other words dur ing the pre World War II era class exploitation and racist and gendered immigration policies delayed the full transplantation of Asian patriar 36 Gender Family and Community 1 7 in the United States and yielded relatively more social and eco 3939 omiC power to the small nurnber of Women who were there I Labor Recruitment Exclusion Laws and the Shortage of Women l One of the most noticeable characteristics of preWorld War 11 Asian 3America was a pronounced shortage of women Some scholars have 7 attributed the virtual absence of Asian female emigrants particularly of Chinese women to the patriarchal cultural values that restricted the g movement of women in Chinese lapanese and Korean societies Ichioka 39 391980 Yung 1986 Yim 1989 Other writers have argued that a sojourn 39ing mentality differentials in the cost of living and hostile conditions the American West limited the number of female immigrants Chan ii1991a p 104 There is no question that all or some combinations of quotii these factors contributed to the low number of Asian female irnmi quotigrants But as I shall argue below labor recruiting patterns and immi gration exclusion policies were the most significant factors in restricting 39 tli39e immigration of Asian women America39s capitalist economy wanted Asian male workers but not their families To ensure greater profitability from immigrants labor quotand to decrease the costs of reproductionwthe expenses of housing feeding clothing and educating the workers dependentswemployers often excluded nonproductive family members such as women and 39children Detaching the male worker from his household increased profit margins because it shifted the cost of reproduction from the state and the employer to the kin group left behind in Asia Asian women were also undesirable because of their reproductive powers They would bear children who could then claim US citizenship Lai 1992 p 165 On the Pacific Coast where a migratory labor force best suited the growers needs the unattached male provided a more flexible 39 source of labor who could readily be moved to meet short terrn labor needs and expelled when no longer needed Glenn 1986 pp 19419S Chan 1991a p 104 A Californian grower told an interviewer in 1930 that he preferred to hire Filipinos because they were Without families These Mexicans and Spaniards bring their families with them and I have to fix up houses but I can put a hundred Filipinos in that barn 39quotpointing to a large firetrap quoted in Takaki 1989 p 321 Philip quotVera Cruz a pioneering Filipino laborer recalled the harsh living conditions endured by Filipino migrant Workers The first camp I lived in had a kitchen that was so full of holes flies were just coming in and 1 8 Asian American Women and Men out at therr le1sure along w1th mosquitoes roaches and everytlung else The torlet was an outhouse with the pit so filled up that it was impossible to use Scharlrn 8 Villanueva 1992 p 5 In Hawau where plantation Workers rernalned in one place plantatlon managers thought a fexnlrune presence would have a stabilizmg effect on the men But ev en there the number of women allowed to immigrate was small For mstance in the late 1900s Hawanan sugar plantation owners specrfred that no batch of Workers recrurted from Japan could contain more than 25 women Moriyarna 1985 pp 13111 Frliprnos fared no differently A labor cornrnrssioner report in Hawaii stated that plantat1ons have to Vrew laborers primarily as instruments of production Their business interests requrre cheap not too mtellrgent docile mmiarrzed men ital rcs added crted in Sharrna 19841 p 583 US 1I391 lI1f11 gratron pohcres also permitted more Asian men than Asian women to enter Although exclusron laws suspended the 1rnm1 grat1on of male laborers from Chma rn 1882 from India rn 1917 from Korea and Japan in 1924 and from the Pllllipp11 S in 1934 U S industri alists and growers were allowed to bring 1n replacement workers from another Asian country For instance after the exclusron of Chinese and Japanese male laborers US mterests mounted an aggressive and well orgaruzed program to import rnassrve numbers of male workers from the Philippines Shanna 1984 On the other hand during this same period US immigration pOl1C1 S barred the entry of most Asian women In fact a group of CIUIIESE wornen prost1tutes were the target of the Very first exclusion act Chan 1991b p 95 In 1875 Congress passed the Page Law named after Congressman Horace F Page of Cal1for nia forbidding the entry of Chrnese and other Mongol1anquot prostitutes felons and contract laborers In the end thrs law reduced the mflux of Chrnese wornen all of whom unrntgratron officials suspected of bemg prostitutesbut not of men because most of the Chinese men who 1rn1ni grated to North America came on their own and were not contract laborers per se Peffer 1986 Chen 1991a p 3 Only some 1340 Chinese Women entered the United States between 1875 and 1882 compared with more than 100000 men adnutted between 1876 and 1882 The proportion of Women among Chinese irnrnrgrants decreased from 72 111 1870 to a mere 3 6 in 1890 Olohiro 1994 p 64 The 1903 1907 and 1917 unrnigration laws further allowed the deportation of Chinese women suspected of being prostrtutes Chan 1991a pp 105406 Given that all Chrnese women were considered prostitutes at that tune No Chmese Woman regardless of her social standrng was safe from l391arass1nent Chan 1991b p 132 Gender Family and Community 19 The Page Law with its focus on defming the moralzty of Asran Women as a basrs for entry into the Umted States illustrates the het 91gsexism and racrsrn underlying US nnrr11grat1on laws Mohanty 1991 P 25 In an area of widespread general prostitutron the singling gut of Chinese prostitution ostensibly for moral reasons exposed a racist concern the fear that Chrnese prostitutes because of their race would bring in especially virulent strarns of venereal diseases intro duce oprurn addictron and entice young whrte boys to a lrfe of sin Chan 1991b p 138 The depicuon of the sexualrty of Asian women as immoral and dlfferent from that of white women served to underline the depravity of the Orientals and became yet another reason for advocating the exclusron of Asians Mazurndar 1989 pp 34 Transformed into a more general restricuon on Chinese female immigration the antrprostrtute clause of the Page Law contributed to the process that made Chmese fE1I1 t1l1ES forb1dden rnstitutrons rn a land that drd not want them Peffer 1986 p 44 Without these irrunrgration restrictions the numbers of Cll111 S Women immigrants might have been considerably larger As it was by 1882 the sex ratio 1n Chinese immigrant communitres was already sharply skewed The nad1r was reached 111 1890 15 years after the enactment of the Page Law when the sex ratio stood at a high 27 to 1 Chan 1991a p 106 Thus a conyugal family life for most Chinese immigrant men did not exrst ur1t1l at least after the tlurd decade of the 20th century Lyman 1968 p 323 As Alfred Wang 1988 observed quotNo other racial groups have been sub jected to worse legalized sexual deprrvation than the Cl1i 1eS male irnmigrants between 1868 and 1952 p 18 The barrmg of women brought about by class interests racism and heterosexism led to the desexualization of Asian men As Donald Goellrucht 1992 suggested the targeted exclusion of Ch1nese women was a del1berate agenda by mainstream culture quot39to prevent any increase in the Chinese American population and to undermine the Vrrility of Chinese and Chrnese Arnen can men pp 194195 In 1882 responding to ant1Ch1nese ag1tation and to the econorruc downturns of the 1870s Congress enacted the Chznese Exclusion Law which suspended the entry of Cl39lI11 S laborers for 10 years but ex empted Inerchants students and teachers diplomats and travelers from its pI OVlS1OI1S Chan 1991a p 54 Chinese exclusion Was ex tended in 1892 and again tn 1902 and was made indefinite 131 1904 Because these laws contarned no specific clauses on Women the courts in general ruled that the legal status of Chlnese females paralleled that 20 Asian American Women and Men of their husbands Thus because the 1882 exclusion law suspended the immigration of laborers their wives were similarly denied entry Simi larly merchants wives were allowed to enter because their husbands were among the exernpted classes These rulings conformed to a racist and heterosexist ideology of a patriarchal nuclear family in that Asian women were not accorded subject status but were always assumed to be legal appendages of men Mohanty 1991 p 26 Untii the rescission of the exclusion laws in 1943 women constituted only about 12 of Chinese immigration and most of them came as wives of merchants or of U S citizens Yurig 1990 p 70 The class bias of the exclusion laws meant that Chinese laborers who constituted the major ity of the Chinese immigrants could not establish conjugal families in the United States It also suggested that within the general racial antago nisrn against Chinese There emerged differential degrees of discriini nation according to class Chan 1991b p 138 Japanese imrnigrants who began arriving soon after the passage of the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Law also faced exclusion But whereas Chinese exclusion was imposed quickly and suddenly the U S govern mentwout of deference to the national sensibilities of Japan a rising military power in the Pacific Basinwrestricted Japanese immigration in stages thereby allowing Japanese men more time to send for wives The 1907 Gentlemenfs Agreement terminated all labor immigration from Japan but allowed the entry of wives and children of Japanese residents in the United States Taking advantage of this window of opportunity between 1900 and 1920 many men summoned wives from Japan The influx of women from Japan during these two decades allowed the Japanese immigrant coininunities to establish more resident families than their Chinese counterparts In 1900 of the 850 Japanese women among 18000 men in the three Pacific Coast states a sex ratio of 21 to 1 about 400 were married Ten years later the number of women had increased to over 8000 with almost 5600 married i39ediicing the sex ratio to 6 5 to 1 By 1920 there were more than 22000 married Women among a total Japanese female population of 38000 on the mainland lchioka 1988 p 164 Chan 1991a pp 107108 Because few bachelors could afford to return to Japan to seek brides many resorted to the picture bride practicemarranged marriages facilitated by the ex change of photographs The maiority of wives who entered Japanese immigrant society between 1910 and 1920 came as picture brides Ichioka 1988 p 165 AntiJapanese groups soon agitated against the alleged Gender Family and Community 21 fertility of Japanese women and demanded a stop to the in ux of picture Brides In 1920 the Japanese government acquiesced to US public 0 mien by denying passports to picture brides Finally the lmmigra gm Act of 1924 stopped Japanese immigration entirely by barring the gsnfry of aliens ineligible to citizenship In this Way the 1924 act 1mllified the Gentlemeifs Agreement and denied admission even to wives of US citizens lchioka 1988 Even fewer Filipino Korean and Indian women immigrated to the United States According to Lasker 1969 of the estimated 102069 Filipinos who arrived in Hawaii from 1907 to 1929 87 were males I Lasker 1969 On the mainland almost all Filipino immigrants were 13391neage single male workers Out of every hundred Filipinos who migrated to California during the 19205 93 were males 80 of whom were between 16 and 30 years of age Wallovitts 1972 p 21 Among the approximately 7000 Koreans who came to Hawaii between 1902 and 1905 only 10 were women Yu 1987 The female population among Korean communities increased somewhat between 1910 and 1924 with the arrival of more than 1000 picture brides They came with Japanese passports issued to them as colonial subects of Japan under the terms of the Gentlemerfs Agreement Takaki 1989 p 56 Fewer than a dozen Asian Indian women immigrated to the United States before World War 114 Of the 474 Indians who arrived in the United States in 1909 none were Women Chan 1991a p 109 Okihiro 1994 p 67 Stretching the Boundaries of Family Iillte other people of color Asians in the United States have had to struggle to maintain their family and community life in a context that is not supportive of and is often actively hostile to their institutions Glenn 1983 p 371 The labor recruitment practices coupled with the restrictive and exclusionary laws instituted by the dominant white ciilture prevented family formation or reformation by Asian irnmi grants In an analysis of the exclusion of Chinese women Megume Dick Usiirni 1982 pointed out that the anti Chinese movement prevented the procreation of a second generation of Chinese thereby insuring that the Chinese problem would eventually disappear p 8 In the face of these assaults to family units Asian immigrants struggled to create and maintain some semblance of family life often by redefining and extending the concept of family 22 Asian American Women and Men Bachelor Societies Unable to send for wives and legally prohibited from marrying white women most Asian laborers were lonely bachelors or absentee husbands destined for a harsh life without families Trapped in a wornanless world these men had to rearrange their reproductive tasks Thus their food and shelter might come in the form of a boardinghouse their social life in a local bar and their female companion in a bordello Bereft of family life many men idled away their leisure time in gambling dens pool halls banrestaurants or brothels A Japanese immigrant woman recalled that many of the lssei first generation immigrants indulged in gambling It took care of their spare time Killtumura 1981 p 28 In San Francisco nearly all the Chinese laborers lived on the streets on Sundays simply because they had nothing to do and no where else to go quoted in Talltallti 1989 p 127 quotLife didn39t mean too much to us recalled a Chinese laborer bitterly Nee 8 Nee 1973 p 24 Unlike the Chinese and Japanese Filipinos did not engage extensively in ethnic enterprises In 1933 at the height of Filipino immigration to the Pacific West Coast only one Filipino grocery store was found in Los Angeles Twenty three years later there were only s1gtlt5 Because Filipi nos did not develop their own ethnic sections in cities Filipino farm laborers usually congregated I39l Chinatowns on weekends where there were many happenings dances prostitution whatever For many of them the pool hall was their world cited in Talltallt1 1989 p 337 The skewed sex ratio enhanced the social value of Asian immigrant women and gave them more options in their dealings with men Given their small numbers smgle women were highly prized as sexual and marital partners For instance the few Pmays Filipinas already in the United States commanded attention from the single Pmoys Filipinos Bacllt in the 1920s recalled Terry Rosal there weren t that many Filipinas One Pinay to one hundred Pinoys And regardless of the shape or the age of the Pinay she was a queen Similarly Belen de Guzman Braganza had no trouble getting dates in Seattle I could date anyone You could count the number of Filipina women in your two hands quoted in Takaki 1989 p 340 Even married women had to fend off unwanted male attention According to a Japanese woman who came to the United States with her husband in 1923 Everywhere we worked there were few married couples and the rest were single men Those who had wives bragged Consequently the Women without any children had many men pursuing them Many times men approached Gender Family and Community 23 1 me and said Let me do it with you and I39ll give you money Kikumura 1981 p 30 Prostitutes also found themselves in demand as potential wives For example the San Francisco based Presbyterian Mission Home for Chinese women prostitutes which operated from 1874 until 1939 received marriage inquiries from Chinese immigrant men from all over the country These mission marriages raised the social status of these former prostitutes who otherwise would have been destined for lives of prostitution neglect abuse or hardworking poverty Pascoe 1990 The positive consequences of these mission marriages for prost1 tutes offer one of the many examples of the contradictions that arise in Asian American history Surrounded by bachelors eager to marry an Asian immigrant woman dissatisfied with her husband and her marriage had more alternatives than her sisters in Asia Anecdotal evidence indicates that the skewed sex ratio allowed women to take actions to free themselves from un wanted marriages In the Korean immigrant community in Hawaii adultery was frequent enough to warrant a system of fines for first and subsequent offenses Runaway wives were also common Kim 1990 pp 74675 In retaliation Korean and Japanese men used their fraternal associations to institutionalize patriarchal control of their women Srole 1987 p 5 Prewar Japanese immigrant presses regularly printed kakeochi noticesmpublic notices submitted by husbands searching for their runaway wives as a means of social control Branded as adil teresses or immoral hnssies these women were ostracized and eventually forced to leave the immigrant community The Japanese associations also acted as the moral watchdogs of Japanese commu nities As a matter of policy all Japanese associations refused to have any dealings with absconding couples Given the network of associa trons absconding couples had to resettle in a place where there were no Japanese to elude social ostracism In 1916 the rate of desertion was sufficiently high that the Japanese American Association of America deliberated on the problem at its annual meeting The desertion prob lem prompted the association to issue a Guide to the United States for new arrivals instructing these women on how to conduct them selves aboard ship how to manage a household and how to behave in American society Ichioka 1988 pp 169172 Although beset with social problems Asian bachelor communities sustained lonely men with conviviality warmth and some semblance of family life With few women children and older people around young male immigrants often redefined and stretched the boundaries 24 Asian American Women and Men of quotfamily to include nonlon Chinese and Japanese irnrnigrants formed a complex network of llt1nlillte organizations with CO ll391 11CS to perform the crucial functions traditionally carried out by extended families clans or lineages Lyman 1974 Ichioka 1977 Lai 1987 Puniabi rui gratory workers also formed substitute families with individuals Who shared the same religion language social background and values For mutual aid companionship and security these workers traveled to gether in gangs from farm to farm According to Bruce La Brack 1982 when a gang member died the others paid for the funeral expenses sent photographs of the body to India and contributed money to the widow of the deceased In terms of their own cultural values enforced childlessness stripped Asian men of their manhood and condemned them to a life of perpet ual boyhood in their own communities Kim 1990 p 74 According to Chinese culture Arnon g the three unfilial acts not having offspring is the worst Wang 1988 p 24 Missing the company of wives and small children single Asian men adopted and were adopted by the few families that were around In the Filipino community in Hawaii as many as 200 men would be invited to be godparents at every religious ceremony from baptism to marriage This modified compadre system incorporated fictive relatives into the kinship network and enabled many single men to affiliate themselves with a family system A gbayarow Siewert 82 Revilla 1995 Connie Tirona one of the few Filipino children around in northern California in the 1930s became the adopted daugh ter of many of the bachelor friends of her parents These mcmongs bought Tirona her first bicycle and purchased pageant tickets from her by the fistful Tirona recalled the Joy that her family39s visits brought to these lonely lCZ101 1gS who labored in the Sacrainento San Joaquin area Our family went to see them almost every week or every other week I t was so beautiful there when we visited them The mrzriongs would fix up their rooms immaculately After eating they would play guitars and mandolins and we as little children of the families would sing and dance They were so happy 1 especially rernernber when we sang the Visayan songs You could see the tears on the faces of these grown men Espiritu 1995 p 69 Similarly Californiaborn Jean Park related that Korean bachelors from nearby towns often visited her family in Taft One of the bachelors Mr Kim became an uncle to Iean and her siblings Whenever Mr Kim Gender Family and Community 25 gited her family he would play with the children driving them everywhere and treating them to ice cream soda and candy Takaki 39 1939 P 288 T1rona s and Parllt s favored status as adopted daugh ters indicates that in a community where families were few daughters were often prized Although the traditional preference for sons might have remained strong the scarcity of children and of women in general raised the status of daughters within the family and community Kim 1990 p 74 Moreover the secondgeneration daughters were in high demand as prospective brides These young women were often married off to much older bachelors who had postponed marriage until they had saved enough money to afford a family As these women became more independent however they insisted on selecting their own husm bands Judy Yong 1986 reported that even before the 1920s second generation Chinese American women sought refuge in missionary homes or eloped to avoid arranged marriages p 49 Immigrant Families The existence of bachelor societies did not mean that the majority of male emigrants were single A good number married shortly before they went abroad but left their wives behind Chan 1991a p 104 In 1900 although 38 of Chinese males over the age of 15 were married there was only 1 Chinese female to every 26 Chinese males in the United States Coolidge 1909 1968 p 19 Similarly although a 1909lin1Ii1gra tion Commission survey of 474 male Hiridoo farinworkers found that 215 were married all 215 of the wives had remained in India Leonard 1982 p 67 As Okihiro 1994 reminded us Asian men in America were not solitary figures moving in splendid isolation but were inti mately connected to women in Asia who built and maintained the solid World of family and community p 68 The split household is not unique to Asians The history of other immigrant groups indicates that most men leave their wives behind in the first phase of their settlement in a new land Where the Asian pattern deviates from the norm is that due to the legal exclusion of Asian Women the split household arrangement lasted much longer than that of other immigrant groups ir1 some cases for several generations Glenn 1983 p 39 Despite the difficulties faced by split households the majority of these families remained intact and some eventually reun1ted sometirnes after generations see Chapter 3 of this book These transnational families survived partly because they pursued coordinated economic activities with the husband in the United States 26 Asian American Women and Men specializing in incomaproducing activities and the wife and other relatives in the home village carrying out the functions of reproduction socialization and the rest of consumption Glenn 1983 The existence of these split households reminds us that national borders do not always constitute social borders Yanagisako 1995 p 291 Given the predominance of men in preWorld War IlAs1an America sociological and historical studies of this period have focused princi pally on men their experiences as bachelors and laborers in the United States Nee 8 Nee 1973 Lyman 1974 There is comparatively little information on the intricate and dynamic pattern of relations be tween maladomiriated cornrnun1t1es and womenheaded households in the home villages in Asia or on the women themselves Okihiro 1994 p 68 The spotty information on the l1V S of the wives who stayed behind suggests that the spl1thousehold arrangement was both liber ating and oppressive It gave some women more independence but saddled most with a disproportionate share of household reproductive tasks as well as a life without the company and assistance of their husbands As income producers migrant men controlled the greater share of mcome and were less accountable to their families while in the United States than were the women who stayed behind see Hondagrieu Sotelo 1994 Chinese migrant husbands often sent remittances directly to their kin and not to their wivesmto ensure that the wives would remain chaste and subject to the husbands ultimate control Glenn 1983 p 39 Virtual widows these WIVES were expected to serve their husbands parents and remain sexually faithful while their distant husbands were free to visit prostitutes or take on other wives Okihiro 1994 p 74 The following Toishan folk song captures the anguish of these married W1dows 39 I am still young with a husband yet a widow The pillow is cold so frightening Thoughts swirl insrde my mind chaotic like hemp fibers Separated by thousands of miles how can I reach him Thinking of him teriderly 1 toss and turn to no avail He is far away at the edge of the sky by the clouds I long for his return especially s1nceit s midnight now Horn 1983 p 129 Gender Family and Community 27 The anguish became unbearable for some lloola Singh who migrated to America from the Pun ab in 1911 intended to send for 1118 wife once he had saved enough money for her fare But she died before he could return She good nice looking healthy but she love explained Singh quotyou know love person no eat Worry then maybe die quoted in Talltallt1 1989 p 309 But other wives did not remain faithful Asahiki Sawada sailed to San Francisco in 1904 proimsing his wife that he would return a wealthy man After 6 years of hard work Sawada sent for his Wife only to learn that she had divorced him and remarried in the interim Nakano 1990 p 29 Unlike Asahiki Sawada most migrant husbands did not earn enough mgney to return home a rich man or to send for their Wives The prolonged absence of men increased the burden but also the authority of women who stayed behind As Ruth Hsiao 1992 suggested Chinese wives quot39take on domineering aspects as the husbands selfesteem di minishes pp 153154 Similarly Linda Ching Sledge 1980 noted that after the emigration of male villagers to distant lands Cantonese Women assumed total family governance and subsequently developed a strong tradition of womanly S lfSuff1C1 1quot1Cy and aggressiveness This tradition persisted among the few Cantonese women who were al lowed to join their husbands in the United States during the more than six decades of exclusion pp 910 The split household arrangement enforced and maintained by rac ist and gendered US immigration policies made possible the maxi mum exploitation of male workers Because the cost of reproduction was borne largely by the kin group in Asia the labor of male workers could be bought relatively cheaply Glenn 1983 p 39 The women who stayed behind also played a CI39L1C1Bl role in producing the next generation of Workers for overseas capitalists Many of the Asiaborn children especially the grown sons became the next generation of immigrant workers when they came to the United States to OlI1 their fathers Stanford Lyman 1968 reported that many of the Ch1na born sons were brought to the United States to help out and eventually take over their fathers businesses pp 328629 As stated earlier of all the Asian groups the Iapanese and to a lesser extent the Koreans under the terms spec1fied in the Gentleman39s Agree ment had the most opportunity to summon their wives and reconstr tute their families in the United States That these women were willing to travel to the United States to marry unknown men suggests that they were independent adventurous and ambitious For many women 28 Asian Amencan Women and Men becoming a picture bride was viewed as an opportunrty to travel and to circumvent the social restrictrons on women in their home countries As one Korean woman who came to the United States as a picture bride exclaimed Ah marriage Then I could get to America That land of freedom wrth streets paved of gold Since I became ten I ve been forbidden to step outside our gates like all the rest of the grrls of my day Becoming a prcture bride whatever that was would be my answer and release Sunoo 8 Sunoo 1976 p 149 Although detailed studies of picture brides have not been made scat tered sources suggest that many of the prcture brides from Korea had received some sort of modern education with some having attended high school and a few even receiving college education They were the byproducts of the modern movement that took place in Korea at the turn of the century Most picture brides had also Worked outside the home as teachers and nurses Even the less educated picture brides had regularly attended church and Bible classes Yang 1987 p 172 Arriving in the Unrted States with hrgh hopes most of the picture brides were shocked and disappointed to find older and unattractive men waiting for them on the deck Pyong Gap Min 1995 reported that the mean age drfference between Korean husbands and waves was 14 years p 202 Woo Ilong Pong Yun described her reaction on sighting her husband in Honolulu who turned out to be 13 years her senior When I see him he skinny and black I no like No look like picture But no can go home quoted in Takaki 1989 p 72 A few disappointed picture brides refused to jorn their husbands and asked to be sent back to Japan Ichioka 1988 p 167 The men also were disrllusioned with their photo brides Some bridegrooins claimed that their wives did not physically correspond with their photographs and rejected them prac tically at docksrde Others claimed that their wives were too quothigh toned or were not fit for the rigors of pioneer hfe Nakano 1990 p 29 Despite these initial objections many of these arranged marriages endured partly due to the lack of alternatives Work and Changing Gender Relations The gender strat1fied and racially l3911 3l aI Ch1CE1l labor market in the United States effectively relegates people of color women and most especially women of color to the loweststatus and loWest pay1ng jobs Gender Family and Community 29 i society From 1850 to World War Il Asran men and women provided Cheap and exploitable sources of migrant labor to meet the needs of a rapidly developing US industrialized economy Bonacich 8 Cheng 1934 US race relations also changed dramatically m the late 19th Century The end of slavery ushered in a new set of segregation laws demarcating the place of people of color in society These new racial restrictions along with the using conflict between capital and labor during US industrialization severely circumscribed the labor market opportunities of these early Asian irninigrants Mar 8 Ken 1994 p 14 Racial discrimmatron separates the labor experience of Asian imrru grants from that of Europeans During this period white men were considered quotfree labor and could Work in the growing metallurgical chemical and electrical industries while Asian men were racialized as quot39coolie labor and confined to nonunionized deadend jobs in the agricultural and service sectors Chan 1991a chap 2 AS1311 immr grants were particularly vulnerable because they were not allowed to become naturalized citizens Therr alien status transformed them into tractable labor and increased the ability of capital to discipline and exploit thern an example of the collusion of racrsrn and class interests Bonacich 1984 pp 165166 From the turn of the century until the 1929 Depression although jobs were plentiful in San Francisco Chinese men still occupied the lowest trer as laborers servants factory Workers laundryrnen and small merchants According to Light 1972 quot39Prior to 1940 discrimination in employment virtually eliminated opportunities for Chmese in the general labor market p 8 Latenarriving Asian groups likewise found themselves in the least desirable sectors of the labor market Chan 1991a chap 2 Untrl the Great Depression the rnaority of Filipinos about 60 toiled in the frelds as unskilled migrant laborers In 1925 Filipinos constituted over 80 of the asparagus labor force numbering approximately 7000 Because of the long hours of stooping extreme heat and dust involved cutting asparagus is the most difficult ob a farrnworker can do with even experienced able bodied laborers passing out from heat prostration and exhaustion Espiritu 1995 p 10 Like Asian men most Asian women labored in agricultural and service sectors as farm women prostrtutes cooks laundresses and searnstresses Chan 1991a pp 109110 Given the lack of decenbpaying jobs for Asian American men woInen s labor was important to economic subsistence In this sense the arrival of Asian women ensured the physical survival of Asian America not only because of their reproductive powers 30 Asian American Women and Men but also because of their productive powers In Hawaii for example the commissioner of labor report noted in 1901 that whereas most other wives engaged solely in home duties most Japanese wives worked outside the home These women often received the lowest pay of any group Japanese female field hands for example received an average wage of only 55 cents per day in 1915 compared to the 78 cents paid to Japanese male field hands Takaki 1989 p 135 Though minimal their income was nevertheless critical for the family finances due to the low wages paid to Japanese men Gail Noinura 1989 estimated that the earnings of the Japanese wife on the average added a significant 35 to the family income p 140 Even merchants wives contributed to the household income by taking in sewing and fancy embroidery Chan 1991a p 109 This situation is not unique to Asian Americans In an overview of immigrant women Morokvasic 1984 reported that the labor of immigrant women has been one of the few ways for immigrant men to accumulate capital p 891 The small number of U S born Asians most of whom came of age during the 1920s also did not fare well in the labor market Although these men and women were English speaking highly educated and Western oriented most could not find l3S commensurate with their education and training Chan 1991a p 113 The Great Depression certainly decreased the economic opportunities available to secondgeneration Asian Amer1 cans But racial discrimination played a crucial role in segregating the workforce According to Judy Yong 1986 during this period white women were able to find employment in Clerical work social work nursing and teaching but Chinese American women could find jobs on y as elevator girls stock girls Oriental hostesses and housemaids Even those few women with advanced degrees in medicine education and social work could not find work outside Chinatown Katie Moy the first Chinese and only woman to graduate from the College of Pharmacy of Detroit in 1925 recalled that whenever I applied for a ob I was turned down because I was Chinese and a girl quoted in Yong 1986 p 57 Below I review three types of work performed by Asian men and women during the preWorld War 11 period prostitution domestic service and self employment This is not meant to be an exhaustive review of the labor experiences of Asian Americans during this period Instead I chose these three cases because they seem to illustrate best the contradictions and opportunities presented to Asian men and women in this era In each case I explore the impact that these contradictions and opportunities had on gender relations Gender Family and Community 31 Prostitution Living in a world of men Asian laborers sought a sexual outlet and intimacy from prostitutes Lyman 1968 reported that at the end of the 19th century the Chinatowns of America39s cities were honeycombed with brothels p 326 Most Chinese male soiourners viewed prosti tutes as providers of a necessary service to their largely bachelor com munity Tong 1994 p 123 In this sense prostitutes assisted in the capitalist exploitation of migrant men insofar as they helped to perpetu ate the labor system of unattached male workers Cheng 1984 Chinese and Japanese prostitutes were among the pioneers of their respective immigrant societies Their migration was sometimes prompted by a desire for freedom but for the most part it was induced and orchestrated by men for their profit and exploitation Whereas the majority of white prostitutes came as independent professionals or worked in brothels for wages Chinese and Japanese prostitutes were almost always lured tricked or forced into prostitution by men Yung 1986 p 18 lchioka 1988 hi 1870 census takers counted 2794 Chinese female workers 77 declared theinseives as prostitutes and the rest as servicerelated workers A decade later partly as a result of the an tiprostitute clause in the 1875 Page Law only 44 of the 1726 Chinese women workers were engaged in prostitution Tong 1994 p 30 Japa nese prostitutes began to appear in the late 1800s and increased in the 18905 In 1900 the maiority of the 985 Japanese female immigrants were prostitutes Ichioka 1988 pp 2829 But in time with the arrival of picture brides Japanese prostitutes were vastly outnumbered by wives Chan 1991a p 107 In contrast to the Chinese but more similar to the Japanese Korean male emigrants had little trouble bringing in wives through the picture bride practice consequently relatively fewer Ko rean womeri entered as prostitutes Tong 1994 p 169 111 a community of womanless men control over the provision of sex provided those who had it with wealth and power Nakano 1990 p 24 Yung 1986 listed the many groups that profited from the prostitution trade the procurers and importers who brought women to the United States the brothel owners who controlled the labor of the prostitutes the h1gh binders policemen and immigration officials who were paid to protect the business and the white Chinatown property owners who charged these brothels exorbitant rents p 18 Prostitutes were especially profitable for their owners At an average of 38 cents per customer and seven customers per day Hirata 1979 calculated 32 Asian American Women and Men a lowergrade prostitute would earn about 850 dollars per year and 3404 dollars after four years of servitude Since women in the inferior dens were kept at the subsistence level the cost of maintaining them must not have exceeded 8 dollars per month or 96 dollars per year per person p 284 Hirata concluded that these calculations indicate that the owner would begin to make a profit from the prostitute s labor in the first year of service p 234 Initially individual women entrepreneurs controlled the lucrative business of prostitution in Chinese quarters Ah Toy who arrived alone in San Francisco in 1849 from Hong Kong to quotbetter herself became the earliest and most successful Chinese courtesan in San Francisco Within a year of her arrival Ah Toy became an independent courtesan of means owning a brothel of Chinese women on Pike Street now Waverly Place Men reportedly lined up a block long and paid an ounce of gold 16 just to gaze upon the countenance of the charming Ah Toy Gentry 1964 p 52 Ah Toy was also a popular figure in the courtroom Where she appeared numerous times to defend her trade and to sue those clients who had paid her with brass fillings instead of gold Yung 1986 p 4 But rival secret societies soon wrestled the control of prostitution out of the hands of women Lyman 1968 Cheng 1984 Prostitution was so lucrative that rival tongs often fought for its control Violent tong wars in the 1870s and 1880s often began with disputes over possession of a Chinese prostitute Yung 1986 p 18 As laborers prostitutes were exploited as cheap Workers Not all earned wages many simply worked for their owners who retained all of their earnings and exploited them further in manual labor as S E1ifl stresses cooks and washerwomen Okihiro 1994 Pimps or brothel ownersethe center of male authority and power in the establishmentm sometimes used force to coerce reluctant new prostitutes to perform and to compel all women to work harder and bring in more money An unknown number of Chinese prostitutes were physically abused by their owners and their customers On the other hand the value that owners and customers placed on prostitutes services allowed these women to retain some control over their own lives even as they gave their oppressors the illusion of total submission Tong 1994 p 145 For example prostitutes retaliated against their oppressors by stealing restricting the sexual activities that took place and running away Tong 1994 Gender Family and Community 33 In sum the skewed sex ratio of Chinese and Japanese immigrant C91 nI 1l1I1llLi8S provided an opportunity for these immigrants if they so desired to profit from prostitution Although some women profited many more men derived their fortunes from the labor of women pros titutes These men then quotinscribed their names and deeds in histories that slighted and marginalized the selfsarne women who had been instrumental in their rise to power Okihiro 1994 pp 78379 The history of prostitution in pre World War ll Asian America suggests that although immigration provided some benefits for women it provided men many more opportunities to control and exploit them Domestic Service Feminist scholars have argued accurately that domestic service involves a threeway relationship between privileged white men privi leged White women and poor women of color Romero 1992 The material experiences of Asian Americans duriri g the preWorld War 11 period particularly the shortage of women suggested at least two other forms of racial and gender subiugation of domestic workers one involving Asian men and women and the other involving Asian men and white men and women In the first instance women earned money by providing domestic services coollting washing ironing and sew ing for the many unattached men in their communities In her life story Quiet Odyssey A Pioneer Korean Woman in America Mary Paik Lee related that while her father labored in Riverside s citrus groves her mother contributed to the family incoine by cooking for some 30 single men who worked with her father rnaking their breakfast at 5 am packing their lunches and serving them supper at 7 pin Lee 1990 Although domestic work provided women with much needed income it also buttressed male privilege by perpetuating the concept of repro ductive labor as women39s work This gender subordination was par ticularly oppressive for married women who had to perform domestic duties for the bachelors as well as for their own families As Chan 1991a pointed out In the evening hours while men relaxed women continued to work at various chores p 109 The racialized and gendered immigration policies and labor condi tions discussed earlier also forced Asian men into quotfernin1zedobs such as domestic service laundry work and food preparation Due to their noncitizen status the closed labor market and the shortage of women Asian irnmigrant men first Chinese and later Japanese substituted to 34 Asian American Women and Men some extent for female labor in the American West David Katzma 1978 noted the peculrarities of the domestic labor situation in the West in this perrod In 1880 California and Washington were the only states in which a maority of domestic servants were men p 55 At the turn of the century lacking other Job alternatives man Chinese men entered into domestic service in prrvate homes hotels and rooming houses Danrels 1988 p 74 Whites rarely ObE Cl Cl to Chinese in domestic service In fact through the 1900s the Chinese houseboy was the symbol of upperclass status in San Francisco Glenn 1986 p 106 As late as 1920 close to 50 of the Chinese in the United States still Worked as domestic servants Light 1972 p 7 Large numbers of Chinese also became laundrymen not because laundering was a tradiu tronal male occupation in China but because there were very few women of any ethnic origin wand thus few washerwomenwm gold rush California Chan 1991a pp 3384 Chinese laundryrnen thus provided cornmercral services that replaced women s unpaid labor in the home White customers were prepared to patronize a Chinese laundryman because as such he occupied a status which was in accor dance with the social definition of the place in the economic hierarchy suitable for a member of an inferior race cited in Siu 1987 p 21 In her autobiographical f1C 1OI1 China Men Maxine Hong Kingston pre sented her father and his partners as engaged for long periods each day 11 their laundry business a business consrdered so low and debased that in their songs they assocrate it with the washing of menstrual blood Goellnicht 1992 p 198 A Chinese laundryman described his harsh life quotI am not an old man yet but I feel old How can a man feel good when he is forced into an occupation he doesn t like Butl get used to it After you are at it for so many years you have no more feeling but to stay on with it quoted in Wong 1976 p 339 The existence of the Chinese houseb oy and launderer and their forced b achelor status further bolstered the stereotype of the feminized and asexual or homo sexual Asian man Their feminization in turn confirmed their assign ment to the sector of the state s labor force that performed wornenquots Work Japanese men followed Chinese men into domestic service By the end of the first decade of the 20th century the US Immigration Com mission estimated that 12000 to 15000 Japanese in the western United States earned a liVl11g in domestic service Chan 1991a pp 39410 Many Japanese men considered housework beneath them because in Japan only lower class women worked as domestic servants lchioka Gender Famify and Community 35 p 24 Studies of lssei occupational histories indicate that a do job was the first occupation for many of the new arrivals but Chinese domestic workers most lssei eventually moved on to f ficultL1i39al or city trades Glenn 1986 p 108 Filipino and Korean fggys and men also relied on domestic service for their livelihood Chan i9 g1a P 40 In his autobiography East Goes West Korean immigrant Writer Younghill Kang 1937 related that he worked as a domestic 0 z servant for a white family who treated him l1llte a cat or a dog p 66 Filipinos as stewards in the US Navy also performed domestic 0 duties for white US naval officers During the 94 years of US military presence in the Philippines U S bases served as recruiting stations for the US armed forces particularly the navy Soon after the United States acquired the Philippines from Spain in 1898 its navy began actively recruiting Filipinos but only as stewards and mess attendants Barred from admissions to other ratings Filipino enlistees performed the work of domestics preparing and serving the officers meals and caring for the officers galley wardroom and living spaces Ashore their duties ranged from ordinary housework to food services at the US Naval Academy hall Unofficially Filipino stewards also were ordered to perform menial chores such as walking the officers dogs and acting as personal servants for the officers wives Espiritu 1995 p 16 As domestic servants Asian men became subordinates of not only privileged white men but also privileged white women The follow ing testimony from a Japanese house servant captures this unequal relationship Immediately the ina am demanded me to scrub the floor I took one hour to fifllsh Then I had to wash Windows That was very difficult OlD for me Three windows for another hourt The rna arn taught me how to cook Iwas sitting on the kitchen chair and thinking what a change of life it was The ma am came into the kitchen and was so furious it was such a hard work for me to wash up all dishes pans glasses etc after dinner When I went into the dining room to put all silvers on sideboard I saw the reflection of myself on the looking glass In a white coat and apron I could not control my feelings The tears so freeiy flowed out from my eyes and 1 buried my face with my both arms quoted in lchioka 1988 pp 2526 The experiences of Asian male domestic service workers dernon strate that not all men benefit equally from patriarchy Dependmg on their race and class men experience gender differently Although male 36 Asian American Women and Men domination of women may tie all men together men share unequally in the fruits of this domination For Asian American male domestic workers economic and social discrimination locked them into an un equal relationship with not only privileged White men but also priv i leged White women Kim 1990 p 74 The racist and classist devaluation of Asian men had gender irnplica tions The available evidence indicates that imrnigrant men reasserted their lost patriarchal power in racist America by denigrating a weaker group Asian women In China Men Kingston39s immigrant father having been forced into femm1ne subect positions lapses into silence breaking the silence only to utter curses against women Goellnicht 1992 pp 200201 Kingston 1980 traced her father s abuse of Chinese women back to his feeling of emasculation 1I l America We knew that It was to feed us you had to endure demons and physical labor p 13 Asian men also op pressed Asian women by denying them any joy in life In Hisaye Yamarnoto s short story Seventeen Syllables the lssei wife inserts beauty and meaning into her life of endless toil by writing poetry at night Unable to tolerate l 1S wife39s independence the lssei husband forbids his wife to Write poetry In a crucial scene the husband loses his temper and burns the poetry prize that she has won for her haiku Broken the woman turns to her daughter and issues a stern warning Rosie she said urgently Promise me you will never marry Kim 1982 pp 59 On the other hand some men brought home the domestic skills they learned on the jobs Anamaria Labao Cabato related that her Filipino born father who spent 28 years in the navy as a steward 18 39 one of the best cooks around Espiritu 1995 p 143 Leo Sicat a retired US Navy man similarly reported that quot39we learned how to cook in the Navy and we brought it home The Filipino women are very fortunate because the husband does the cooking In our household I do the cooking and my Wife does the Washing Espiritu 1995 p 108 Further as will be discussed in Chapter 3 in some instances the domestic skills that men were forced to learn in their wives absence were put to use when husbands and wives reunited in the United States The history of Asian male domestic workers suggests that the denigration of women is only one response to the stripping of male privilege Another is to institute a I V1S Cl domestic division of labor and gender relations in the family SelfEmployment Excluded from employment in the 1I1Cl1ltSlZ1 1al and trade lab or market by racial discrimination and white work1ngclass hostility many Asian Gender Family and Community 37 immigrants became shopkeepers merchants and small businessmen In 1929 Asian nnirugrants principally Chinese and Japanese owned 0ne aI1ClElhalf times as many bLtS1I1 SSES per 1000 population as other residents of the United States Myrdal 1944 p 310 The Chinese gfhnic economy was based on retail businesses service vice and enter tainment Wherever the Chinese are observed Rose Hum Lee in 1942 it has been possible to count the variations in the Way they can earn their living on the fingers of the handwechop suey and chow mein restau rants Cl39l1 1 S art and gift shops native grocery stores that sell food stuffs imported from China to the local Chinese community and Chi nese laundries cited in Takaki 1989 p 251 In some instances the domestic skills that men learned in the absence of women were put to good use in certain businesses such as laundrres small food stores and restaurants Sinularly according to a 1909 survey of 2277 Japanese businesses conducted by the Immigration Commis sion the Iapanese ethnic economy was based primarily on retail and service Ichihashi 1932 p 110 Unlike the Iapanese and Chinese Fil1 pinos Koreans and Asian Indians did not engage extensively in ethnic enterprise Takaki 1989 pp 270 307 336 The labor of Asian women was indispensable to the establishment and success of these family enterprises In Hawaii Asian immigrant men with wives were more able than single men to move away from plantation wage labor into small familyoperated businesses Chan 1991a reported that Asian women did everything possible to move their families away from plantation work as soon as possible p 110 They took in laundry grew vegetables and undertook whatever addi tional Work they could to help save up enough money to open their own small businesses Many took these initiatives in an attempt to secure a better future for their children On the Pacific Coast Asian unrnigrant Women worked as unpaid labor in various small family enterprises playing a critical role in establishing the economic base of Asian Ameri can communities Kim 1990 p 74 These small businesses were prof itable principally because they took advantage of the unpaid labor of family rnernbersmwwomen and children included Glenn 1986 pp 1112 Beside running the household and raising the children many Chinese immigrant women spent every other waking hour helping their husbands operate laundnes restaurants and stores While the husband ran the business in front the Woman performed much of the manual labor in back such as ironing and folding customers laundry preparing 38 Asian American Women and Men food and washing dishes in restaurant kitchens or stockrng merchan dise in stores Wong Loy who came to the United States in 1927 spent 15 to 16 hours a day ironing in her husband s laundry with a baby strapped to her back l worked so hard that my body was sore all over and I had to have kzm she a Chinese folk remedy every two weeks to draw out the soreness quoted in Yong 1986 p 43 Their lives of endless toil left no time for socializing and few opportunities for learning English and assirnilating into U S society In the 38 years that fee Shee Lee worked in the family laundry she left it only three t1rnes all to attend family association celebrations in a nearby city Yung 1986 p 44 The unpaid labor of Japanese immigrant women was especially critical in enabling lssei males to exit the unskilled wage labor market and to form a thriving ethnic enclave economy As they left the rail roads mines and lumber mills many Japanese immigrants entered agrrcultiiral employment By 1909 6000 Japanese had become farmers lchihashi 1932 pp 162163 As they entered farming many Japanese men sent for their wives or picture brideswnot only for their cornpan ionship but also for their labor Takaki 1989 p 190 The formation of Iapanese families in the United States provided the lssei farmer with the free labor force needed to operate an independent truck farm The availability of unpaid household labor allowed lssei truck farmers to compete effectively with white farmers and subsequently to gain a dominant share of the produce market Together Issei men and women converted marginal dusty and desert lands into lush and profitable agricultural fields and orchards Takaki 1989 p 191 By 1910 Japanese were leaving wage labor rapidly and establishing ethnrc enterprises in both rural and urban areas Nee 8 Wong 1985 p 295 Korean picture brides most of whom were better educated than men also helped their husbands move ahead Highly motivated these women were active in economic ventures Their small numbers their education and their economic contributions all worked in tandem to create an opportunity in which Korean men as well as women could transform traditional patriarchy EuiYoung Yu 1987 reported that apparently quotWomen in the early Korean cornrnunrty enoyed better status and position than women in contemporary society p 185 But more often than not traditional patriarchy persisted in these family enterprises in that most women had to work a double shift in the home and in the family business Iapanese wives complained about their husbands refusal to help With the housework We worked from morning till night blackened by the sun My husband didn t even glance at the house work or child Gender Family and Community 39 care No matter how busy I was he would never change a diaper Ito 1973 p 251 Kirniko Ono described her double day I got up before dawn with my husband and prcked tomatoes in the greenhouse At around 6 30 a in I prepared breakfast awakened the children and all the family sat down at the breakfast table together Then my husband took the tomatoes to Pike Market I watered the plants in the greenhouses taking the chrldren along with me My husband came back at about p in and I worked with him for a while then we had dinner and put the childi en to bed Then I sorted tomatoes which I had picked in the morning and put them into boxes When I was finally through with the boxing it was midnightwwif I finished earlywor l 30 a In if I did not lto 1973 p 251 Patriarchy also surfaced when men insisted that they were the business owners and their wives the helpers even though women39s contributions were often equal to or greater than men39s Iohn Gee a son of a Chinese laundryman described the unequal gender division of labor in his and other family laundry businesses Sometimes actually the women do more than the men but I don t thinllt l don39t like to say this but in some cases like my dad s he figures he owns the business and that he s the boss And sometimes the men have the habit of being a little lax at working and they expect you to do a little bit more Wong 1976 p 343 Asian male entrepreneurs also exploited Asian women as paid laborers Ioe Shoong the owner of National Dollar Stores and one of the richest Chinese businessmen in the United States in the 1930s relied heavily on the exploitation of the labor of Chinese women The women39s dresses sold in the National Dollar Stores were sewn by low paid Chinese garment workers employed in San Francisco s Chinatown In 1937 these women organized themselves into the Chrnese Ladies Gar ment Workers Unions and struck against the garment factory owned by the National Dollar Store Their strike lasted 13 weeks the longest in Chinatown s history but the workers lost in the end when the employer closed the factory rather than conceding to their demands Takaki 1989 p 252 Conclusion The material existences of Asian American men and women during the preW39orld War II period contradicted the traditional constructions 40 Asian American Women and Men of man and woman During this period racist and gendered immi gration policies and labor conditions einasculated Asian men forcing them into quot bachelor cominiinities and into ferninized jobs that had gone unfilled dire to the shortage of women ln the same fashion women who stayed behind in Asia were denied access to a norrnatlve family While those in the United States worked outside the home often performing heavy rnen s Worllt in the farms and on the planta tions The reconstruct1on of gender in prewar Asian America emerged from this sociohistorical context The racial patriarchy of US society limited Asian rnen s social power vis a vis the larger society and thus delayed the full transplantation of Asian patriarchy in the United States Although Women were still exploited economically and socially by Asian men their small numbers and their econornrc contributions offered unusual opportunities for them as marriage partners and as rncoine producers to raise their social status These gender patterns would shift once again as the United States went to war with Iapan in the rnid1940s and as more Women were allowed to join their husbands in the United States during the postwar years Notes 1 Hawaii was an independent kingdom from 1810 to 1893 a republic between 1894 and 1900 and a territory of the United States from 1900 to 1959 2 For a history of the exclusion of Asian immigrants see Chan 1991a chap 3 3 Korean emigration to Hawaii and to the United States lasted only two and a half years from December 1902 to May 1905 In 1902 representatrves of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association HSPA brought Korean workers to the islands to counter the growing rnilitance of Japanese plantation Workers In 1905 when Iapan declared Korea a protectorate the Japanese government prohibited Korean emigration to Hawaii to protect Japanese plantation workers in Hawaii and to stamp out overseas Korean independence activities Consequently Korean immrgration to the United States was much smaller than that of the Chrnese and lapanese Between 1902 and 1905 approximately 7000 Korean adults emigrated nearly 10 of whom were wornen Takaki 1989 pp 53 57 Chan 1991a pp 1516 4 The period of Indian immigration was extremely short Canada was the preferred destination for many Indians But when Canada began placing restrictions on lndian irnrnigration in 1908 Indians started coming Gender Family and Community 41 directly to the United States The peak years of Indian immigration into the United States were from 1907 to 1910 In 1917 Congress passed the 1917 Immigration Law which delineated an Asiatrc barred zone from which no immigrants could come This law effectively prohibited iinrnigration from India Altogether only 6400 Asian Indians came to the United States during this period Takaki 1989 pp 62 65 Chan 1991a pp 1823 Ronald Takaki 1989 summarized several reasons for the notable lack of Filipino merchants in the United States Since Spanish colonial days retail needs in the Philippines had been serviced by Chinese merchants Consequently few of the indigenous people acquired experience in trade Moreover by the time Ftlipinos came to the United States the Chinese and Japanese had already established a foothold in the retail trade and preempted the entry of Filipino retailers Frnally the low participation of Filipinos in l111SiI1E SS activity reflected the transiency of the rnrgrants Most Filipinos were single inale migratory worllters shuttling back and forth along the Pacific Coast moving constantly with the harvests of specialty crops pp 336337 Manong literally means iinclequot a term of respect used for old tirners 42 CHLOE PLUS OLIVIA S O N N ET X X X H Sitbyeci of the Preceding Sonnet Continued Behold him now his genuine colours wear That specious falseoi ie by whose cruel wiles I lost thy arnity saw thy dear smiles Eclips d those smiles that used my heart to cheer Wak d by thy grateful sense of many a year When rose thy youth by Friendship s pleasing toils Cultured but Dying O for ever fade The angry res Each thought that might upbraid Thy broken faith which yet my soul deplores Now as eternally is past and gone As are the interesting the happy hours Days years we shared together They are flown Yet long must I lament thy hapless doom Thy lavislfd life and earlyhasten d tomb To the Right Honourable LADY ELEANOR BUTLER With the Same Present Thou who with firm free step as life arose Led thy loved friend where sacred Deva flows On Wisdom s cloudless sun with thee to gaze And build your eyrie on that rocky maze Ah ELEANORAl wilt thou gently deign To bid these nets the tribute lines contain When Virtue Genius Rank and Wealth cornbine To pay ow d homage at so pure a shrine And 0 when kindling with the lovely theme The blest reality of Hope s fond dream Friendship that bliss unshar d disdains to know Nor sees not feels one unpartaken woe When for such worth in each exalted mind Resolv d as man and more than woman kind Their warm admirers ask a length of years Uiichill d by terror and unstain d by tears Then may the fervent benedictions lie And long long hence meet ELEaNORA s eye While with her ZARA s it shall frequent rove The treasur d records of esteem and love EMILY DICKINSON 4 TO MISS PONSONBY Seek roseate net inchanting ZARA s hand And tho unworthy say thy fold aspires To guard the gentle scriptures where expand Deserved attachirient s tributary res Say that in no charm d spirit livelier dwells Than hers who wove thee each ingenuous trace Of the fair story this retirement tells The minds that sought it and the forms that grace Davideari friendship emulation warm Coy blossoms perishing in courtly air Its vain parade restraint and irksonie form Cold as the ice tho with the coniet s glare By rmness won by constancy secured Ye nobler pleasures be ye long their rneed Theirs who each meteor vanity abyured The life of Angels in an Eden lead Sinily Diekiiison 183086 Emily Dickinson perhaps the most famous poet in American literary his toty has also been considered its most enigmatic gure partly because until recently most literary critics have refused to acknowledge her love for other Women Throughout much of the twentieth century a whole industry of scholarship was built around the quest for the identity of this reclusive spinstet s elusive male lover her male muse Although a dozen men have been named as candidates no researcher has been able to construct a con yincing case for any of them because concrete evidence of her emotional for physical involvement with a man is scanty Her voliiminous extant cor girespondence with the exception of three letters addressed to Master sWhich may never have been sent shows no signi cant heterosexual in liififolvements until she was well into middle age at which time she may have a relationship with a friend of her father s Judge Otis Lord a man iifgnany years her senior The letters of her earlier years do however reveal aijntense romantic friendships with other women including Ernily Fowler Kate Anthon and Sue Gilbert While it is impossible to say because of the 44 LHIOE PLUS OLIVIA lack of concrete evidence that Dickinson was never involved with a man during her peak poetry writing years it is also impossible to say in View of the evidence that does exist that she was not a passionate lover of women during those years As the following letters will indicate one of Dickinson s most important ernotional irivolvements was with Sue Gilbert who eventually married Dickinsor s brother Austin By 1851 Emily had fallen in love with Sue a young woman in circumstances of genteel poverty who was forced to sup port herself as a schoolteacher Numerous letters passed between them though those written by Sue were destroyed at Eniily s death When Sue became engaged to marry Einily s brother she wrote her siblings that he will take care of me We shall have a cozy place soine where where the longcherished wish of my heart to have a home will be realized the relationship between Sue and Emily became stormy The correspon dence between them ceased and it was at this time many Dickinson bi ographers have speculated that Emily may have had a nervous breakdown They have found little trace of her life during those years In 18 38 two years after Sue and Austin were married Emily resiirfaced and began writing poetry seriously IIer recoriciliation with Sue judging from extant notes came at about the same time Her early poems were invariably sent to Sue for criticism It was as though Emily had found a way to be after a dark period If she could not share her life with Sue she would share her art There are 128 extant letters and 276 poems that she sent to her sisterinlaw Many of Diclltinson s poems appear to he love lyrics to a female Per haps she was somewhat selfconscious about this poetry not because she formulated it speci cally as lesbian she would have seen it as an expression of romantic friendship but because it revealed so much of her At one point when she briefly entertained the idea of publication Dickinson sent her poems to the editor of Atlantic Monthly Thomas Weiitworth Higgin son explaining When I state myself as the Representative of the Verse it does not mean rne but a supposed person But the poems do indeed appear to be autobiographical because they are without a characterized persona or plot and they seem to refer to speci c incidents that are not described in the poems and hence have no dramatic value for the reader Their autobiographical nature is also con rmed because they often echo the sentiments of Diclltinsoii s letters Compare for example a letter to Sue Gilbert The wind blows and it rains I hardly know which falls fastest the rain without or wirhin Oh Susie I would nestle close to your warm heart and never hear the wind blow or the storm beat again Is there any room there for me or shall I wander all homeless and alone with her poem EMILY DICKINSOI I 45 Wild nights Wild nightst Were I with thee Wild nights should be Our luxury Futile the winds To a heart in port Done with the compass Done with the chart Rowing in Eden Ah the sea Might I but moor To night in theei Or compare her brief note to Sue To the faithful Absence is condensed presence with her poem The Day she goes Or Day she stays Are equally SUpI CTlCquot Existence has a stated width Departed or at Home For years twentieth century Dickinson critics unfamiliar with the ear lier institution of romantic friendship and iincomfortable with the idea that a poet of Diclltinson s stature was a lesbian have gone to great lengths to explain away the content of same sex love in her poems For example one critic wrote of Dickinson s poem Her breast is t for pearls see p 56 that the persona is a male 3 sparrow Another explained of Her sweet Weight on my Heart a Night see p 59 that it was an elegy for Elizabeth Barrett Browning whose writing Dickinson admired Surely such an explanation takes far too literally the notion of curling up in bed with a good book Only in recent decades have critics been less hysterical in their attempts to obfuscate what appear to be hints of Dickirisorfs saniesex love interests in her poetry Paula Bennett has even suggested that much of Diclltinsori s imagery is clitoral and hence demonstrates an awareness of lesbian sexu ality EWt3lS gems pearls peas berries nuts buds crumbs and beads abound in Diclltinson s poetry But whether or not the reader can accept the idea that so much of Dickinson s poetry deals symbolically with lesbian sexuality it is hard to refute that the poems demonstrate that at some points in her life Dickinson passionately loved women 46 CHLOE PLUS OLIVIA FURTHER READING Thomas Johnson and Theodora Ward The letters of Emily Dzekmsoiz 3 vols Cambridge Harvard University Press 1958 Tlae Poems of Emily Dickinson 3 vols ed Thomas H Johnson Cambridge Harvard University Press I955 Paula Bennett The Lzingiiage of Love Emily Dickinson s Homoerotic Poetry Ga Saber Spring 1977 13 17 The Pea That Duty Locks Lesbian and Feminist Heterosexual Readings of Emily Dickinson s Poetry Le5l9z5m Texts and Contexts Rad ical Revisions ed Karla Jay and Joaiiiie Glasgow New York New Yoik University Press 1990 John Cody After Gieal Pam The Imter Life of Emily Dzcleiiison Came bridge IIarvard University Press I971 Lillian Faderman Emily Dickinsorfs Letters to Sue Gilbert Mcrssarlcizisetrs Review XVIII2 Summer 1977 pp 197M225 Lillian Faderman Emily iclltinson s Hornoerotic Poetry Hzggmsoiz fomnal I8 rst half 1978 19 27 Ellen Louise Hair The Encoding of Homoerotic Desire Emily Dickin son s Letters and Poems to Sue Gilbeit 18504886 Tulsa Sfl llIE 5 in Women s Liter atme 9 2 Fall I990 251472 Rebecca Patterson The Riddle of Emily Dickinson Boston Houghton Mifflin 1951 Martha Nell Smith Rowing in Eden Rereadmg Ermly Dielemscm Austin University of 39I eiras Press I992 From The Letters of Emily Dickinson To Abzal Root Mural I4 1847 We have a delightful school this term under the instruction of our former principals 5 Miss R Woodbridgemdaiighteiquot of Rev Dr W of Hadley for preceptress We all love her very much Perhaps a slight de scription of her might be interesting to my dear A She is tall 86 rather slender but nely proportioned has a most witcliing pair of blue eyes rich brown hair delicate C01quot 1pl X1011 Cl 1 lS which vie with the open ing rose bud teeth like pearls dimples which come 86 go like the ripples in yonder little merry brook 8C then she is so affectionate SC lovely For give my glowing description for you know I am always in love with my teachers To Emily Fowler Early 1850 I cannot wait to be with you Oh ugly time and space and uglier snowstorm than all W 1 you happy in Northainpton I was very lonely without you and wanted to write you a letter many times but Kate was there too and I was afraid you would both laugh I should be stronger if I could see you oftenerml am very puny alone You make me so happy and glad life seems worth living for no matter for all the trials Wlien I see you I shall tell you more for I know you are busy this morning That is nt an empty blank where I l 3g 1I1 llquot is so full of affection that ElvIIIY DICKINSON 47 you cant see ariy that s all Will you love and remember me when you have time from worthier ones God keep you till I have seen you again Very earnestly yrsm Emily To Emily Fowler about 1851 I m so afraid yoii ll forget me dear Emily through these cold winter days when I cannot come to see you that I cannot forbear writing the least little bit of a noteto put you in mind of me perhaps it will make you laughit may be foolish in me but I love you so well SOf1 lE3flquot1 1 S quotI10lI that I do not alwayswhut more dearly SO1T1 t1I391 1 Sa fl with such a desire to see you that I nd myself addressing you almost ere I m aware When I am as old as you and have had so many friends perhaps they wont seem so precious and then I shant write any more little billet doux like these but you will forgive me now because I cant nd many so dear to me as you then I know I cant have you always sorne day a brave dragoon will be stealing you away and I will have farther to go to discover you at all so I shall recollect all these sweet opportunities and feel so sorry if I did rit improve them To Susan Gilbert about Febmriry 6 1852 Will you let me come dear Susie looking yust as I do my dress soiled and worn my grand old apron and my hair Oh Susie time would fail me to enumerate my appearance yet I love you gust as dearly as if I was e er so ne so you wont care will you I am so glad dear Susie that our hearts are always clean and always neat and lovely so not to be ashamed I have been hard at work this morning and I ought to be working now but I cannot deny myself the luxury of a minute or two with you The dishes may wait dear Susie and the unclearecl table stand tliem I have always with me but you I have not alvvays zi2lay Susie Christ hath saints manzewmand I have few but theewthe angels shant have Susie iio no no Oh my darling one how long you wander from me how weary I grow of Waiting and looking and calling for you sometimes I shut my eyes and shut my heart towards you and try hard to forget you because you grieve me so but you ll never go away Oh you never will say Susie promise me again and I will smile fa1ntly ai1d take up my little cross again of lsadsczd separation How vain it seems to wrnfe when one knows how to feel how much more near and dear to sit beside you talk with you hear the tones of your voice so hard to deny thyself and take up thy cross and follow ine give me strength Susie write me of hope and love and 48 CHLOE PLUS OLIVIA of hearts that endured and great was their reward of Our Father who art in Heaven I dont know how I shall bear it when the gentle spring comes if she should come and see me and talk to me of you Oh it would surely kill me While the frost clings to the windows and the World is stern and drear this absence is easier the Ezzrth iriourns too for all her little birds but when they all come back again and she sings and is so rnerrywpray what will become of rue Susie forgive me forget all what I say get some sweet little scholar to read a gentle hymn about Bethleerri and Mary and you will sleep on sweetly and have as peaceful dreams as if I had never written you all these ugly things Never rnirid the letter Susie I wont be angry with you if you dont give me any at all for I know how busy you are and how little of that dear strength remains when it is evening with which to think and write Only wrirzt to write me only sometimes sigh that you are far from me and that will do Susie Dont you think we are good and patient to let you go so long and dont we think you re a darling a real beautiful hero to toil for people and teach them and leave your own dear honie Because we pine and repine Clout think we forget the precious patriot at war in other lands Never be mournful Susie be happy and have cheer for how many of the long days have gone away since I wrote you and it is almost noon and soon the night will come and then there is one less day of the long pilgrimage Mattie is very srnart talks of you mater my darling I must leave you iiow one little hour of Heaven thank who did give it me and will he also grant me one longer and more when it shall please his l V lf1I1g Susie home re Love always and ever and true Erriily To Sirts Gilbert about February I852 It s a sorrowful morning Susie the wind blows and it rains into each life sortie rain must fall and I hardly know which falls fastest the rain without or within Oh Susie I would nestle close to your warm heart and never hear the wind blow or the storm beat again Is there any room there for me or shall I wander away all homeless and alone Thank you for loving me darling and will you love me more if ever you come home it is enough dear Susie I know I shall be satisfied But what can I do towards YOLIPquotquotquot39d 3l 39 you cmmor be for I love you so already that it almost breaks my heart perhaps I can love you anew every day of my life every morning and evening Oh if you will let me how happy I shall be The precious billet Susie I am wearing the paper our reading it over and o er but the dear thorigbts cant wear out if they try Thanks to Our EMILY DICKINSON 49 Father Susie Vinnie and I talked of you all last evening long and went to sleep mourning for you and pretty soon I waked up saying Precious trea sure thou art mine and there you were all right my Susie and I hardly dared to sleep lest some one steal you away Never iriind the letter Susie you have so much to do ust write me every week one me and let it be Ernily I love you and I will be satis ed Your own Emily To Susan Gilbert late April 1853 So sweet and still and Thee Oh Susie what need I more to make my heaven whole Sweet Hour blessed Hour to carry me to you and to bring you back to me long enough to snatch one kiss and whisper Good bye again I have thought of it all day Susie and I fear of but little else and when I was gone to meeting it lled my mind so full I could not find a cmzle to put the worthy pastor when he said Our Heavenly Father I said Oh Darling Sue when he read the 100 Psalrn I kept saying your precious letter all over to thyself and Susie when they sang it would have made you laugh to hear one little voice piping to the departed I made up words and kept singing how I loved you and you had gone while all the rest of the choir were singing Hallelinahs I presume nobody heard me because I sang so small but it was a kind of a comfort to think I rnight put theni out singing of you I a rit there this afternoon tho because I am here writing a little letter to my dear Sue and I am very happy I think of ten weeks Dear One and I think of love and you and my heart grows full arid warm and my breath stands still The sun does nt shine at all but I can feel a sunshine stealing into my soul and making it all summer and every thorn a rose And I pray that such suminer s sun shine on my Absent One and cause her bird to sing39 You have been happy Susie and now are sad and the whole world seems lone but it wont be so always some days mzisz be dark and dreary You wont cry any more will you Susie for my father will be your father and my home will be your home and where you go I will go and we will lie side by side in the kirkyard 1 To Susrm Gilbert june 11 1852 I have but one thought Susie this afternoon of June and that of you and I have one prayer only dear Susie that is for you That you and I in hand as we e en do in heart might ramble away as children among the woods and fields and forget these many years and these sorrowing cares 50 CHLOE PLUS OLIVIA and each become a child again I would it were so Susie and when I look around me and find myself alone I sigh for you again little sigh and vain sigh which will not bring you home I need you more and more and the great world grows wider and dear ones fewer and fewer every day that you stay away I miss my biggest heart my own goes wandering round and calls for Susie Friends are too dear to sunder Oh they are far too few and how soon they Wlll go away where you and I cannot find them dont let us forget these things for their remembrance now will save us many an anguish when it is too late to love them Susie forgive me Darling for every word I say rny heart is full of you none other than you in my thoughts yet when I seek to say to you something not for the world words fail me If you were here and Oh that you were my Susie we need not talk at all our eyes would whisper for us and your hand fast in mine we would not ask for language I try to bring you nearer I chase the weeks away till they are quite departed and fancy you have come and I am on my way through the green lane to meet you and my heart goes scariipering so that I have much ado to bring it back again and learn it to be patient till that dear Susie comes Three weeksmth ey cant last always for surely they must go with their little broth ers and sisters to their long home in the west I shall grow more and more impatient until that dear day comes for till now I have only mourned for you now I begin to hope for you Dear Susie I have tried hard to think what you would love of some thing I might send you I at last saw my little Violets they begged me to let them go so here they are and with them as Instructor a bit of knightly grass who also begged the favor to accompany therri they are but small Susie and I fear not fragrant now but they will speak to you of warm hearts at home and of the something faithful which never sliirnbers nor sleeps Keep them neath your pillow Susie they will make you dream of blueskies and home and the blessed countr1e l You and I will have an hour with Edward and Ellen Middleton sometime when you get horne we must find out if some things contained therein are true and if they are what you and me are coming to Now farewell Susie and Vinnie sends her love and mother her s and I add a kiss shyly lest there is somebody there Dont let them see will you Susie Emilie Why cant I be a Delegate to the great Whig COIIVCIYCIOIIPCIOIEIZ I know all about Daniel Webster and the Tariff and the Law Then Susie I could see you during a pause in the sessionwbut I dont like this country at all and I sharit stay here any longer Delenda est America Massachusetts and all open me carefully EMILY DICKINSOINI S1 To Susan Gilbert lime 27 1852 My Susie s last request yes darling I grant it tho few and fleet the days which separate us nowmwbut SIX more weary days but SIX more CWIquot light evens and my lone little reside rriy silent reside is once more full We are seven and one in heaven we are three next Saturday if I have mine and heaven has none Do not mistake my Susie and rather than the car ride on the golden wings where you will rie er come back aga111quot ClO not forget the lane and the little cot that stands by it when people from the clouds will beckon you and smile at you to have you go with thern Oh Susie my child I sit here by my window and look each little while down towards that golden gateway beneath the western trees and I fancy I see you coming you trip upon the green grass and I hear the crackling leaf under your little shoe I hide behind the chair I think I will surprise you I grow too eager to see you I hasten to the door and start to nd me that you are not there And very very often when I have waked from sleep not quite waked I have been sure I saw you and your dark eye beamed on me with such a look of tenderness that I could only weep and bless God for you Susie will you indeed come home next Saturday and be my own again and kiss me as you used to Shall I indeed behold you not darkly but face to face or am I fcmcymg so and drearning blessed dreams from which the day will wake me I hope for you so much and feel so eager for you feel that I cannot Wait feel that now I must have yoiimtliat the expectation once more to see your face again makes me feel hot and feverish and my heart beats so fast l go to sleep at night and the first thing I know I am sitting there wide awake and clasping my hands tightly and thinking of next Saturday and never a bit of you Sometimes I must have Saturday before tomorrow comes and I wonder if it w d make any difference with God to give it to me triday and I d let him have Monday to make him a Saturday and then I feel so funnily and wish the precious day wou1d nt come quite so soon till I could know how to feel and get my thoughts ready for it Why Susie it seems to me as if my absent Lover was coming home so soori and my heart must be so busy making ready for him While the minister this morning was giving an account of the Roman Catholic system and announcing several facts which were usually startling I was trying to make up my mind wh of the two was prettiest to go and Welcome you in my fawn colored dress or my blue dress ust as I had decided by all means to wear the blue down came the minister s fist with a terrible rap on the counter and Susie it scared me so I hav rit got over it yet but I m glad I reached a conclusion I walked home from meeting HEEH EH3 m E ummm mE HHS H lt u 5H 253 HUQH H4 mum EHH E93 HHH2amuwH mgtgtcHH 59 225 Ho HHm HmHHH m gtwomvH mwHHnH H How H as E 3 E HHHQHOM nmwmummm omom MFHH mm Hualt rt mwc SE33 EH mm HElt mHouu mHm BHHL Ilmma JMOHQ HH mHb MOH HuHb9 mmzmm E Hvzm m SSH H do He JEGH H 3 Hmmpm u BHH mm H m Jam msmca no 33 c2HTau EH32 use uHgtgt Hm EEAH MHHH E 2 mnH HnHHHHEmmmmH H Hgt HxUHHmgtgt mgt H 9 HmHuE oHu Eu was 5 JE HSAH mgtgtomvH 35 on Hucm 6HnH mmuHHEonH BHH SE H gtm 6 gtgtOHnH 21 tam mom HHHHHHHSME mH HHm H1198 EOHH HuugtoE8 Em HEHH C HoHm SH HNHHH now EHEHH ugtoH H HH Husm JE swim mean ugt H Ban HuHHu mm q om Ham HHgt EHm vHHu m 95 fog gtgtOHHvH Hos moot EH vHHmmGmH JgtoH new HmrHU msmum Rt saw amH HE S Hmzo mum 620 mQHmH HHmcHm H JEVHE mm mi HH 505 Humm nwu mmu mono H mugtmmHL Bi Ho EuHnHEu mmEm H EH 2 HH mHH E Hu gtHH wgtmH Hziuzm 5nH HEH mm 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JHHgtgt mat HHw E H33 gtgtovH 534 Hwcm ugt Hmuuxu HuHmogtgt 5 E HHHuonHo Hucm 5 Ho mgtgtovH uH 534 oHHL Lmsccu moH mugtHH m HH SE ma a E mgtmH HHh2H u dc ugtHwHOH HH5 H50 mac H Humm nm H H uH H m Hm HuwNgt HQ 3 Home mHOOH mm Hicom H EHH Ho mm Hm SQ noon Hmmm ou HQ H Hu Hmmzw m was ugtbgtgt mam new 3 8 gt Ho mgtnH coma BHH H52 H51 5 imgm Em 59H mama H23 HHEgt comm ugtmH H i2mmm G Hm3MHHH SE wcH wHmv xmmxv OH EMHHHEN 50 958 33 Em H dgtoH HE Humm dgtoH mmEgt HH mmmsmEuH E m HQH B3 Huam 3 mHH EQHEHV H mag 4 8 Emma H Emu om nm u HE hHmmH H45 2 my HDJHOE HE Em nHmHm EH mm OH 98 HOH u m 2 3 SH 53 HHHmmwHu8 HEgt Humm cHHsm H HmCE Hgt H danm Eoom om 0 Hana Hmm Emma 35 W5H EH EH J m HHH JHMLH EmmmH mm uHHOH pm 2 wHHHgtgt PE 0 ampHwHw to gtH om Hucm 0 HwHgtgt Em H ummu2HmmHmcmm H GHGH5m EH mm 395 mm Humm 3505 mm 823 mm as mo damm QSOHH mwcr 0 mOEH H HEmimm no gtOE B Huu cmum H H25 2 ugtmuH S Huuwmumm m mw HE EL 5ouvH 8 wEmmmH Hmov H mm H HwHgtgt E2msmHHEgt Rmtzsm Rum BBH AH HuH Ogtgt mo HE HH3HmEE as Ho 25 VHHHHJH H Hunm 50 Ho Hxmm mm mcHEom JHHHHHQ mHHNSHmHHEu 2 Hucm JEEHZ 55 HgtHHO HHHHHH HOHHIHU mm 54 CHLOE PLUS OLIVIA IIeld 111 a truer Land Are rn1ne And though they now depart Tell I my doubtrng heart They 1e thrne In a serener Brrght In a more golden light I see Each lrttle doubt and fear Each ltttle drscord here Removed Then Will I not repute Knowing that Brrd of niune Though flown Shall tn a drstant tree Bright melody for me Return E To Cczzflyerme Scott Tamer Amfbon about March 1859 I never rrussed a Kate before Two Sues El1za and a Martha corn prehend my girls Sweet at my door thrs March nrght another Candidate Go Home We don t lillt Katles here Stay My heart Votes for you and what am I 111 deed to dispute her ballot Xhat are your quah cattons Dare you dwell 1n the East where we dwell Are you attend of the St2umWhen you hear the new yrolet sucking her way among the sods shall you be resolute All we are strcmgers dear The world is not acquatnted wlth us because we are not acquainted With her And I 1lgr1rr1s Do you hesitate and Sol alters oftsome of us Vtctors but those I do not see tomght owmg to the smoke Xe are hungry and thrrsty son1ettrnes We are barefoot and cold W1ll you Still come Then brlght I record you Kate gathered in March It 1s a small bouquet dear but what it lacks in 8126 1t gains 111 fadelessness Many can boast a hollyhock but few can bear a rose And should new ower smile at ltrnrted assocrates pray her remember were there many they were not worn upon the breastmbut trlled 111 the pasture So I USE wearing her so I sleep hold1ug Sleep at last wrth her fast 111 my hand and wake bearrng my flower Ern1l1e EMILY DICKINSON 55 Sent With a part of garters that Erruly krutted for Kate late 18 9quot9 To Ccztoerme Scott Turner Antbon When Katie walks thrs sample parr accompany her SICIC Wl1en llt3139i 3 runs unwearled they follow on the road When Katze kneels therr lovrng hands strll clasp her prous knee Ah Kane Srnile at Fortune wrth two so kmt to thee Emrlre To Ccztlaerzne Scott Tamer Arztlaon szmzmer I860 Kate Drstrnctly sweet your face stands in tts phantom nrchewwl touch your hand rny cheek your cheek I stroke your vanished hart Why drd you enter slster stnce you must depart Had not ITS heart been torn enough but you must send your shred Oh our Condor Kate Come from your crags again Oh Dew upon the bloom fall yet agam a surnrne s mght Of such have been the trends which have Vanqtnshed faceswsown plant by plant the churchyard plats and occastoned angels There ts a subject dear on Wllitll we never touch Ignorance of Its pageautnes does not deter me I too went out to meet the Dust early H1 the morning I too In Dalsy mounds possess hid treasure therefore I guard you 1nore You drd not tell me you had once been a M1ll1or1atre Did my srster thtnk that opulence could be rr11stakeu Sorne trrnket wtll rerua1n sorne babblrng plate or ewel I wrrte you from the summer The 1 1 lL1I391Tt11fEIg leaves ll up the ch1nllts thro Wl1iCl1 the wrnter red shone when Kate was here and Frank was he1e aud Frogs srncerer than our own splash 111 thetr Mak er s pools Its but a ltttle past dear and yet how far from here it see139ns fled wrth the snow So through the snow go many loymg feet parted by Alps how brtef from Vineyards and the Su11 l arents and Vtnnze request love to be gtyen G1rl Em1l1e 56 CHLOE PLUS OLIVIA 5M11Y DICKINSON 57 From The Poems of Emily Dickinson at You love me you are sure 53 I shall not fear 1mstallte I shall not cheated wake Some grrnnmg mom To nd the Sunrrse left Ahd Orchardsunbereft And DOlli quot go11e IIer breast 13 hr for pearls But I was not a D1Ver Her brow rs t for thrones But I have not a crest Her heart 18 t for IJ0me I a Sparrow hu1ld there Sweet of twigs and tW1I1 I need not start you re sure That night Will never he Xhen fr1ghter1ed l1ome to Thee I run To nd the wmdows darl w And no more Dollre rnarllt Quite none My perenmal nest Pa The Lady feeds Her httle Bard Be Sure ymfre SWQTWYOU knoww I ll bear if better now If you ll ust tell me so Than wher1 a httle dull Balm grown Over thrs pain of mine The Gulf between the Hand and Her You Stlllgmagalng And Crumbless and afar And famtmg on Her yellow Knee Fall softly and adore 3 At rarer iHt I39VE1lSquot The littl i Brrd would not CllSS I139 But theekly recognize L1lE3 Eyes that looked on WastesW Incredulous of Ought 5 But Blar1llt and steady Wrldernessm I showed her Hights she never saw Dwersl ed by Nlghtwquot lould st Cllrnb I said She sa1d 39Not so W1th me I sald X1tl1 me I showed her Secrets lIorr1mg s Nest The Rope the Nlghts were put across And now Wot1lcl st have me for a Guest She could not nd her Yes Ahd then I brake my llfe Ar1d Lo A Llght for her dxd solemn glow The larger as her face w1thdreW just In mtes of Noughtm As far as at could see So looked the face I looked UpO1quoti So looked atselfwon Me I offered ITquot no Help Because the Cause was Mme The Mrsery a Compact As hopelesswas d1v1ne And Cmlld 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mh ogm mlt dwmmma Em mo Emma awn E395 b uom mcr EE Lemma mc om mm mw wm o m mmm wamgw Em 3 m c gummy 203 mwiwm mzm mmmwmm we H65 w mmuhmmm was msE mo ummqa ou 535 ms mmmm m mm mam 33 5 9559 93 omen mom moou 5 mm 95 mm 3 E mmwnmwmeg Q mwm we wummtom w w we woo mw mn im moomawm was mzwomm wwmmd mwmfwm womwmmommw oe of e mnmw oi xum aw comma 4amp3 ha we mBmgtw mm 9593 xum mm Eibm E a m 2amp seam mazmwmmwzHgtoQmzltmmmwmHmmmkzogmm PART ONE 7723 Years p February 24 1932 the following obituary appeared in the Hartford C0 urant lIrs Rebecca Thomas 95 widow of Charles H Thomas of 115 Adelaide Street died Sunday morning at the Mutiicipal Hospital after a long illness She leaves three nieces lIs Edna Edwards of Hartford llIrs Jessie H Harris of Cambridge l vass and Mrs Nellie Singleton of Detroit lIich The funeral will be held Tues day afternoon at 130 P M at Jolmson s funeral home 19 Pavilion Street and at 2 o clocllt at the Talcott Street Congregational Church Rev James A Wright will of ciate Burial will be in the family plot in Zion Hill Cemetery The paragraph gives details relating to the commemoration of Rebecca Primes Thomas s death and her relationship to others but it relays very little abeut the woman herself As with so many women especially so many African American women the signi cance of her life and deeds is lost to history in this nal public document of her life To a knowing Hartford reader the name and address might provide a hint that she had been part of one of Hartferdb oldest and most promi nent black families That she was the widow of Charles Thomas con nected her to another well lmown black lIaxtford residentl More information about he life and commitments might have been evident in the name of the church However even these iderxtity markers link the value of her life to the deeds and reputations of others Most impor tant there is no mention of her career as a teacher of freedmen 9 BELOVEDSISTERSANDLGVINGFRIENDS Until recently historians did not acknowledge black wornerfs role in Reconstruction Evert W E B Du Bois who attended to the words of black participants in his important Block Reconstruction published in 1935 only three years after Primus s death failed to note the work of black women teachers Du Bois applauded the efforts of the New England schoolteachers but for him these instructors dedicated and innovative were for the most part White Fortydive years later the white feminist historian Jacqueline Jones published the first fulllength study of New England teachers who went south to found schools for and to teach the freed people In Soldiers of Light and Love Jones like Du Bois leaves out the efforts of black teachers Not until the publication of Linda Perkir1s s 1984 article T he Black Female American Missionary Associatiori Teacher in the South 18611870 and Dorothy Sterli11g s We Are Your Sisters 1984 did black teachers begin to receive scholarly attention The absence of primary sources left by these women was one of the reasons for the inattention to them Nevertheless Rebecca Primes was one of many northern black women who went south to teach the freed people As with most of her peers Rebecca sawquot her teaching as a political and moral calling She set forth on a mission that would influence her trerrleodousljz The teachers who headed south organized schools that held day sessions for children night sessions for adults and Sabbath schools In addi tion they visited freedmerfs homes and became respected members of the communities they inhabited Their mission was one of education and uplift Rebecca Primus t the pro le of other black school marms who were notthern born middle class single and childless Most were in their twenties and had aboveeaverage education Most had taught in their hometowns before going sooth Many of them suf fered greatly from the stresses associated with their jobs Others were the victims of violence and harassrnentfl Primus documents all of these circu1 r1s39tances What were the factors the conditions that might have led Miss Primes to take up the difficult mission of relocating to the South The answer to this question can best he found in the community that pro duced and nurtured her Rebecca was born in 1836 to Holdridge P139imus and Mehitable Jacobs Primes She was the eldest of four chil dren her siblings were Nelson Henrietta and Isabella Bell5 Her paternal greatgrandfather was an African slave who won his freedom IO H oldtidge Primes Rebecrair zzf262 zafront of the Ifzznipzap and Seyms graces 550213 in Hargfford II BeLovsoS1s39rrRs AND LOVINGFRIENDS by lighting in the American army during the Revolutionary Wa1396 Her maternal grandfather owned a cobbler shop lo 1860 all the Primuses but the youngest Bell were gainfully employed Holdridge Primes was a clerk in a welldroowo Hartford grow cery rm Humphrey and Seyms His wife Mehitahle sometimes worked as a seamstress Nelson was a painter he worked for a carriage H1al l39 George Francis and eventually moved to Boston to pursue his career as a portraitist Henrietta was a domestic in the home of a local white businessman Henry Ferre The Primes family owned their home at 20 Wadsworth Street Reloecca would return to this home after the death of her husband in 1891 living there until 1902 As property owners who were able to maintain steady employment the Primuses were clearly part of Hartford s black middle class However Henri etta s employment as a domestic suggests the uidity of class and the precarious nature of middleclass status in the African American community Though they lived in a predominantly white neighborhood the Primuses were part of a cohesive black community that centered around the activities of the city s black institutions They were I I1 tt 1 bers of the Talcott Street Congregational Church one of two hlaclc Hartford churches Hehecca continued to teach Sunday school there until her death in 1932 James Pemtingtori the natiortally known black abolitionist had been minister of the Talcott Street Church which had been a site of abolitionist meetings and organizing Furthermore Hebecca Primus probably attended one of Hartfords African schools where Pennington and the essayist Ann Plato had been teachersf lt seems that Rebecca might have taught in one of these schools as well lo her letters she speaks of her Hartford classes she would not have taught in the city s wliite schools As early as 1861 Addie writes to her I see you still have your private school 8 All of this is to say that Rebecca Primus grew up in a city with a small black population it numbered just over seven hundred in 1860 slightly more than two percent of the total Hartford population but she worshiped in was educated in and was employed by black lllslllll tions with an explicit political focus that of black freedom and uplift The Hartford ll13llti corrim1111ity39 was made up of a Vibrarit network of families and institutions lo the letters one encounters members of the Talcott Street Congregational Church as well as the Zion Methodist Chorcli The racially integrated Hartford Freedmerrls Aid Society and 12 The Early Jlcz7395 joznes Permingtozz the ac1 z39z2isl Jester of Yoicott Street Cfzzmfz the Prince Hall Masonic Lodge were among the coo1rriur1ity s major social and civic organizations The latter provided many opporturiities for dancing at its frequent halls There are descriptions of visits to Allyn Hall to hear music trips to New York on the ferry the Granite State to New Hampshire Boston and Philadelphia Both Addie and Rebecca were avid readers of both the mainstream and the hlack press as well as of novels sermons biographies and books on history and religion Among the families who populate the letters were the Plates the Sands the Notts and the Saunderses Henry Nott was a black painter William Saunders was a black tailor as well as an agent for Wlilliarn Lloyd Garrisorfs The Liberator He had two sons Thomas and Prince both of whom were tailors one of them married Roxanna Saunders for whom Addie frequently sewed I3 BELOVEDSISTERSANDLOVINGFRIENDS Rebecaa s maternal aunt Emily married Raphael Sands 3 Por tuguese baker and cook The couple and their two children Sarah and Thomas lived on Wadsworth Street just down the block from the Priimrses For a While Addie lived with the Sands family and when she worked at Miss Portefs School in Farmington Connecticut Mr Sands was her supervisor Thomas Sands raarried a woman who like Rebecca s younger sister was named Bell His family did not approve of the marriage because they thought her beneath him Addie agreed Rehecca s other maternal aunt Bathsheba referred to in the letters as Aunt Bashy married Reverend John Smith and had two children Hattie and William She later married a porter named Henry Cham pion Their daughter Mary Champion appears frequently in Addie s letters Another prominent family the Plates were unrelated to other Plates in the city among them the essayist Ann Plato Gertrude Plato was a friend and contemporary of Addie s and Rehecca s In 1863 Gertrude inherited her family s estate valued at approximately four thousand dollars9 She made frequent trips and were expensive cloth irig though was not considered physically attractive Rehecca s sister Bell was the community s beauty and attracted a number of suitors with her charm and her irtatious nature I4 Chapter One l Ve Lost a Day I854quotquot I856 H E RE are no letters from Rehecca to her family prior to 1865 However two pieces of her writing survive that period a poem l ve Lost a Day written in l854 when she was eighteeri and an essay History of My Poodle Dog written in 1856 While neither are literary masterpieces they do reveal several important traits that become more apparent in the later letters First both the poem and the essay suggest that she is comfortable expressing herself through her writing and that she writes in a number of forms That she may have had literary aspirations appears in later letters when she laments being too busy to pursue her Writing Unfortu nately these are the only pieces of writing aside from the letters that seem to have survived V The poem reveals yet another aspect of her personality that is borne out in the letters She is highly organized and concerned with the most effective use of her time No doubt this coricern with efficiency con tributed to her success as a teacher and as a fastidious administrator of her school The essay expresses her love of animals The mourned poodle is eventually replaced by other pets the cats Jim and Jim Jr As we will see Rehecca dotes on pets and children The seriousness and formality with which she customarily carries herself give way immediately in the presence of her beloved animals and the children in her life her niece Leila and her little adopted sister Doll These are perhaps the only places where Rehecca is not writing about racial politics in America They are the efforts of a middle class young Woman who chooses to express her ambition and her emotions through her writing 15 Chopaalfam 33 H you was a man 1859W186o39 HE Primes family home often served as a boardinghouse and 0WO employment agency for other African Americans particularly young black womeii Primes and Brown both speak of young southern women who lived in the Prinms home following the Civil War and other letters document requests from prominent white Hartford citizens to Holdridge and Mehitable lor servants Thus the Primes home served as a precursor to social service agencies such as the White Rose Mission in New York which emerged in the latter half of the nineteenth Cen tiny Fouinded hy Victoria Earle Matthews in l897 the White Rose Mission was a kind of seulement house that served as a community eeri ter and employmer1t agency Most important it provided shelter and guidance for young black women migrants from the South it is noticlear how or when Rebecca Primes met Addie Brown Brown might have been one of the many young women who boarded with the Primes family and for Whom they found employment 0 per haps she was introduced to the family as a child Addie spent her early years in Philadelphia with an unknown aunt Jererniah Asher Holdridge Primusfs first cousin was the pastor of the Shiloh Baptist Church in Philadelphia Possibly in that capacity he knew the family with whom Addie resided Whatever the case by 18539 when her letters to Rehecca begin Addie was already part of the Frimus family circle The largest gaps and silences in the PrimesBrown story relate to the early life of Addie Brown We do know that she was horn on lecem ber 21 l84l3 Her father died when she was young and her mother remarried against Addie s wishes Addie had a brother named Ally Brown who served in the Civil War but there is little information about him 8 lfyoa was 2 mm Her earliest letters written from Waterbury and Hartford are pri marily concerned with her dayvtoeday existence Addie is often depressed overworked suffering from chronic headaches she tries desperately to learn the sewing trade so that she can nd39employment as a seamstress She takes care of the sick Mrs Games who appears to be expecting a baby though this is never clear and she shuns the advances of Mr Games She spends most of her time longing for Rebeoca Addie letters make little mention of the political and social upheaval of the times 39 The noted historian John Hope Franklin writes Perhaps no decade in the history of the United quotStates has been so lled with tense and cru cial moments as the ten years leading to the Civil War and closely con inected with most of these crises was the problem of slavery After all this was the decade that witnessed the publication of Uncle Tomi Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe another Hartford resident in l852 the Compromise of 1850 in which Congress decided that California should enter the Union as a free state the other territories would he organized without mention of slavery Texas should cede certain lands to New Mexico and be compensated slave holders would be better pro tected by a stringent fugitive slave law and there should be no slave trade in the District of Columbia and the KansasNebrasllta Act of 1854 which provided that Kansas and Nebraska should be organized as territories and that the question of slavery should be decided by the territorial legislatures in 1857 the Supreme Court handed down the Dred Scott decisiori The decade closed with John Browns raid at Harpers Ferry Virginia on October to 1859 Brown was hanged on December 2 1859 None of this is mentioned in the letters that follow Waterbury Aug 52 1859 My Loving Friend I really did not know what to make of your long silence lcome to conclusion that you hadjust forgotten me I was more than please to received your long look for letter and at last it arrived Dear since you last heard from me I have been very sick but now my health is very good now my heart is just bad 0 Dear Friend I am allmost tired of my life Do not scold me Bly Friend for I really mean What I say I will not say much more this perhaps is not very pleasant to the ear I e BELOVEDSISTERSANDLOVINGFRIENDS Mrs Games send her respects to you and says as soon she able to sit up after she is con ne she will send me on so you can look for roe between this and the lastof this months tell me when you school commence will you please I will tell you all the news when I see I you 39 I remain your true Affeetionate Friend Addie one sweet kiss you must look for me every Saturday until I do come on tell Henrietta to write to me if she please While living in Waterbury Addie is able to visit Preheeea She has just returned from such a visit in the letter that follows It is clear that the eornmunity surrooneling the two young women know that they are very close and provide them with syrepathry when they are apart Here we also begin to get an outline of the vibrancy of these black New England communities as Addie tells Reheoea of upcoming events and activities It is also clear that Addie recognizes the rorI1antie and erotic nature of her love for Rehecea if you was a man what would things oorne to she asks her beloved friend I Vaterbury Aug go I859 My ever Dear Friend I no doubt you will be surprise to received a letter so soon I think it will be received with just as much pleasure this week as you will nexe my Dearest Dearest Rebecea my heart is allmost broke I dont know that I ever spent such hours as I have my loving friend it goes harder with me now then it ever did I am more acquainted with you it seem to me this very moments if I only had the wings of a gloye I would not rernain long in Vvaterbury although we cant allway be together 0 it tis hard y 0 Dear I am so lonesome I barelly know how to contain myself if I was only near you and having one of those sweet kisses Man appoint and God disappoints There is not much news here worthy to attention there is going to be a picnic tornorry the Chilclrens tem perance jubilee The hand of hope will be celebrated to it will he a 520 lfyou was 2 man grand affair Mr Pete Sinclair the well known apostle of temperanctze will address the Gathering I sopose it tis quit gay in Hartford O my Dear Friend how I did miss you last night I did not have any one to hug me and to kiss Rebeeca door you drink I am very foolish I doot want anyone to kiss me now I turn Mr Games away this morning no l139sQse is like yours PY You are the first Girl that I ever le so it you are the last one Dear Rebeeea do not say anything against me loving you so for I rneanjust whatl say 0 Rebeeea it seem I can see you now casting those loving eyes at meif you was a man what would things come to they would after come to something very quick what do you think the matter dont laugh at me I must say I dont know that I every injoyed myself any better than did when I was at your par ents house I was treated so rich by all the Family I hope I may have the extreme pleasure returning the same pleasure to you all each will remember the visit as for your self Dear Henrietta there is no one like her if you was to travel all over united states Afleetquotonate Friend Addie 39 PS give my love to all the Family and kiss also to your Mo Addie 39 please to write soon It is not clear if Addie consents to Mr Gamesfs attentions Many young female servants were subjected to sexual harassment at the hands of their employers Addie does not mention Games after this Throughout her time in Waterbury Addie longs to move to Hartford so that she can be closer to Rehecea and to the City s black community Addie s request of Reheceafs rnother reveals a great deal about the power of the Primus family both to act as intermediaries between hlaelc and white Hartford and to provide employment and training for young black women All in all Addie is elear that her situation would he bet ter served if she could but more to Hartford Waterbury Feb 16 1860 My Beloved Friend do not be surprise to hear from me again I am heart sick to see 521 mm wmm m 6mmoH on 395 muEo mmcrHL ww 3 Em mm uumwm Em QB muEoH SM vu vm H REC Hm BE mE2HU cm mm H 2amp3 H595 ow mm mm HHHHSgt H H uwa mmmnH may we Eu mi Hana E oHgtH mmHv 3 3 ugtoH HE via mnH uuHult HuEnH wEgtoH wunH 55 53 EmEE H 59 mwuH oW mugtmu E Hm 92 Emma 553 no 96 350 suww EQE Hon om 95 cm mgt2 St E o mno Ewe mm 5 5HEEu SH Em HQH mna m wmmuu Hon QD uHhHH Hmzo Lmwoxu 05 mm Boa hum wa Ham HE am an 0 B 5 8 Hand w o mmHH 3 5H HE Em muuonem Eu HE 8 ms Q83 8 mmwbw 9 Pan Hm H mac H Hxtwkmcm PE wagm ape wuuunwH umH mason E3 EQH u awn 3043 Ho cm H pom coHmB 3m 3 05 mm H HEwEH nHHuonH E momm 3 33 H 35 3 gubm QSH mm 3 Mom H86 H awn ma a 03H ummmmgcz cg uwm 5 pm wm was 59 Ho mm c u Ham 95 9 mi G83 mm wmm om Emma Em H om mawuwcn B EH3 tw mmuw 33 H Em a3 was mm has 38 H om cm 3 83 H 303 B xmm mam Om msumm HmH S mmwam mm usm was 8 2 Eva Q3 msm m ugt 23 cm 353 uua E 93 ammo W5 EH5 Em uk H mH mam msomm 5 mm 955 pawn w swam m 953 3 wumdw uwww mm H 8 E3 H wuuumum BEG ampampm scam 550 some mum 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HuHHwHd uvHoH aw 08 30 39 as Em Bm B Em coos im LHmUoHgtH 95 me on 3 H mam 2 ea Ho 220 we E95 H 3 was H3 ma a a son uvm 8 Ems 6 Eu 9 guy as 3 H ESE H SQH use 3 Bmm3 Ham P5 w m Hocswu H Hozzmu H so ugtO mm momhi x 922 one was 38 ugtoUmuHmumH gtH muounum 50 Boa Hm m Hu m 3 mm H a 3 we wommuH fa H wb wwwm S Em was Bu H muuwpum 5 co vacuum 5 x H cm 8 95 Ex 2 n ma E5 EH 58330 53 HHS 3 Es mHHE Udd mmw wm u cm 5 H vHwwgt Cugtw QE 9 3 cam 5 xx M m 3amp0 Ema H HH mmmm wm gtgtOHH arm 3 PH Eww wmu H52 Em u MLGHHH mean was 355 mHHH 30 8 8 Eons was H wmxa mm5onH E E5 nHwvH gt5m Esau H 5 wmsom w Ho umhwzu 393 HHS S 98 392m 5 w15gt Ewmwa E 513 gt52 28 Eu 3 25 gto H 30 Esau H mm 6 EH3 awn HE n cm 2 EH 3 Eemmou 303 E cHH amok 33 H 30 30 8 Em swam H om 3 Eu emu mommnt Mam uwEm m aka H cm at E wEE HE ms SEE was 358 H Ema mu md mHHgtH H33 9 9 mm 322 w E Ema Enos WIAIQMH oHH SBQ use 9 29H 35 HHuHE wm mau Esau H EQHEQ wwm Cuba Bea m Ema Q3 um HH 3 mum 33 inc H HH H3252 Hmmm w8EmHH B 533 Ho zmsm 2 mu mmu 3HH wEwH Lnx Hm 4 Bug Emmi eon Bo H Eon mmH gtgt m Emn 953 H oH NE E Ho aw 8 3 mm aw Edmm Em H E3 304 of mu Hm 50 33 anus 29 mg mama 58 H tor 5 man we 4 EH md1BuH ewtmu Hmwgmu H2H 95 3 am 9 H Mac 305 393 ugtoH Q HE Em ow H Emma 0 32 Em H gt5 Emma B 9 tu m 8 Ex mi 2393 H Emwo H muwm 30 can mm 305 map was an om wm u man mm woac m3 mmweaomm uomu ou Emma P53 wumo sow mmzmwmmmzgtcwHmzltmmmwwwQmgtcHmm BELOVEDSISTERSANDLOVENGFRIENDS No more delighted afford Far from my heart hejoys within For I have knownithe lord excuse this writing Addie y In entering the ranks of the saved Addie joins a tradition of African American women who sustained strong spiritual lives Black feminist theologian Jacquelyn Grant has Written for Black Christian women in the past Jesus was their eerrtral frame of reference They identi ed with Jesus heeause they believed Jesus identi ed with them 5 Addie sprayers seem to he answered when she moves to Hartford However it appears that Rehecea has left he city for an extended trip So ironically Addie3 longing for her friend is not abateel She has found work perhaps with the assisrariee of Mehitable Primus Hartford Aug 15 1860 lyly Beloved Rebeoca I have been down hearted today I wishing I was near you my head reclining on your Dear bosom it tis useless to wish that my love l suppose about this time you have heard that I have left lylrs Kel logg l am very much please to hear that you are enjoying yourself a l also delighted that you are getirrg fat I hope you will not lose it all after you return home 0 You spoke of my health I are Very well with the exception of my head my head trouble me great deal you know I was sun struck while I was at Mrs Kellogg I was out in the sun great deal I think I have lost some of my flesh Mrs Hartley has to notice it l spoke of it lV39Iy Dear Dear Rebeeca if yoo dont hurry home I am afraid that you wont nd my esh I will be nothing but skin and bones Hartford Nov 17 86o My Cherish Friend My head is better to day last night it pain me very hard 0 My Dear dear Rebeeea when you press me to your quotDear bosom 24 Ijquoty0u was cl man happy I was last night I gave any thing if I could only layed my poor aching head on your bosom 0 Dear how soon will it be lead be able to do so I suppose you think me very foolish if you do it tis all the same to me Dear Rehecea when I am away from you I feel so unhapy it seem me the hours and days are like weeks amp month will that day ever Come than I can he with you oftener it seem to me when we are together our moments are limited I do not know Why 1313 so although one eomfortl have the is day coming there will be no parting it tis very gloomy here if lwas only hear you now I rather have my head on your lap then pencil the few lines to you F I am going to be layed down how good Uotill you her from me again yours for ever ootill death parts as Addie PS except a secret kiss i will imprint on here so look good you may perehance find it Addie I was even so foolish to expect you last evening but all was in value every footsteps I heard thinking it was my loving Rebeeca few days past my lltgte been towards you more then I can express Dear Rebeeca one thing I am going to say is this when ever you want me to Come down and stay all night you must tell me no more until we meet from your ever Dear and loving Addie one sweatquot kiss from your sweat lips 25 BELOVEDSISTERSANDLOVING FRIENDS don t you want to go to Hartford I would say I guess I would then we d go welll may wish she often speak of you and said she would like to see you Fm going to tell you little more news do not mention it to any one Mrs Hector has left her Husband she is staying nexe door she come in to see me Friday Angeline going out to Mrs H say of her Husband do dilferently by her she will live with him again not urztill he does both of them have made up there mind never to go on a boat again I think they will be very much indeed by the community dont you think so well my dear my head is aching so Imust close this by wishing you a merry Christmas and a very happy New Year forl am as ever your Loving Addie PS please to give my love to the family to your Aunt Emily and a kiss how I would like to see her Addie 54 Chapter Four Call you my sister I852 I854 D DIE 8 first letter of the new year nds her still in New York living with the Jacksons Here she paints a portrait of domesticity Her brother Ally reads a book as she writes by the re However Addie learned to read in this she is elesrly exceptional among her peers From now on she will begin to write more ahout her reading to Rehecoa Ally 3 book is probably The Lamp and the Lantern or Light for the lien and Traveler by James Hamilton Puhlished in 1853 this text was about the important influence of the Bible on the lives of young men Although these are personal letters they give us a sense of the way the Civil War affected New York s black community By the fall of l8i2 Addie has moved to Hartford and there are fewer letters hetween her self and llebeeea New York Sun jar 10 1862 quotMy Dearly amp Beloved Friend It is a very gloomy day it has been rainy all the am now it is stop I have been thinking of you and wondering what you are about well I will imagine you with pupils around you and also giving them good instructions I guess by this time they all very fond of you I sometime wish that I was a school girl again for this one reason so that I could be under you charge then I could be with the object of my allections dad and hourly while now Fm diprive of it to day My loge I have been very unhappy you say to yourself what is the cause of it I was going to say I hardly know myself but that not so Rebeeea l want to see you very much l think of you daily 3 dream of you nightly 55 IBrLovanS1sraasaNoLoV1noFsIENos sometime they are pleasant ones then again unpleasant I hinted to mother about going to Hartford on some Saturday and stay until Monday but she will not take the hint and one thing the business is very dull here P my Dear I felt very bad when I read your letter you spoking of writing me with a severe headach you know I would pity a day with headach for I know it is My darling I want ask you one favor I do not know weather you will grant are not I is to this do not write to me when you in any pain no matter were My brother Ally he his sitting along side rne reading a book called the Lamp lighty our cat laying on the rug sleeping Aunt Chat she is down stairs sewing and geting dinner at the same time I wish dinner was ready I feel somewhat hungre I seem tolove thee more and more now my dear I must go the fire in the front room is gone out so I must go make it up for the evening some one be coming in so good by my loving Friend I untill you here from me again yours truly Addie Addie refers to Baruurnls American Museum founded by R T Barnum in 1840 and located at the intersection of Park Row and Broadway Throughout the 1860s the popular Venue was known for exhilnts per formances and sensational attractions Among these were the Siamese Twins and the Man Monkey Wllliam Henry Johnson an eighteen yearold black dwarf who was billed as the missing link and referred to in the press as a cross between a nigger and a baboon New York Jan 12 I862 My dear Friend The rain is keeping me from church not only me but the rest of the family it make me feel sad for I have become a teacher in the Sunday school I do not care about missing any Sun Although Pm con dent that my class will not be there not only the rain but it dreadfull walking the walks is just like sheets of ice I will inform you how we spend the last day of the old year 8 the rst of the new in the eye a gent call to see us and about I0 oclock we had a oyster supper then after supper which about 11 one part of the family went in the parlor while the other clean up the room then we 56 Colfyotz my sister sing just is the old year was bidding farwell to us all we sing a hyrn and then after we wish a happy New years to each other and retire New Year day mother kept a open house we had 31 calls Among them was lzIr Lee about 2 PM Aunt C 8 Selina amp I went to the church amp see a marriage the bride did look beautiful her dress was white lace flower as for the bride maid I did not admired her very much there was a great many out to witness the affair I made Selina laugh Mr McNeil gave her his likeness so she had it in her bossom so I told her take it up to M r Alston and ask him to marry them he said she invited original the eve we was all Very tired as for myself I was heart sick we could not We retired for there some one coming in out when there was no one there mother would take me sofa Selina 8 I the other Grand lI the rocking chair Aunt C look at the door everytime the bell rang each one would spring up as if sornething was after us I do not know what the people thought as for mother she went to sleep while they was here so about 1 o clock we all retire so the nexe day Aunt C 8 I took the children amp weut to Barnums they was delighted they never been before The first winter of the Civil War was a time of economic hardship and ill health for the Jackson household Consequently Addie found herself with an extra heavy workload and little money Her discussion of the social events organized by her CO IltI1t1i 1llyf3V l 1lS that will raise money and collect clothing for the contraband39 offer a glimpse of the community s war efforts Signi cantly Addie mentions a eornrnittee to raise funds for an orphan asylum By 1863 New Yorkls Colored Orphan Asylum had been burned down in the Civil War draft riot when economic competition between white immigrants fearful of job competition from free blacks exploded in ts of violence in which one hundred people were killed Addie left New York prior to the riot New York Sun jan 14 1852 My Dearest Friend I suppose you looking forward to you letter you will see that I have commence it Sickness has prevail Aunt C isvery sick the Dr tends her I have just come from upstairs giving her medicine Father 39 57 Bi1LOVEISISTERSAND Lovrsro FRIENDS is also home sick He his been home for two or three days the Dr think be his getting a tumor in his breast he think his has been hurt some way I feel Very sorry although he is no relation but I feel near to him be his very kind to me and I know he love me as the same as his own and sometime he reprirriancl me not loving him as not being his child I can not as I would like I stood alone in this family He is a ne noble rnan he has many tine quality He has few that his wife knows not of perhaps do not want to know them now I must a few moments to go and give AC her medicine she take it every hour Here I m again I have got two fulltime Walter is crying or was with earache I have got them both quiet For the last week its been regular hospital I bid the headache I will not promise that I will write long as I feel somewhat tired I have been re ning all day Selina is home for a day or two now she is writing to her particular friend that remind me of something Mr Lee called this quotweek Mr Burns well and his friend Mr Furnace are getting a surprise party going to have it tomorrow eve also mother and few of her friends going to get up Calico Ball for she bene t of the assylum Many of the sol diers that use to be ingage in the assylunii are withdrawn some body must keep it up or try to I hope they will Nell my love I must close it getting late you must give my love to Aunt and tell her I think of her often 8 kiss her quit often and often wish that it was her herself New York Jan go I862 lviy Dearly Beloved Rebecca just eight days to day since I rec your kind interesting Epistle you must excuse me for keeping you waiting so long for 3 ans I have been very busy indeed Aunt Cihaty has been very sick we was little wor ried about her you rernernber her room she was sick in there I attend her every hour in the day I had to give her the medicine one or two night Iwas a wake with her Mother says she was not able to go up and down stairs I was cornpletely wore out for I had to take the bulk of the work Pm almost sick I do not mean bodily sickness Mother has not any work and father business is very dull M is sometime so disagreeable there is no living with her I often wish that I never come to NY I Aunt Chaty she is much better so much so that she is down and very livly she isjust left me she wish to know what is the matter 58 Ctzilyea my sister with me and I only gave her was a kiss 0Kc Iwill inform of the news the rst thing mother feel so deep by interested in the mantra band that she propose giving a calico ball They going to have it the P of Feb There is ladies engage in it after the ball they or going to give the dresses to them and the money is left is to go towards purw chasing books and slates there is a great many is going those that never attend ball are going perhaps I will go I would like to see how they will look was one night befor last Mrs Lisa Williarns was there Her dress was white s k and white lace of over it and look up They was young lady went that her mother was again it so she had her sister to lay her things out the day her bedroorn is up stairs so she her mother good night and her mother of course thing she had retire for the night instead of that she went to dress she had a white dress dou ble skirt and the slop one had 8 rows of velvet and the stop one was in print and every part had a velvet bow Selina saw her said look beautiful Rebecca I was surprise to here that she would do such a thing or to deceived her own dear mother I could not do so if I wanted to go I would have told that I was going and went out before her every body not like you T he ladies also making arangernent for a fair for the orphan assylum They think they will have it in lylay lIother also in committee she will now live in the St She will have something to called her out daily 0 my Darling I read a book called Wbinen Friendship It was a book I wish that I could send it to you for to read it dos not belong to me or even to the family the author of it is Grace Aguilar I will give you little of it Addie quotes eXtensiv39ely without quotation marks from the novel Friendship demands quality of station true affections devoid of sel sness beware dear Florence I fear this warm attachment must end in disappointment fully as I can sympathize in its present happi ness was the warning address of Mrs Leslie to animated girl who on the receipt of a note and its rapid perusal had bounded towards her mother with an exclamation of irrepressible joy disappointment dearest mother how can that be was the eager reply because friend ship even more than love demands equality of station friends cannot 59 5 2lt mmkwmwn E 3 Rom mam E2 E2 wmm wows 9 vase 53 in 335 Esau H h 5505 5 Bum H wmntmu Eb mm mlt m obu mam Hmw Hwgtm 9 Sad 2 Ew m w Ewuxu wm Ht no E8 95 was SE95 30 3 33 n Em 9515 9 E3 Emu E03 50 am 5 mi En u uu Ewe H E33 mat 59 wm Em min wsm MES Em u uasow E5 Ecmw mam e umm EN 23 8 5 mm zuw Eu mo cum 8 83 E203 Em Em 95 mo 8 w was 25 3 mow E5 Ham 3 Em 56gt mm cam wmou m E 23 35 M53 aw wmmmm E30 354 Ham new 8 325 M H3O m Boa VZ m gtm scam vac 53gt mama 5 En S U505 E masm PE hwm Ex m mmmom mm mwmm mane 3 3 use HQ 525 5 5 Emoom as mawsm Em 2 5 9 sec mgtE wmzumw xu E ma wmim ES wmmwm 38 wm nfsm 55 mm ms 3 En mwmu mas u E5 zum 3 mm om mam doom 53 H 3 E awmuH 8 mc toc Em H moon mm mm w mwcs Ex 0 mummdl wgwdwmw E vwzmu mesa m x 83 new 3 muuwnEM MMDQ Ea BU EBWSE3 Eon mmmwwm wmwwm Emzm m mm 0 2 523 w ow E5 35 2 E06 5508 E mug wan mommweowm S 02 m umsni mE 8 Egan um nfsm m was Ju u Egww 2 E E3 8 mac mm 96 mom 88 30 Em and Sam mi wmvcsm no 35 3m 8 wwm wma 55 w om 3 and 55 953 5 antic m wmu w uuswm mum far Em Emowm 25 t Em 8 mEwmm 2 as wa m 3 was gmoa w L5 Show 59 mm JPHSAU Q5 HmmQ Ava Ndrmwwmma m m Em mum mgt 9 Ema SQSSH ma Em E5 U33 306 H Em ES m mm R58 3 anon 5 mm 3 mu m wag em was Ennis Em 5 ma um Aub u 50 E 53 mm 3 teucou m 3 3 M gm EmH T m E Su sm mm ma a 3 H wmmrawu gt8 abs 3 3 max 2 magma sow Hw mu E 8 was am HugtO um x Eon was 23 new m wag mmm um 2 E Sc ow magnum 35 359 H mmv was 3 mtmm so 33 an 595 5 so 5 95 358 O mu oa 5 E cwm wu 35 ms E3 whim 5 can mm Em 3503 3 mg wm ink 32 was mgtm Bu 3 uum 53 so 3503 55 m 52 En mam 33 as 93 m 2 gab Q3D 8 Eu u smmc wwmoa 5 mm 53 M xhmmnm End 305 Eng 39 m E was P923 mean 5 Few M m a 550 43gt P63 5 mmmgm in Ed M53 0 50 55 Em uswwuwmw m E mwCwmE n HE M02 5 3315 mw simommunw use so man 3 HQNgt H was wwgtoa 30 van 0 33 Ea KQEE wmm 93 M smsomu man 92 M in Em w5 30 33 3 now H 3 m was we mw was u om is mmrmommm we 33 mom a dm 3 ha 23 bnm mw 5 E H mmonfsm 5 mom H mmsmmmm in wwwtm Hw HEgt owmxucs gt3 go 30 50 mg w w mmuumxu Em 353 M Em E 3953 mane Cugtu BEE um Eu 8 Emma Tw o wEgt2 uurdw was Euim so umsbmm Emma m H Udu m amw Egto E muz m mmww mu bum four 262 dmuwm E mmammazm van 9502 E 32 ha mEr mm mmmdNE Mamie fowm Q gmuvm F3390 St Am o monmw mam HEEEE mwo w aa mmo waw mzowmwm w mm HO wmm mmm Ecw isowm dmmowo m van ow ecoum yew m mww w whmm mw cu abs 8 vm w na uvamvz RE S m m 3 mmommm 5 amp cm 354 mhgtcow war E Q5 3 35 gm Em mange Oo mD wM we mm v mm mswwmmu mm mam ma 3 988 335 mat 3 m wm ult Nowm mo muwx 2 E wmzmau mam M8 Sazooom mg mQmaEamp zmuowawm wan wmaox mmgzwn mo wosww wan mm o E mmomwumwmw new mm mewwm wh mg wsomdm m m H5 292 has me m5 momewowm EE2 ampEa e smmm mmmz 95 ms uat m s Emacs mu oi wmm mwwim mE 3 soars 263 m mwmmmm 3 swmw w vs vv SE mm oawmvmz 9 En Jmpoowmwuw am 3 mmwwm mo macaw w mzmm dmm E mwsmmasm amp3wmm mNuEoamp mmwmnw 330 Ema oom om EA S cm 9 Em mmzww wan 30 Sena mm mum mew gem um u 358 H Jumurm Eon E gt52 mo Ea mm xvo E59 3 we E5 U53 us mo u om 2 mmoEm as 53 Qua 3 xamu was mm Q3 9 395 K63 32gt 50 aumw S um mmzmmmmwzHgtodmzltmmmrmHmmmgtoamm BELOVEDSISTERSANDLLUVINGFRIENDS The following reference by Addie to coloured people time refers to a humorous eolloquialism for habitual lateness that is used to explain black peoplels relationship to industrialised notions of time New York Mar 5 1862 My Ever Dear 8 Darling Friend I have a few moments to spare so I thought I would pen a few thoughts to the objeet of my alIectioos I rec your sweet and interest ing epistle this PM I have already perruse it contents three times I will not promise if three times be all we have been very busy to day the washing was not on lvloriday The Uodine Club had there party M011 Eve the Club consist of five young ladies lrIiss Buce amp Parker amp Bowers Duplaycy 8 Selina all the ladies bought something and the gentleman was taxed gocts they had three pieces of music I guess they was about fty here it was a very stormy night the rain just poured Clown I made Selina very aogre I told her I would not be home to the party I did not care about it the inmates of the house on Selina side thought I was not treating her right so keep peace I remain at home the ladies was looking destine Gay Rebecca I lllak taken a seyere cold the doors was all open and I had on a low neck dress it seem lately I take cold very easy My Dear my old Lover was here that eye after the company had dispuse disperse father was teasing me and said he was going to tell IVI1 Lee about him and I my Darling can I help if the gentle man will pay roe attention Now my Dearest I must make an apology for Selina she intended to send a note to Bell for the party she had so much to do and not thinking they would have it so soon thought she would have plenty of time just like coloured people time t is Buee and her mother family going to move to Phila oexe week the girls all feel very bad she is one of the gayest of the gay my Dear if you have told Bell about it please to Bell how she came not to receive her invitation my Darling I suppose you think that enough of that now o1yLove I must rest my pen for the night I have cough somuch that my headache me very bad so I will bid you a sweet and gentle good night 0 that I could a sweet kiss and food imhrace 39 1 O2 Callyoa tn s i5z er The following letter is from Charity A Jackson the Aunt Chaty of Addie s letters It reveals an alternative description of Addie s attrac tion and desire for her suitor Mr Lee New York Mar 1862 Dear Rebecea I take this opportunity write these few lines to you hoping you are well which leave me at present give my love to your mother and father and sisters and brother I do not know tliem but I take the lib erty of doing so Dear Rehecca I wish that you were here to see Addie she look so sad and melencahly she look as if she lost all her friends she make me feel very sad I often take you footstep and Mr Lee to comfort her I dont know What he would do without Addie has been very sieh I to take the best of care for your sake and Mr Lee she rec two letters from Mr Lee and I never seen anyone so over joyed as she was I wish you had of been a witch and been at the Win dow you say you do not know What love is Addie does I can assure I would have written to you before but I did not know weather it would be except it eyeryrirrie Addie rec you letter she said you send your love to me so I take that pleasure of writing a few lines to you no more at present I remairi your alIectiooate friend Cliarity A Jackson Please to fans this when you write to my Dear Addie lid I m like a bad penny my time has not come yet 0 Reheoca its a beautiful day I would like to go to church they I had better remain home I rec two letters from Mr Lee they hoth came at once he is very well he think he will remain in Key West two or three months and then they going to Mobile He inquired very particular for your health and what do you think he Wants to know what do you think of me tramp over his heart Weather you approve of it are not He Write very nice letter he said it will not be long before he will return and make me his wife He said that he his met with great many ladies since he is begone but none compare with his sweet Addie he says his love is stronger then ever Dear Rebecca I never shall love any person as I do you Pf 53 no 305 6 E3 was 5 H gtw Noam umm 553 mm mam mama O 354 ME 8 use 53gt muownmvm amu Exams 5 B Ema 5 has 38 mmmuwm Qt 33 may imam B was mwgt Em EA uum E53 50 33 H m sm 8 Ea 8 gas 53 umucw St wu mm use 8m 5 Eu 5 gum 95 M02 Em ma a ESQ H 50 mm 5 was Em Em mum umoam gum m was mam m u En 5330 B 5 E3 0 505 Sa 3 uuw 5 wanna 28 mo wwmm was 30 H354 20 3 3 3amp3 H mouugwm m U gem Mam you 5 Msom 5 9 sum 5 Ema an 3 Emzmomm mm Hm Him 3 M 359 E33 mo umomm mmE wmm 3 En don Amen gt8 we mwczm Exam was 8 mac M 5303 mm Shiv Rt 55 mm Emwmw was mm Em ugto mam wud ommou wuw om E wmwo 302 50 mo m cmum Emu gt5 was wcmebw Esm 32 SE 3 55 mm wwmmm ME w s m Haws Em H gt5 ASHE m Q uue m umwuww Ea mmmw am 52 omw 252 moummomE mwmokysw gas 58 mm owm 5 ms 2 am imam E5 25 3 mm seam muwm msm Hs wo w mm wgomvm E 2 m wt E m mom HQS E Esmmw wmmnm mwmomlt mownmm mO m 353 m Ewxm wan hm 5 carom E S Ema mmasozm m mao mm mnmm oa E3 9 Hm U domo 39 9 B mcmmm m wmo may 3 one mw 32 wmw wmEmm mmwau E54 Bonn woum vm m umlt 033 3 mmw omom may ma 5 ES 3204 uBogtuQ mam 32 aw mmwwm 5 uomwn use anew mm 53 m Ewuxu H Su S wmmumo gown 5095 8 mama Em Wm us E5 En no0 3 vmmunouuu 5033 3 am 5 E5 v35 om mm m mum mmc wmmm w m um ugtm gt9 3 3 E u m o uEmmumB 93 mm Su E5 mmmumw O 8085 B uhm u gt23 55 E5 ma a 9 unmmno 9 P55 zww H gt BEE Ba m m um Hmm ww P3 95 39 2 E96 wmu gt2 305 wan an Hem imam SE 3 R5 mmwmmeEU 5 Pa 3 wows ammo magma H Em m mo m aemmmumo u 9 amm E503 M m EU n mm H 5 Esm we be Eu 53 Em n magma E E ou H um b uumm 5 was mommaummwxw mEE8mE 51 mam Lam mmmm 85 wade gm mo vac nomwmwu we Su sm mat mom wasps 2 m RE 39330 3 aommmgtmou w cog E03 mmvzau m 5 PE u wmmopw ma a m cwbu umo P53 mug mmsox wH gt mQd mC E 8 am my m gtgt am mo 33 was 9 g 3 M mououno ow cam 53 m 30E HM mmxumvu m oum 32 A903 wmmu w mm WEE w wwzmu goon m ma mm w 33 Ewwmsw ew pm we J m u M 32 Ewso Eu a mum Emso M om Ewum 5 EE M does 95 Eon Txm mmxmm mu no 505 V38 9 umommsm mam JEQ in 93 Emmy E E van 005 u mm zntau 50 Eom may ME 8 m mgu u om has mu ma a 8 Eommmeuom co mwpu zm E ma a mm mm 085 En m m E xmwm umo as mmE a Femwn 2 5 En mmoum mm mar Gang 26 Pam u amp 30a U w rauIeamp muuuaum maid S m 2 3 he H34 e gt52 3 23 U m 3 mamp m 8cwmmQ bmwwummm E Em x gtac ampEU wcudukagm mm mmn mm wwlt own 9 mm mm mam mxoon mam we we use Sam 5 mmmmcu 8 5 Sm E9 3 wscm cm mums wugmm mm mam EmE gtoampET mm E953 m omm 3 E mmm mm yon mm m m o 233 m5 3 mHlt mam muex m was we m mmum mEL 332 mw wmmumo 3 umm m 22 8559 aw bmv Hgt n 50 EMEE H 6 k 3 mam om wwEult 33 5 SW3 503 E Em cu 3 Eng 53 as 55 was mam om mmmom ma E30 E54 9 m cmou mw E5 wen 33 Beam you So H Um u m Essa wmwmm B mommm mxw 3 m mma HMS SE pow Ema ma o om mam 3 mm Em um s twwm man 8 man W33 3 mm 5505 Hm Ham m wzmmw E33 0 3 ESE w Ham m5mmw m Tam mmwaw an E mam 6 aw 5 33 muw w u3 3 am was mwmt an 2 mam m Epsow gm 3 3 mm we mmmbu 833 m Emma wsb 23 59 Eek mam Egan was mmn cm 8 m Em REE wusowc vmm 2 mm 53 mm om mm Sam 3 am can gt298 cam Ea EEQE w n E mmubu 85 am 5 250 gm Ewan 2 van mam Eonum 30 any 8 om 3 E95 mam mow 3 M ummmuun Emma 33 350E Macaw mm twmw 52 you ow muounum amu mQzmNmmwzHgtoAmz4mmmwmLmmmgtomm Beeoven SISTERSAND Lov1NoFRsNos since she had got her teeth she those are in the house I eould not help last night as sick as I was looking in the glass for a half hour at herself I laugh at her for she look so funy now my Dear I dont think I write any more good night my loving Sister Oh Rebecca I forgot to tell you that Mrs Thompson has move she left very nieanly she was not to move untill the first of May that was the bargain when she moved in when the children hadthey party she got very angry to think they had a violin she said that she was living amongst heathen people she made a remark to Mrs Scott as soon as she could she going to move so when Selina and the rest of the girls had their party it was a death blow to her so the last of that week Mrs T was moving out and left mother pay her rent Don t you think that was mean in her to do so such as life Aunt Chaty is looking out of the window at the people going to church so she just put her head in asking me who am I writing to she say give my love to Dear Rebecca and tell her I rec her letter and was very sick at the time but now she is quite well she want to know if you cant nd her a service place for her a cook place she think she feel better if you will she will go on and take you for a mother and a sis ter and a husband and companion something else I forgot so my Dear I wont write any more I must go toward the fire and prepare for bed I dont know what Aunt C see in the St at night I ask her I told you as before at the people going to church once again good night sweet Sister Aunt Chaty my brother Ally and I spent a very pleasant evening together not with standing my hea was with you Last Sun day rnornthere was a large re down town it was a cane store Ally said they was thrown the case out by the had full every reman got one he tried to get one but being so very large or rather tall he could not get one he SOII1 tl1IItg like me about 9 oclock that same morn there was a den were Col people lives was on re he said it was amusing to see them some had clothes in some did not and the re rnens give them all good dunking N exe wed Eve confrernations to our church going to be fourteen con rm Miss Hatie Bowers is one of the number she want Selina to be not this year The letter that follows reveals three interesting aspects of Addieb life First once again she complains of not being paid for her work Having 56 CaZZyou my sister claimed her as part of the family provides Mother with an excuse for failing to pay regular wages Second note her response to Reheecab request that Addie call her sister The relationship exists on a cornplex continuum Finally observe her explanation for Aunt Chat s claim that she is in love with Mr Lee New York lIar p m I862 My Own Darling amp Beloved Rebecca It is now half past ten and all alone a hour ago you could not hear you ears for there was about 40 here I suppose you ask yourself what they was all doing here as usuall a surprise party this evening the gents are getting it up for l Iiss Bruce her last farwell party the amily except to go Thursday EM again you ask why I was not one of the number my Darling I think that too much of a good thing good for nothing This winteris been intirely to gay although I have not attend to everything has been given lIother and Selina they have been trying to get me to go Mr Bodie is the head one geting it up and he seemed to be quite displeased because I would not go I cant help that wish I could IVhen billows roll and waves around me rise one thought of th e will clear the darkest skies lIy Dearest to day I rec you very kind 8 Affectioriate Epistle to night I feel in good spirit one things in your letter it gave me a great deal of pleasure you spoke of Aunt Chat writing to you I was much surprise as you was she think everything of you she speaks in the highest terms Dear Rebecca clout you think its a great pity she neather read or write so she got me to pen those lines to you she spoke of me looking sad Dear Rebecca I did not know my feeling was such that they would be observed in my contininee countenance I do feel very sad sometime Mother sometimes get very disagreeable it on account of father business and the family being so very large I want to leave here I tell her if I was to go I would make one less she will not hear of it then she think I dont love her she think right I like her very well I treat her according to my feelings but I cannot help it is the saying is I never forget what I rernember my Dear Do not say anything about it mother has not paid me for a month now and I want a great many things As for work we have none aint likly to get any I dont think my sweet Rebecca you say let you share my sorrows I do not want to make you 57 8 35m gt5 E3 was P23 125 we 30 war mo E wocmw Euum mm H mm 0 BBQ 32 JCGGJ Boss in rs 50 gto wuuw Bu H 5 new P33 h su mm was 52 mo mmmwm mammu w owb wmwm um muuom 05 mS amp E 813 H Emmmw E53 m Emu 5 m w gt8 muownvm EwEoE was 3 Sow Ranks so van 3 Sn M om aum cm 538 Km b uom 15 wuwoE 95 H 66 noun 935 M wu m uE 9 H39 bwgt 55gt 95 mgtw3E 0 nwsoaxm So a 5 Ext Son 3 8 23 T m H mm mm So 305 Bow H mouwmum Su Jowm Emma Eb m mE mm W25 mo wwmzm 33 om E52 wa E3 95 mos an E x cocm 30 ma a H 33 wan 50 km a 50 mm wmmwmuwm gm mo puwmmw ESQ ue s gt5gt 882 mm Eu m H om so 8 umumm u m ow BE Ema mam H mod 2 3 mos Bum m 353 95 ugtmn M aim wwgtoA bum S50 32 mwm mt gmwm w5tbwE lt xmmm mEgtoA was 35 so new game ow Ema mHO woswmnm mama om ma a mm 8E Ed 33 55 owe a 3 5 main T5 ubm Educ 53 H Su Eb ugtgt duo wmmmmumm Eu m 25 PS mgtu 2 m 2 wow Eu 0 033 you 30 V33 55 new 5505 hi was uwza u Ewommmmmu man 500 cm was wmmm E om 339 Rpm Race 335 sow m oE 305638 Bug 0 500 Eawm o Q5 55 25 M MUSE 352 25 53 96 E03 no man so mam ugtm H du amp no macaw a 5 En mom E wEoo one Euim Em M Pam A923 m 333 a pen mmmum 3 mMm5E meow om bum aw wmwmxwuua new ugtm 58 H 95 vmwwbmumw QEGU PS3 Qua O 655 new 5 S ummno ESE FE Sm M 2 3 so ma a E59 any mm 2 E msowo m mm up smzw HM uEmEuoE PE Eon uwbm Em mmdmvmm 32 33uamp 39 we so 8 mmmm ma 25 8 gt5 Eo x mew M u wmm wmmawu 9 30 PE wuuuozm 953 H E wospa 305 Edam M Ea Enwwmzmm bumw wxm 8 mug Ema H Eu sues aka H uu m 3 988 mum 0 was Na van was 529 20 mmwnvmm no u mnm w momzmom 35 E 3 H Egtgt do n u mama a so ugtmm wan mm 5Q 3 mwmm m8gtwm mmwaaw M 2 Eo uxd m H m mwo E E amp H 9052 3 3 Ba Eu H ma a 32 24 2 wow mm m ow EuSuE max H E6 Emso 33 E 829 H mama aaaum 2 x9330 mm m Qt SEE am Emma Boa 5m Uwmawm 953 H Sim Eu3m mums mm m Pam H ma swag mm umuom 5 mad wanna 50gt Emma W 5 mmwm 94 uu m Jew m smug was H mg 3 Ewum pm 2 HSD 0 Mia Hmhmm Uoom E van 3gt mm s5E Bmwsmu 5 50 Em gt53 um m wgt2mm um M3232 3 mo 5 35 30333 25 mammw ma a H3 mmmvcommwbco semi SE mwm ES 3 33 2 minus 235 95 H hmemmmmmv es wmwmmnoxm mwcwwc 23 may wolt 3 mw w mm muomiwm E5 EEQE m mcc mv ewww 3 gm 3 meats emom was muoeaum nm n mc omg wen we wmmwm m mm 2 3 mmwgt mmw mews Em woman 5 we mmv E tm mi o Ew we Qgcmmmm ma m 9a 3 ems 3 nmaow w E mama mm mam mac 3o Ma a N5 mm H 35 wm mmm6lt oo m wmmmmm ei ma a m lt w may H mm 55 38 w E3 EU H 95 Mu w 99 go H h B mmm an 33 so 8 S Em M 33 8 9 H h 30 J ow 5 53 H Ed M min Pam H ma a E06 H mcf mmw E w ouuw 3 gas 350 H 5 use 53 E3 ME 3503 9 mam Em E5 5 wmwmuwmwsm was 38 Km mm wmmms mmmwm 96 w mnawmm wmmmm 3 BE mo uma E EAU Elt 3m 3 mama wan wxw 3 Lara was cm W om must H 0 S 955 3 E 2 won Em mwsmw E at 3 mwm wan snow H Es Em 3 5 3 28 H wxomm 20 35 mi d5 u E was 33 EH53 mE out 3 81 Luann 5gt 3 M EELS uunw 2 moum wvw w um o uwu Em 32 Has Eon 3 man 35 mm mEoo mam wmwwwu 53 B wuzu wmo am wmmm was wE u E B 3 xuw Emma S was mun mam 5 am 33 38 wow Enos E mmu m s Em m 2 and wmum 02 m 3amp3 om QQ imam mm 50 mmuwwwm E H 5 3 M 5 mm no mEm3ow mmmu K mmwamu E m o3 mam uoumwu H EEO Eh xmm Em Emw M u wu om Mom zmv Eb seen mm x 3503 an Emma 59 mm RQ w mm in Q w5mu8mm an E3 m 9 xmm 9 m2 wan Eemmm bi 50 333 5 mm E5 wmm Egtm m awn 30 moumwmw 88 mm Bu Hmuumu W5 39 502 Exam ma a mo 33 50 H M T m mw mQzmHmmazHgtoAQz mmmwmmmbaqmm BELOVED SisrEasANDLoV1NoFRtENos eious Darling I am little wise of it I cant help being so to see how much you do for me daily also the little token of love leaving out the large one Dearest Sister I hope you feeling will never again change towards me to think I was on edge of losing your purest love 0 how my heart leap for joy when I think I have regain it as strong as it was before perhaps stronger Dear Sister I will not pen you a long note A because I must wash my dress I am comeing their to see you last it offerd you so much pleasure you gave me such a affectionate look I cant resist coming Good rnornirig my Dear amp Dearest Sister I Addie From your Darling Little Sister it tis good by Addie om sweet kiss From the letter that follows one can surmise that Addie had been irt ing with Reheeeah brother Nelson Neither Rebeeca nor her family approve Primus scholar Barbara Beeehing suggests that the familyw unlike Kebeceawwwas concerned by the class differences between the two Hartford Sept 21 1862 lIy Dearest Sister I feel sad tonight for I dont think that you have got over the feel ing you had towards me when you bid the good night it seem cold and would not even kiss me that something you have never done yet My Beloved Sister why is it you will intertain those feelings towards me This Eve I ask your forgiveness you say if I desire it I then ask to forget you say yes but how eold it was said and then I ask you to kiss me I thought your kiss indeeate all My Darling in the mariner you left me I dont think you have thrust it from your mind Dear Sister I wish that my feelings would become ealous I should never feel as I do sometime I dont suppose I would if I did not loge you as I do you II10WI often told you ther is no one Iloye as I do you not even the man I expect in the future to call husband why will you feel so towards me it is growing late I hate to retire without you Dear I Rebecea I would like to tell you one think please dout get angre at me for it is this I shall not be as friendly with your brother as I have 70 39 Cczllyoze my sister been I know you dont like it and I also understand another member of the family dont like it You know Iquot like your family very much and sometime like to in there society very much but for the future I will treat him as I would any other young man aequaintaee I hope you will forgive what I have pen here I did not do it to hurt your feelings in no way39I will have to close my light is giving out so I will have to return I hope you will feel better tomorrow you have a very bad cold I think you aught to take something for it good night it a sad night to me your Affeetionate Sister Addie Addieh next letter does not tell us why she has had to destroy Reheeeafs note but perhaps this is one reason that Rebeeeab letters to Addie are no longer available Hartford Oct 20 I862 l39Iy Dear Sister No doubt you have giving up all hope if rec a note or answers to some of yours its better late than never I am not going to attend church today its also very unpleasant I hope I will have the pleasure of being in your society this PlVI and Eye lvly Darling will you inform mewhat had came over the spirits of your dream last night you always make me feel sad when ever I see you so you know with me its second nature and I have many thing to aecur to make me feel so Last night I was dreaming of you its was neither pleasant nor unpleasant I awake with a my old companion by my I feel better now My Beloved Sister I have again perruse the note I rec on 15th I am sorry that I have got to destroy it Nell is it must be In it you ask me what did I think that morning I awake nothing of p you know my feelings on that point One thing my fondest Sister you say you are bent and bond to leave your home clout my Dear Dear friend do any thing that you will repent you have never had to go out in the world do for yourself Rebecca just think of he that you li see how she had been through ed forbid that ever you go through as much that your poor mother that growing old you ought not to leave she has no one to sooth her to supply her feeble heart to look up to her with a smile but her first born even her youngest how she treat her mother 71 BsLoyeoS1srERsAuoLoy11roFaIrNos they know not the worth of a mother until after they are gone per haps they have many fault but my Dear you must over look all Good Morning Your Darling Sister Addie Throughout the letters Addie occasionally compares her love for her male suitors to that for Ileheeea My Darling Sister It hard to have you leave me I could not help sheding a tear after you had left It is so lonesome here wlieo night comes Rebecea you dour know what to make of me never mind the day will Come someday you will know me entirely I hope you seen Mr Lee Dear Sister I like him mueli better then I did he has truly been kind to me buthegxrer be to me as you are its been by you and you alone since I have been wondering how I could get another job I was counting the money I would rec O my Darling Darling Sister I thank you kindly for it I never can and never be able to express my gratitude to you Nly Darling why did you say that I ought to chose a better person then you for a friend and Sister I could never nd any one would be able to walk in your old shoes Look at that one that I called rnother has she been a true friend to me big took a stranger to her bossom and even love him more then she did her own husband that lie in under the souls for her I hope I never be the means of killing anyone rb smr for my sake never pen those words again for you make me feel quite sad u so adviere adieu for a while you loving little Sister I arnjust preparing to retire for the night to o eloek Mr Lee has been here I was rather surprise to see him I was very sorry to thinkl was not able to go to the Allyn Hall I hope it wont always be so good night my Sister I hope it wont be long before I be able to lay in your arms Addie 72 Hartford Oct28 1862 I quotCoou my sister39 It seems Addie s early efforts to be a Christian and to impress Rebeeea with her religious devotion have failed Here she questions her faith for she is no longer as devoted to her religious practices as she used to be She also reports an important confession to Mr Lee In this and oeoa sioual letters that follow Addie refers to herself as Aerthena and Iieheoea as Stella I have not been able to ascertain if they have any meaning beyond being pet names Perhaps they were eharaeters in a book the two had read Hartford Dee 9 1852 9 pro ifly Darling Sister Just feeling like peeing a few lines to thee I thought I would do it on the umpulse of the moment I was very much please to see you this PlI you seem to be in such a hurry I hardly had time to look at you I have nish facing my bonnet if I have time I will call to see you tomorrow I hope Thursday will soon Corrie then I will have the extrerrr pleasure of seeing you again Dear Sister I dont know what you think about what going to pee it tis this39we are in each other society a very little what is the Course of it perhaps it is your school that monopoliaes you time I sometime things aint like it use to be what do you think about it lIy Darling My Dear I drearnpt of you last night I clout sleep good I am so cold I miss you very much and also you feather bed I took a hot iron up to bed and warm the bed all over jump right into I kept little warm by that means I wish that we could sleep together this winter I would like it Very much would you not Stella I injoy those doughnut Very much I was little hungre when Bell brought them Dear Rebeoea I dont know what ltlr Lee will tliink I would not let him kiss rue for nearly two weeks so tonight I have ans the long note he sent me this PM he inform me he wrote it in your School room So he said in his note thatl owed him great many kisses so I thought I would let him lmow I told him I did not like his kisses I dont know how he will feel about it I thought I might as well tell him as to think it dont you think so my only and Dearest Sister I could not stand it any longer Dear Rebeeea in the oote he says he will meet me at the Church I dont understand him did he tell you anything about when he call today He is a funny man I have not 73 E Emom 303 8 3amp2 lt msmp u wu wmo a 953 WEH 53 H Emma 3 3 go 533 W 5 3 35 6 mun 8 mwco n aws gt8 M335 3 two 5 E can Emrm Ham Em 53 amzaamr 32 35 E5 Sin 3 3SEw 09 wmu Slt ww m Q50 Ema 3 mix a Ewuxu 3 Em Ewmmu gm E3 0 was H E was 3 3 mac 39 ooxum 50 mmm Eonmw m EE man 50 macaw M an m x wmshs 233 m 59 ugtm E35 H Huwmmw msmbw EB 30 Mama was Em m 5 mmm um Emmmaw ME 53gt 3 50 mam Emu H E5 Fwwom Em H w was n mwmsu S wwoau om OGMOQ emu HNUQ 0 5 ms 4 u ou 33 H E w um hr Eonm mom Sham w wmmfw o some wan 32 duo Es AGE 50 mow 3 rs Saw 9 335 50 Emu 3 3 33 mum 0 E3 you 395 9 wz zmom 3m 8 5 Fans 8 ma a ugtmL H gtm U lt 59 3 15 H 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mawmuom MSGW E can M EE3 u swmmom made zwummm wm mu Hwuamu 2 ammom Em w San mm 3 xm u H wax mmm 35 may wmmumum uo muc om wgtma H EmL 5gt gt5gt 12 M wmbuuamom an 50 mw mamas gt5 S Q59 mm cw aw 9 Comm 8 mm H 3 Ema E06 H aowmmua mo E 2a wanna 93 3 so ans Em w Sm H gwt whmuw mam cm 9 mam mam 55 E M msmim 32 Sod wanna E5 59 3 a Emu Eow xuuk mum SE m uum Scam Emu mmzmwmmwzgtoAmz mmmwwQmpoqwm Wcite Women and Raciai Patriarchy in the Early American Republic Pauline Schloesser V NEW YORK UNEVERSITY PRESS New York and Lorrdcm 52 l Toward a Theory of Racial Patriarchy The general positioning of White Women in racial patriarchy and the issue of primacy become clearer when we exarnine specific historical is sues Sometirhes it is not possible to disentangle a racial issue from a sexual one As we shall see in the next chapter race and gender norms were bound togetlier in an ideology of the fair sex that circulated in popular discussions letters and magazine articles in the post revolo tionary period This ideology effectively encoded distinctions that sepaw rated white women from vvlaite men on the one hand and white women from zionwhite women on the other The Ideology of the Fair Sex The theory of racial patriarchy suggests that white Women were ambiguously positioned in the hierarchy of gender and race rela tive to white men and rronwhite persons of both sexes This ambiguity was neither l39121ppfi1 1St3I1C nor inexplicable but culturally produced through discourses on the fair sex which circulatecl through letters essays satire and ordinary conversations In contrast to the ideal of the empowered republican mother held by many American historians today actual discourses on the fair sex in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries situated white women instrumentally rather than as discursive equals capable of participating in an ideal speech situation In fair sex ideology white women of prop ertied classes were already doubly positioned as subordinate others vvith respect to white men and as superior subjects with respect to non vvhites This double positioning precluded the ideal of communicative rationality across gender lines vvithiri the Anglo American community and between the races in society in general Two implications follovv regarding fair sex ideology and its function in racial patriarchy First strategic deployment and ordinary usage of the term fair sex produced white Women as a special category 2 racialized sex group that lost consciousness of itself as hounded by race and class retaining the memory of its identity as one based on gender alone Once the discourse was deployed one understood universals like females ladies and the SEX to mean white arid middle class without having to make these specific references Second repetition and redeployo1ent of fair sex ideology served as an act of signing on to racial patriarchy Fair sex parlance was a means hy which individuals consented explicitly and then tacitly to the social order If the first proponents of the virtues and vices of the fair sex de ployed the term strategically others further removed would deploy it un selfconsciously Fair sex ideology would thus lose consciousness of itself I 54 I The Ideology of the Paz39r Sexquot as strategic and become something ordinary understood reified and dogmatic In parallel fashion the hierarchies of racial patriarchy though somewhat disrupted by egalitarian rhetoric of the revolutionary Ameri can Enlightenment would be justified and strengthened during the found ing era such that thez39r disruption would then require justification Pair Sex Ideology and Ehglisla Literrztzizre Cornbing through the popular literature of late eighteenth century America and in particular of postrevolutionary Ainerica one discov ers that women were often referred to as the fair sex A crude geneal ogy of the term fair sex in the Arnerican post revolutionary period te veals that the association of white women with a political duty to civi lire men was neither original to America not politically progressive The utterance meant both white female and more virtuous gender Usage of the terms fair sex or the sex dates back to the European Renaissance It involved the articulation of racial difference in which the word fair referred to light skin tone civilized beauty and moral purity The fair European was contrasted with the sooty or jetty Negro the pale Asiatic and sornetirnes even the offcolor sallow of the Native Americans and southern Europeans Sirtmiltaneously it involved an articulation of gender difference the sex referred to fe males as the repository of sexuality that had to be reserved contained and excluded lest its passion corrupt rationality According to the Oxford English Dicrtiorzary OED the oldest meaning of the wort fair or fayre c 888 is beautiful or good looking chiefly in reference to the face almost exclusively of vvornen The terms fair sex fair one or the French le beau sese to de scribe women can be traced to 1440 As early as 1340 fair referred to conduct actions and arguments as in lcindly benignant peaceable or favorable At this time fair also referred to freedom from disfig urenient as in clean unsoiled or unstained as well as freedom from moral blemish as in impartial or morally pure By 1551 just when the English are reported to have had first contact with Africans fair be came a reference to skin tone and hair color meaning light as opposed to dark and white as opposed to black As Jordan has reported the most striking feature of the African to the Englishman was his color The English encounter with the Africans The Ideology of the Fair Sex I 55 in the 15503 and beyond brought together the lightest people on Earth with the blackest people on Earth Quoting the OED Jordan notes that the Word black conveyed many meanings associated with evil deeply stained with dirt soiled dirty foul Having dark or deadly purposes malignant pertaining to or involving death deadly baneful disastrous sinister Foul iniquitous atrocious horrible Wicked In dicating disgrace censure liability to punishment etc Shakespeare deployed all of these meanings of the words fair and black in Othello 1604 The dual meanings of the term fair sex were expressed a century be fore the American Revolution in England3 A text search in the English l oetry Database for the words fair sex results in several seventeentl century poems Consider The Pleasures of Love and Marriage by Richard Arnes published in 1691 in the wake of the Glorious Revolu tion As a response to rnisogynist degradations of women as the descen dants of a sinful Eve Arnes 26 page poem set out to describe the virtues of the fair sex Divinist Sex cornpos d of purer Mold We only the Ore but you the Gold How shall I justly Treat so vast a Theme Where mearzly to Commend were to Blrtspheme How shall I give your Virtues half their due In Living Verse and Numbers worthy you Arnes characterizes the fair sex with the virtues of beauty a smiling kindly face and softness and charm that inspire male creativity and industrious domesticity The holder Male abroad for Food does roam And leaves th industrious Female Close at home The beauty and domesticity of wives are rornanticized by suggesting that theirs is an equally or perhaps more conirnanding power than that of men in the world in Politics and Architecture Skill d Men boast they Empires raise and Cities Build Monsters and Thieves are the Destruction hurl d By them tis they pretend to Rule the World When Women kept it in its constant state While they their first fair Copy Eve imitate Encourage mam in all his sweat and toils 56 l The Ideology oftlie Fczir Sex And richly pay his pains with Love a11d Smiles Tie Wormm makes the rawislfd Poet lt7rite39 Tis Lovely Woman makes the Soldier Fight The Merchant sails to China or Peru Farther Tl1 l 391lI72SO39Z or Mercator Knew And Carczvazzs through Saody Desarrs rome but to the same account their Lalyours coatn To bring a Arlistress silks or Spices home If them with welcorn Smiles she s pleas d to rneet Down go their Gold and jewels at her Feet Should that soft Sex refuse the World to Bless Twotfd soon be Chaos all or W2Tldemess A Hero without Citility or Rules A Drove of Drinking Cheating Fighting Fools Twas Beczmfy first made Laws did Monsters bind Refotm d the World and civiliyfd vlarzkind Ernphasis in original5 A Virtuous wife figures as the muse for men s poetry the beauty behind o1en s laws and the source of inspiration for men s actions in the world The soft snnling faces of women inspire men to Work hard and fight to bring them delights such as spices silk and jewels The fair sex is credited with the inspiration for and rnaintenarice of civilization lilfithottt them men would be hora herd of rough dishonest belliger ent fools The rnind of woman is fanciful characterized by a natural untotored Wit which makes her conversation delightful a source of pleasure and harmony in rnexfs lives Mam s like a Late unstrong until he be By Conversation turn cl to Harmotry And rlmfs it self if Woman from it stays As dull as when an ill Aliosician Plays Wma11 s the Salt of Life without a Gmin Of Wliicth attempts for Alirtlv were all in Vain Where e re she treads like Simslvoze guilds the ground And throw an air of loife and Plceasme round 5Cloman s virtue also lay in her modesty or corr1plaisance the oppo site of pride Their sweet arts of eomplaisance lend them to be the best tutors of men particularly those who have been Corrupted into fashionable fops by visiting Fraoce As for the women that have sue The Ideology of the ow Sex l 57 ctzrnbed to fashion and vanity themselves they are excused as merely trying to please rnen Where did they learn their Pride unless from you If they re infected Tis with your Disease Unless farztasticlz they can never please Interestingly virtues of chastity and purity are measured by the white ness of a wornatfs skin If you a Virtuous Woman tempt in Vain Who still repells you with deserv d disdain Who all your Weak designs secure can mock Firm seated on an Alabaster Rock Her Snowy Bosom not more pure and fair Than the white G1zest still inhabits there The association of beauty and Virtue with fair skin and hair is also rep resented in Gould s poem To My Lady Abingdon 1709 Of some bright Dames w ave been by Poets told Whose Breasts were heaving Snow and Hair of flowing Gold Whose eyes were Lights able to rule the Day In which ten Thousand Cupz1l s basking lay Again fair sex ideology was present on the other side of the Atlantic well before the Arrierican Revolution The Fair Sex and American Independence During the War of Independence women werecalled upon to Con tribute to the war effort and to do much of the work left behind by men who served as soldiers or legislators As Mary Beth Norton and Linda Kerber have documented White and black Women asserted themselves as patriots and loyalists during the Revolution Sometimes as a re sponse to male patriots calls for help other 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wu o W339 mo x may 55 ba 3 wEm gtumEu mas mw GQ umgtOw dmmo mm vmw E m rmmoSmwno u no wumwcma mmuEmElt sofa nm mb we 3mEmmmamncmu 23 S ce zwmw 3 38 mEu smE memo Esau FEE 3 swso p wmuswoum hbm sou 3508 may uw m Sum use wwgtm8 mmmu m m mm hmwmw m cam m m 853 St cwu zon mmmb we uumwmEW m Sa mm 3 5uE mm 558 E ma a uzrw 2225 mow Euwvoa cb mm wtmn 3 wm cwmsuum 53 wax GL3 mmEH 80 23 wam um 3 E33 5 953 03 nzua mm 23 H8 umuwx osm 238 wmmmqm 3 mmu wow vwmu ium 33 mwaumm mmou mam con 9 mop 80 Su sm mmu u xw wEmEwE 325 358 BE awoom ammwmm go ham 8 xmmo 953 we mzmm w wum omm 3amp5 Eamp was 53gt mSwuwEElt 3 mmwt mumu max he memo mum diam mam mow uC Su Em wm cm m 538 mmmu m d BEE EmEm o sLEB 339 we SCOw m mlt m 50 wow uu wum mm 55 EU Em 3 u rm yam wmimw was m music mcwucu d mwwmom sm bum ummcm lt m u H u gtmom 2 mm gt63 mmuEElt wm NE E SwEcamp Emecma ma a mxum w EOE Ht mm was lt gt E MNMQU m w m amp omZ 32mm Lm mmuGoElt we m wco oxmm wlt 9 m iumms 3 momumummm H8 wmm mb m ou 505 Ht D5 Suu sw nmEm 53 3ou can 33 u3 m H53 t mmm 3 mmu c wcm MEG How mmmommie m ou mm x m ou E otwmc we EH3 m wma a om 5 Em Eo 3308 3530 may we 39 9 wonumsm uEgt we M5 8 gtumSw Emzo mcmuw mltEmw cQm2wL t mcv m mmBomumou u w M0 E83 wan J m m m3SElt 532 no mE mH3m3 mt mmzu u Jmzzsu m um we mhm mm mugtEmB we wwmm a m Emu umcmmoS3 Saw om 62 l The Ideology of the Fair Sex In the next few years the concept of virtue would be thoroughly dornesticated and ferninized The crisisin virtue was viewed not as a crisis in manly selfassertion but a crisis in civilized virtues The bi nary civilizationsavagery contrasted both the educated property own ers with the rebellious mobs as well as the white folks of AngloSaxon ancestry with the brown and black peoples of the barbarous re gions of the globe Reverend Thomas Reese spoke for many of his race and class in his observation that republican government required a moral and virtu ous people but so many were illiterate and uncivilized Given that illiteracy was nearly wiped out in the white cornrnunity when his article was published the reference had to include newly emancipated African Arnericans as well as rhe lower class rebels whom he described as idle and profligate incendiaries and vile crea tures 5 Satirical articles in the American Museum played on race gender and class in their various representations of Shaysires as dumb oxen savage anarchists and efferninate consumers of luxury traitors The Virtues and Vices of the Fair Sex A Reassertion of Gender Class Ezflrrzz39c and Race Hiemrrcl7ies As Carroll SrnirhRosenberg has argued discourses on virtue arose in the 17903 in response to the postwar economic crisis and the apparent disorder as a new class of irnpoverished persons came onto the scene through the emancipation and manurnission of slaves Arnerican fair sex ideology developed out of these discourses on Virtue The Virtues and vices in fair sex ideology would be tied to marriage as won1an s lot andthe norms of marriage would be tied to AngloAtnerican r1a tionalisin As such this loose system of ethics would define gender as well as race class and ethnicity It would articulate femiriinity through AngloAmerican traditions and thus also norms of rnasculiniry white ness and nationalism Fair sex discourses were often based on explicit or implicit claims about natural differences between Whites and nonwhites and men and Women within the white community In the 17905 authors defined masculine nature as strong robust rugged and superior to feminine nature in bodily constitution The gender of the author was frequently ambiguous as essays were published anonymously or with pseudo The Ideology oftlzre FairSex l 63 nyms but we can be sure that the authors and distributors of fair sex ideology were male and female and generally white In these dis courses the intellects of men were described as having a more ex39tcn sire reach and greater stability than that of women Women were de fined as beautiful delicate irresistibly soft and charming romantic and more selbsacrificirig in love than men their mindsquot described as intuitive and instinctive transparent susceptible or clogged by Cobwebs Sexual difference seemed to legitimate coverrure in rnar riage contracts by suggesting that wornen s W 1l11 SSE3S necessitated rnenls protections As Philo put it by a superiority of constitu tional firrnness nature evidently designed as to be the guardians and protectors of our defenceless sisters to shelter their feeble barks from the storms and tempests which continually agitate and foinent the bil lowy ocean of life 17 Such differences in body and mind necessitated marriage Man it was said could not be what he ought to be except in conjunction with Woman Over and over again authors reasserted what poets had Writ ten in the seventeenth century in England that without the civilizing ef fects of the dornesticatecl fair sex man would be only a miserable sorry brute The Anglo An1erican marriage contract was explicitly unequal involving an exchange of a Wornan s obedience for a rnan s protection and affection cherishing Most writers accepted this inequality and rerninded fernale readers of their contractual obligations to be obedient to husbands Obedience was de ned in terms of its negatives obstinac39yquot oppoi sition and contention Authors suggested that since a girl could only ful ll her nature in marriage she must be early cultivated to the habit of obedience Its opposite obstinacy was the Worst fault a girl could pos sess Women were the counterpart of man taken out of man to be sub ject to man to comfort him like angels and to lighten his cares Without wifely obedience a married couples whole life would be spent in opposi tion and contention hindering the happiness of themselves and others A wife ought be ready of submission to the enterprise and power of nian but not in such a crude manner that could be identi ed with the despo tism or slavery of the harems of Turkey or Egypt She should internal ize her subordinate role As one Writer advised worne1 should not let their condescension appear strongly as if they are subrnitting to a tyrant They should cheerfully fulfil the obligation they had entered into at the altarlove honour and obey 18 339 EL 64 l The Ideology of the quotFair Sex Vithin domesticity the husbandffather ought to be the central focus Every roan ought be the principal object of attention in his farnily His home was his castle He had a right to feel happier there than at any other place and it was wornan s responsibility to see to it that he did The an that of General Remarks on Women cited 1 Corinthians 312 which states that Jesus is the foundation on which rnan must build his house This author extended the nietaphor Womaii is not a foundation on which to build She is the gold silver pre cious stones wood hay stubble the materials for buildirig on the male foundation She is the leaven or more expressly the oil and vinegar of man Wriinan who feels properly what she is rests upon man Christ was the foundation for man man the foundation for Woman in that order 3919 A few would resist the patriarchal matriage contract that required female obedience As we shall see all three women featured in this book C7arren Adams and Murray challengecl or disregarded the notion of wifely obedience in their own lives The same year that Woll storiecraftfs V zriicatz39orz of the Rz39grz s of Womar1 would be published one American author writing for the Philadelphia Ladiesquot llrlrzgazirze stated her objection to wifely obedience on the grounds that it made a Wife a slave Where 1 have sworn or even prornised to obey any man I must on hon our consider myself as having sworn or promised to obey him in all things and at all times In a word I have bound myself to be a shine until he is pleased to release me which in the inatrimonial world is an occurw rence that I believe seldom happens If any obedience was required in rnarriage it ought be mutual Mar riage ought never be considered a contract betweena superior and an inferior It should rather be a reciprocal union of interest an implied partnership of interests where all differences are accornrnodated by conference 29 Such a bold expression of objection was rare By conference this author was deinanding communicative rational action and the ideal speech situation wherein truth and tightness are cleterrnined and deci sions made on basis of the equal right of all speakers to make and quotcon test claiins Most of the writings on female manners and virtues would leave the vow of obedience uncontested and build upon that founda The Ideology of the F512 Sex I 65 tion Domesticity was linked to a won1an s duty to obey By fulfilling her function to maintain the household and render it pleasing for her husband a Woman upheld her marital VoWs39ar1d could better expect her husband to uphold his A few authors even suggested that if a man strayed from his wife it was her fault It is doubtless the great business of a wornaifs life to render his home pleasing to her husband he will then delight in her society and not seek abroad for alien amusernents A husband may possibly in his daily ex cursious see many worneri whom he thinks haridsomer than his Wife but it is generally her fault if he meet with one he thinks more amiable If he should stray one author s recornmendation to Wives was to Visit the mistress and seek to understand her secrets The School for IIus bands and Wives told a story about how one clever wife did just that and was Well prepared for her husband when he came home from work She threw her arms around him irninediately without talking set him down in an easy chair brought him a lighter garment to wear and cooled him with a fan Another author left open the possibility that a husband could stray without any fault on the wife s part What was a wornan to do She should first take an impartial look at her conduct and if she truly had exhibited no manners that could possibly have given offence or created disgust then she ought keep her behavior the same as before ignoring his infidelity For to resent or to retaliate neither her duty nor her religion will permit Though it would be one of her most difficult tasks she must carry smiles upon the face when discontent sits brooding upon the heart 2391 Domesticity as a virtue for white women imposed a kind of moral geography that kept them out of politics and the bourgeois public sphere both of which were viewed as scenes of self interest competi tion and corruption Of course rnany women enjoyed going out in public to dances card parties and theatrical amusements and poor Women of all colors existed in public spaces to work jeffersorfs dis dain for women in public was not an unusual sentirnent The presence of the fair sex in public entailed the pron1iscuousquot mixing of the sexes threatened the Wifely obedience and selfrestraint that was the cornerstone of Anglo Arnerican propriety As Shane White reports the atrical performance rituals dancing music games feasting and drunkenness were tolerated and vicariously enjoyed through African 2meemw E eeeeemeeee we E E5 eewwen ee mm ewee emf ew emm ee PS3 eeeeeg ueenamEgteee eemwm e ee eeembeedw meeemeeee am we R383 935 mmeeegteeemEee eece 55 2 3 eezeemmeex ee eeewe ew eeeweem use weeaeeewe emwm mm mesemw we xeweemweeeee Seem e wrw aue eem one 53 meeeeeeeee wee mmeewmep ease E wwe eemeeeee ruse SE meeeemmm at wwe H353 wee eSe mews H65 ee mu ee iee emeeee we E13 eeewee St ween nmmeeewem ew eews weeeeee ES mewm meeeee mew emenem eeeeenw new egt eem8ee 4535 xwmeee 2amp5 eeemm5gteee ewmwz mNeeem imeeee meme wee eemmme em enema ee Ewwen use ww eee ee eewdmm ewes m E 333 an ee ame eww weem mEeemE weeem 3amp3 weee meweem Lee 36 33 2 ween 33 em Eeeew eeee me Bew 9 deemeee eeee use eegte Eeeww m emme beeeeweew mews memeeem emee e eee Seew QEE wewm w use weegtee mabem eem Em mm eeewegteee Base auw em eeemweewe aeeemmeegteeU ewmmeem we meeemmewnw eewa we ee em 23 ewem on ee 9 eemmmegeee ewme nw 3ee wmeee me 23 E mmee 3gte Meme emeem ee meeeemwm ee mew u eemeEe Jmeeewem meeEe3 we m mmeeee e neaeeeemenw em Jeemwmee ee emmenw skew wnw me we Ezsenw Ewe m mmeeeew eew eehxwuma mew mmmeeeezem eQ 5 Auem ewm enw we eeeeewwew e emww St e0 we seem muwee awe mewu eaq Eeenemmwwwem eeewewweee we JHGUEQHN gem eee neeeeeewewe eee cmewm eew m meee 33 weeeew mam uremmaeee eeee E 2333 ee weeeeow eeeee eam Hem mazmeeem eeeee meow w A wee e ee wee eawrw aemEeemme Ewe 33 e m mw eee es ewe ewes ee EA 23 ee eme wmzewe sea 30 es e e m Su mws 335 mean m r maeez eegtm eeeeee Heme emmee 2 e2wB gee He nmmeewe be ee awe 3 we meeewwm eeeemef ea ve Em we Ewe mam an den eeweeemewe 329 men we we mee em wee nmweeeee a wwee me eeeemem came weeew lt 2Eeegtmwen 5 we mmeeemeenm ef NE m wewme use Lme ewe ewemeeen meweeeumee ewm ew e emeemr w mew ee meme nmeeweewe eeepe emeem ewe we eezx due en 9 eevwm 30 PS3 EemeEgt e e mmeee eeemmm ewmeeew eeeeemwee meme awmeemeem zm eem knew eemnmee w meevw wee eemhem ee metre e e eew fem meeee m neeeceemem E Bee mm Hz 585 Ewe me ewe eemmwme a we eeemm mm e S emwemw m wewewmeewmee eew meet wemtem e em eee m ee ew www skew eea we wememem eat ee eeeewe ewe ee 3 we Beep es eeeiepe we Ueeeee E gte eweeeweeeemm e eeeemm a Ema ee Emee ween nmeeeem mnemeeei m we eewzmem ee use E zmewe eimue me em Eeemeeee 2 mmeEewwwmmm meeew wee meie e eeew Eeew ew eee m Seem hm axmm wEm 3 we 383 man be ee megtm emwm mmuewzw mm eewwee weed Ema ee weeeeeew mm wow 33 Ueeweeweeeew use ew e33 e eea m mm meemewmme em wee E memes m ewe e eek 4 eeee esenw i 2m15emeeE wen memes meek emcee ems eeeeme e8mgtwuw eEmemeTwwem 8mgtEe wee eemwe em meem ee eS we weenie ee e Jmmmwxwnwmemw ween mwe ee weeewem mm e meweewz mameeemxe eee nweeweee 2 eee weene eem ee we a mevw eemeewwm e gt E92 ween m5EF mmeeww 5 we w Heep 27 BEE e ea em H233 new eeweeew eeeee we Eeee em ea 4 e2 we eeemememmm Ewe HEB Mwmwewem mam m wmweeeiw we eznpew Ewe seep ween egtee ee Be 55 mm weemmee new we amp m eme eemem m E Se ee mww we Ee wemwe Ewe beeem UemeEee we weave Ewe 53 33 233 mew bee use we aw meewee ea weemmbeee m weeaew ew wee em emeeEltewwe4 eewemea 5 we Eeewme Ewe eeeee E mmem ee Eeee weem 68 we vwemw 5 weewmewwm meeeeeemeeem 333 mzwee eem 33 23 we eeemampmme meemmw6gte en E eemmwee en ewes e meew mm 2 3 5 mm wage ma a e eeemme m e e e 5 we meewee a Qw w e w m eew 2353 wm e3eeu m we wee wwen m we ew ee wee Bee 33gt ee eb ee3Mm2w eze rs 5503 3355 en ee 68 ewgtEw mm Hen eeewmeee 25 35 2 we eewee eeeeewwze begt w E 52 mew 3 335 eUumece weMe t we ee ee M63 use 3 we mae e wees deemeee enwemeewe some awee we emee wiewme Ewmejm em 15 eemeee meme m wE weeeweEm ea ee 93 Eeee mew mwmeeE emeew emf weewmewwm new a 22 eee mew ea ee ebor zeeaem e 98 mes weE5 Eta Eweewwwewe Ewe ee a2Samp E wee ew Su QMEO3 5381 emeee 34 aeeee ee 333 St ewmeewmee ee me eeee aemmeemeem wmwee 3 Hum eee mme Ewe 33 iw eew m E uiemee eeeeemw eremzw mw eee new beeeewEw eee eeem ma a E umwwem ee eeem E xem on we mewm v r z Jzeem E geese eee eeem me aw an ammeaweu wwemeea eviw ee emeeee w New bE9EE E95 emmwe weeeem eebeeehw amee m wee ei en E wemee ewxee mesa Le Awmnwv meseeew Mxeew ew em ew 22m rs awmeweeee we week 33 meewe meu eeHw 83 weeeeeeemw we wee Ewe weegteew Eefeaw NEe ezmem use weweem 33 neiemee emeweeme em uwewemuwe meweeee emf mm w8mewwm Eeeweceee 8 we weSmwe ewmeeew use we meeemea emeemeem Ewe we eeO e ee 33 eeme ewe m w we eeeeeee mew b em Ewe were wew eeeee new nmeeeeemwe 356 mvzew ewemwe e ew Qt we mmme eem wma wee mwH END eeeeewm wee eeemewerw eememwewue ee megtmm heme weeeeewwm stez Ewe E memeeeElt EEE ems nesse emeie xw ten Em we we e E 3 we 68 I The Ideology of the Fair Sex The best way for a married vvornan to carry her points is to yield sornetimes Yielding in a rnarried woman is as useful as fleeing is to an unmarried one quot7 Polite conversation was also defined in opposition to political dis cussion As Norton and Kerber have separately docuniented male au thors of Europe and America warned women explicitly that they were out of their proper sphere when they broached the subject of poli tics Thomas Jefferson objected to wornerfs interests even in the US Constitution In quot1788 he shrugged off Angelica Schuyler Church s corninents and questions about the Constitution by telling her that the tender breasts of laclies were not formed for the convulsions of politics To use Habermas s concept white wornen were not to enjoy any sort of ideal speech that was becoming the hallmark of den1oc racy and modernity for white rnen The virtue of delicacy demanded selfrestraint obedience and subordination to men in ordinary con versations Female delicacy was linked with domesticity and the necessity of keeping vvornen out of the public realm In proposing that wornen and children be used for cheap labor during the posorevolutionary labor shortage Alexander Hamilton disregarded the idea that the moral pu rity of ladies depended on their exclusion from the corrupt public World But he was surely in the niiriority arnong leading thinkers Sev eral of the founders explicitly advanced or iniplicitlyagreed that the publicprivate split for white women was necessary to preserve white femininity and moral order in the community at large As Noah Web ster put it such is the delicacy of the sex and such the restraints which custom imposes on them that they are generally the last to be corrupted Many men had been restrained from a vicious life and some of the worst men had been reformed by their attachments to ladies of virtue Keeping company with such women was the best secu rity against the temptations of a dissipated life30 To be obedient without appearing slavish a woman should be agreeable and avoid showing a sour disposition A cross wife spread the contagion of discontent throughout her household Every one disliked her including her servants A virtuous woman coinrnu nicates only happiness She was grateful to providence and never 1 showed negative ernotions like rage or jealousy She avoided calling attention to her own suffering because that would be unChristian The Ideology of the Fair Sex l 69 an insult to Jesus Christ who knew true suffering and to God who ordained that woman suffer Women were encouraged to be agreeable by invoking the virtue of sympathy As Joan Tronto and Rosemarie Zaggari have argued sym pathy was considered an important political and social virtue espe cially in the Scottish Enlightenrnent Americans following writers like Hume and Hutcheson echoed the importance of sympathy to restore hurnan felicity Sympathy was defined as a principle in the breast of nran which disposes hirn to take an interest in the joys and sorrows of others and to heighten the forrner and alleviate the latter by all means in his power Syrrrpathy was considered important for the mainte nance of a republican polity In this white women could play a leading role The fair sex is peculiarly susceptible of the tender ernotions of sympathy 32 Sympathy was also linked with notions of racial difference and AngloAtnerican civilization At times the virtue of sympathy was tied to an abolitionist sentiment In Address to the Heart on Arnerican Slavery for example readers were urged to practice the virtues of sympathy and benevolence with respect to the slave vvornan s plight separated from her children and spoiled by the hideous groans of men with the clanking of chains at I l 1il11lgl1t33 But the use of sympa thy to CfltlClZ the Europeans and the barbarous Africans with vvhom they consorted in the slave trade also surreptitiously promoted the civi lization of white people Tales of Africans were told in women s magazines to encourage sym pathy for the unfortunate Negro who had been unjustly captured Selico An African Tale set out to describe the virtues of one extraor dinary family in the most barbarous region of the world It likened the history of Africans to that of lions and panthers Their religion did not feature the God of reason but made deities out of serpents Their law was enforced by women with guns or women inflicting tortures The readers were reminded that even such a degraded part of the human species were still men and should therefore inspire their sympathy The African A Sketch described the European capture of Sanibo who was described as a harmless African yet manly and vigorous as the lion that ranges sole master of the forests The author Julia called upon the more enlightened part of creation to cease staining their characters and put an end to the slave trade 70 I The Ideology of the Fair Sex The sympathy that increasingly became identified as a feminine virtue bears resen1blance to what Carol Gilligan and her followers have called the ethic of cate 35 Fair sex ideology linked sympathy or car ing and the duty to alleviate the suffering of an Other with white womanhood They considered it natural that is divinely ordained but avirtue that had to be developed The ideal partnership was a coi39npan ionate marriage Companionate marriages required politeness Some would suggest that it was a mutual duty of husband and wife to main tain a delicacy of rnannet or flattering deference 36 But more often than not writers advised wives to be deferential toward their hus bands They considered the friendship of husband and wife to incor porate female subordination Marriage was a wornarfs main vocation in life and in marriage women were to he completely otherdirected The concord of souls necessary to make a marriage happy required a parity of understand ing and temper Women were counseled to shape their accomplish ments understandings and desires around those of their husbands to create that parity of understanding that made for the cotnpanionate marriage They were told that marriage was the most important aspect of their lives thus preserving the esteem of their husbands would neces sarily have to be their key goal in life Forn i your taste exactly to his endeavor to attain to some degree of those accomplishments which your husband most values in other people and for which he is most valued The mind was to be cultivated to make the wife more 39 agree able to her husband The end of a wife s existence was to conforrn to her husband and to take care of his H3910tl1391S Be it your province then to keep your hos band s heart from sinking into the incurable disease of tasteless apa thy It was also the wife s duty to regulate her temper toward her hus band and to pay such an attention to his to prevent it from ever ap pearing in a disagreeable light Wives were urged to study their husbands ternpers so that they would know the proper seasons to address l1ini with particular subjects A wife should never press her claims with her husband but rather imperceptibly obtain the power of guiding his concurrence or denial in short the virtue of syrnpathy was about being otherdirected in one s care and may have included these ideas about a wife s duty to make her husband the center of her identity37 The Ideology of the Fair Sex l 71 Fair sex ideology limited the debates on female education As several have documented the rise of female academies prompted discussions about what sort of education was appropriate for the ladies Feminine virtues of rneekness rnildness and delicacy were conceived in opposi tion to intellectualisni ernployment and political debate Worries were repeatedly warned not to become intellectual Men in general look upon one of our sex that possesses an uncommon degree of under standing with a jealous and not infrequently with a malignant eye A wife s education must not threaten her husband s superiority over her A wife must endeavour to heighten the charms of a mistress by the good sense and solidity of a friend If she reads a new work a poem or a play it must be to form her taste that she may be able to entertain the man she loVes 33 Women should accept the empire which be longed to them the heart secured by rneekness and modesty They must not engage in discussions of war cornnierce politics exer cises of strength and dexterity abstract philosophy and all the abstruser sciences which were the province of men Those who did were niasculine women who mistook their true interests by pleading for equality Invoking the traditional virtues of the fair sex American authors declared niildness of disposition atniableness of heart agreeableness of countenance and gentleness of manners the proper characteristics for the finely and delicately woven fair sex who was not designed for arduous ernployinerit 39 Intellectualisrn in women was unattractive Pliilo ridiculed the ugli ness of female disputants To prevent the spread of such corruption he recommended that our young ladies not become the complete mis tresses of the sciences They would not only find them burdensome but useless in the particular spheres in which nature has designed them to oziove One author told the story of Amelia a young woman who had been tragically educated in Latin and Greek classics Hasten to thy tasks at home There guide the spindle and direct the loom Me glory summons to the martial scene The eld of combat is the sphere of men Poor Amelia had lost her mother and had been inappropriately edu cated by her father who cultivated her unusual abilities Amelia learned quickly devouring her books but instead of that deference 3972 l The Ideology of the Fair Sexquotquot and respect which she had vainly expected clesertion and Contempt were the natural consequences of learning To console herself she retired to her closet to discover why the same causes in subjects scarcely different should produce such discordant effects for she well knew that learning in men was the road to preferinent an introduction to the best company that it was patronized by the rich and admired by the poor and that both sexes united in the applause of learned Inen whilst sad ex perience convinced her that consequences very opposite were the result of the same quality in women that with thern learning was obnoxious to envy and exposed to neglect and desertion l Arnelia should have been told that the classics were repugnant to fe male delicacy A woman who learned them became intirnidating and ineligible for marriage Proper reading for a female included poetry novels and plays Greek philosophy led to political debate which was likened to the masculine activity of war Fordyce s S i 5 had advised vvotnen to avoid knowledge that would lead thern astray from those family duties for which the sex are chiefly intended or impair those softer graces that give them their highest lustre In such cases they would relinquish their just sphere Many American writers agreed Man may for wealth or glory roaIn But woman must be left at hornegl To this should all her studies tend To this her great object and her end A young woman should thus learn needlework to perfection and all that was necessary to under stand the proper inanagement of a house she should be acquainted with the various seasons and provisions the price of markets and in short the whole econorny of a family The American writer lgnotus agreed Believe me Sir when they are sensible of their own abilities and power we shall soon be subject to their tyranny and despotism of petticoat governn1ent Ladies should receive suf cient information only to become good housewives and superintend the inferior concerns of the family For if once a man raises his wife to an equality with hirnself it is all over and he is doomed to become a subject for life to the most despotic of governrnent quot2 These feminine virtues showed their instrumentality in writings that encouraged men to get married Men were encouraged to marry in part because wornen s domesticity would support their industriousness away from home American Museumquot published an article On the Happiness of Domestic Life which encouraged men of arnbition to The Ideology of the Fair Sex l 73 get married because a supportive wife and loving children would pro vide the necessary rest and repose to balance their hard work in the world Here the fair sex serves once again as rnuse Having a family do mesticated a man made him more focused on earning a living and less prone to the dissipations of the bachelor He who beholds a woman whom he loves and an helpless infant looking up to him for support will not easily be induced to indulge an unbecoming extravagance or devote himself to indolence 43 Marriage promoted conservatistn order and prosperity One might wonder why a woman would marry that is why she would agree to or become signatory to the sexual contract Aside from purely economic reasons women were given a strong incentive in fair sex discourses that emphasized wives power to civilize men and chil dren through marriage and family life As Linda Kerber Jan Lewis and Ruth Bloch have documented women were told that virtuous behavior was essential to the survival and development of the American na tion l Men s natural attraction to women led them to follow wornen s lead If women would be virtuous then men would necessarily follow For example the author of A Dissertation on Inclustry urged that if the ladies would stop indulging their passions for fancy dresses and instead rnade industry fashionable men would do the same and eco nornic distresses of the nation would be alleviated The cornn1ence merit address for the 1795 graduation ceremony at Columbia College entitled Fernale Influence claimed that the fair were possessed of a power literally unlimited that they could use to reshape the nation Women were advised to discourage intimacy with men whom they would regard unsuitable husbands and use their conversation to civi lize potential suitors Their pure delightful wit without a stain or sting would encourage men to eliminate all ferocious and fore boiling principles The gentlernan the rush of worth the Christian would all melt insensibly and sweetly into one another In marriage a woman s virtuous influence was expanded Her an gelic presence discouraged profanity libertinism gaming prodigality and a long train of crimes and follies which otherwise vilify the manly character Through her economy and frugality in household manage ment her husband could build a fortune and through her charity and benevolence to the less fortunate he could take pride that virtue reigned triumphant Her influence with children was equally important for national economic developtnent By assuming the duty of educating 74 l The Ideology of the Fair Sex her children mainly a father s prerogative in the early eighteenth cen tury she could encourage manage and check the growing faculties of their souls inculcating reason and religion and thereby secure the tri urnph of the Genius of Liberty In short by channeling her ambition toward her husband and cliildren she could civilize the nation and achieveher Farne 6 Practicing the virtues of the fair sex thus ex tolled many benefits It would make Women attractive and marriage able lead men to practice virtues in and outside of marriage and allow women to develop their highest potential as civilizing beings Iristitutiorzaliaing Fair Sex Ideology throng2 Femczha Education Proposals for female education generally incorporated the ethics of fair sex ideology Benjamin Rush is frequently presented as a liberal rej former but his plan for female education was not intended to disrupt female subordination or the separation of spheres To those who feared educating Women would make them more difficult to control he wrote This is the prejudice of little minds If men believe that ig norance is favorable to the government of the female sex they are cer tainly deceived for a Weak and ignorant woman will always be gov erned with the greatest difficulty Noah Webster defined a standard for female education that would not disrupt patriarchal authority In all nations a good education is that vvliicli renders the ladies correct in their manners respectable in their families and agreeable in society That education is always wrong vvhich raises a woman above the duties of her station 397 As Linda Kerber has reported there were several persons who criti cized the narrow or contracted education of females and came close to advocating equality in education They included udith Sargent Mur ray Abigail Adams Mercy Warren Gertrude Meredith Thomas Cooper and Philadelphia Ladies Academy graduate Priscilla Mason At least one author had in mind educating women in civil polity and philosophy for the eventual emancipation of the fair sex But such sentiments were not shared widely enough to influence the seichased curricula of female serninaries and academies or to admit women into university education until late in the nineteenth century Indeed as we shall see in later chapters Warrer1 Adams and l39Vlrr ray had difficulty resisting the riorrns of fair sex ideology despite their The Ideology of the Fair Sex I 75 attempts to criticize various aspects of it Female education was de signed to empower the fair sex for their instrumental roles as wives and mothers of citizens Rush s essay Thoughts upon Fernale Education Accornrnodated to the Present State of Society Manners and Govern ment in the United States of Arnerica figured the virtuous woman as the industrious helprneet who facilitated her husband s accninulation of wealth The state of property in Anierica renders it necessary for the greatest part of our citizens to employ themselves in different occupations for the ad vancement of their fortunes This cannot be done Without the assistance of the female members of the conirriunity They must be the stewards and guardians of their husbands property That education therefore will be most proper for our women which teaches them to discharge the duties of those offices with the most success and reputation The wife appears to be defined in opposition to the citizen the pro prietor and the competitive individual of contract who are all identi fied in the husband Since rnen s numerous avocations in profes sional life would take them out into the world they would have to rely on women to assume a principal share of the instruction of chil dren Young ladies would have to be educated to secure their con currence in instructing their sons in the principles of liberty and gov ernment Ladies curriculum would include English religion geography his tory arithmetic and vocal iriusic keeping in mind the ideal woman set forth in the book of Proverbs AngloAmerican women were warned that if they did not cultivate the virtue of industry their idleness igno rance and profligacy would be the harbingers of national ruin the atrical performances of abuffoor1 would be more worthy of coin mentary than the patriot or the minister of the gospel 9 Noah Webster seemed to stress the same instrumental rationality The future wives of citizens should learn to speak and Write in perfect Americanized English They were not to learn French or read ro mance novels since such would seem to infect American virtue and promote a class of idle refined women of fashion A woman should be educated to improve her domestic worth Since most were likely to marry men who had to Work as mechanics sliopkeepers or farmers they would not be above the care of educating their own children Thas their education should enable them to implant in the tender 76 l The Ideology of the Fair Sex rnind such sentirnents of virtue propriety and dignity as are suitedto the freedom of our governrnents 50 By promoting industry and the education of children as virtuous fe male activities the ideology of the fair sex was instrumental in shaping men and children to become industrious and law abiding persons who respected the right to private property as fundarnental The ideology of the fair sea thus seems to have facilitated the transformation of politi cal concepts like reason liberty and virtue frorn radical to conservative meanings Where liberty and freedom had been defined throiigli revo lutionary rhetoric as the right to have a say in representative govern ment as well as the right to private property those Words were now being defined in popular literature and in political theory as the respect for private property rights law and order As many have argued virtue became ferninized and civilized to promote passivity domesticity in dustry and rule following all instrumental to the development of a capitalist racial patriarchy De m39izg Americcm Fenzinirzz39ty ff 1x gk Utterilz39zed Foreign ix77 Z The de nition and promotion of Anglo Ainerican female virtues was also accomplished tlirotigh negative exarnples of nonwhite femininity around the globe As early as 1775 Thomas Paine articulated both gender and ethnic differences in his Occasional Letter on the Female Sex 52 The let ter begins with an articulation of natural serrual difference 0 Woman Lovely Woman Nature made thee to temper Man We had been Brutes without you In this early example of American fair sex ideology Paine sets out to validate all wornen and to give particular consideration to the women of civilized nations He begins with a statement that all women are oppressed around the globe in part by nature and in part by social cus toms Nature is cruel to women who must risk their lives in childbirth suffer the cruel disternpers of inenstruation and then becorne de sexed by menopause But society adds to these miseries especially in uncivilized countries More than half the globe is covered with say ages and among all those people wornen are completely wretched The Ideology of the Fair Sex l 77 Similar to Thomas efferson s view of African American men in Notes on the State of Virgimn Paine s view was that men in barbarity were cruel indolent and acquainted with little more than the physical aspects of lovequot When not engaged in warlike activity they indulged in idleness and made slaves out of their wives Wives were kept in sepa rate beds and not allowed any conversation or correspondence with their husbands The Indians all exercised a despotic authority over their wives who were considered property They made their wives pro cure all the food and then they prevented them from eating until they had their fill In the East and in Africa women suffered in the Seraglio and in Turlcey Persia India China and japan the excess of oppression stenirned from the egtrcess of love Asia was covered with prisons through which men exercised mastery over worneri There the lovely sex were forced to serve their husbands with the most tender affec tions or worse the counterfeit of affection They were confined to their own apartments and debarred from business and arnuse ments In one country they were affronted by polygamy in another they were enslaved by indissoluble quotties which joined the gentle to the rude and sensibility to brutality As one went north despotic passion was changed into a spirit of gallantry which employed wit and fancy more than the heart As one went further away from the sun passion became either cornposed into a habit of dornestic connection or al ternatively frozen into a state of insensibility under which the sexes scarcely chose to unite their society Even in the civilized nations where women were deerned most happy they were constrained in their desires in the disposal of their goods robbed of freedom by the laws made the slaves of opinion and appearances and surrounded on all sides with judges who are at once their tyrants and seducers In all climates man had been either an in sensible husband or an oppressor However all men had not been equally unjust to the fairquot in some countries public honors were paid to women which is what he urged ought to be the case for Arnerican women Despite Paine s criticism of laws which robbed women in civilized countries all he pleaded for was rninirual public recognition of wornen s virtues Women s names should be some time pronounced beyond the narrow circle in which they lived and have their tombs in scribed with ernblerns of love or friendship so as not to deny them of 78 l The Ideology of the Fair Sex public esteeni Thus even Paine who was considered a political radi cal and somewhat of a ferninist for his time did not in any way suggest that the rights of rnan be extended to women Although American women were oppressed by men and laws they had it better than wornen of the barbaric nations Woznar1 s lot was misery but in civi lized countries wornen were allowed to temper rnan s brutality In the early national period travelogue essays repeated fair sex ide ology Foreign nations were described through the gender relations of the people Foreign women were praised when they demonstrated the ethics of the fair sex and criticized when they did not The women of Mount Etna in Sicily were praised as naturally mild and amiable Unlike other Sicilian women they showed candour and cheerfi1lness in their countenance and their gestures displayed serenity of mind and a desire to oblige and be usefnl 55 But the French Creole women in St Domingo Haiti epitomized the social evils of undornesticated women Accustorned to command they grow obstinate if controlled when their wishes are gratified they sink down to their usual apathy The power that Creole women enjoyed only corrupted them and the rest of society They ate at nonregular intervals according to their de sires and fed on nonnutritious foods like chocolates sweets fruits and coffee rejecting out of hand simple and wholesorne aliment They were uneducated capricious ugly and full of rage they were exces sively tender toward their children and indifferent toward39their hus bands These slaves of passion power and luxury were contrasted with the American fair sex who were praised and encouraged to be lovely and complying wives Be persuaded then 0 amiable sex To confine your dominion to the power of your charms and to procure the happi ness of your subjects by the allurernents of virtue 55 I In similar fashion the Greek women of the Island of Lesvos served as a negative model of Amazonian tyranny They were criticized for having arrogated to themselves the department and privileges of the inen Unlike the custorns of other countries the eldest daughter inher ited while the sons like daughters everywhere else were portioned off with small dovvers or which is still worse turned out pennyless to seek their frJrttine 57 The eldest daughter acted like a tyrant with her inheritance enjoying every sort of liberty with the fa1nily s fortune spending as she pleased treating her husband as an obsequious ser vant and her parents as inferior dependents She was distinguished by vice and a haughty disdainful and supercilious air The Ideology of the Fair Sex l 79 4 The perversion of power between the sexes pervaded all aspects of life In all their customs gender was reversed Manly ladies strad dled the horse while the men sat sideways the husband took the wife s name and the wife was head of household rather than her husband who dared not interfere with her rnanagernent This article was ironie diately followed by another which urged the fair sex to guard against the infatuation of vanity and arnbition for ambition is the ruin of the sex and liuinility is the only antidote against it lovely hurnilityquot The point was obvious a patriarchal family was the center of civilized re pnblicanisrn while a matriarchal family produced a tyrannical atria zonian comnionwealth 58 The Production of Wsite Women as Intermediaries in Racial Patriarchy and US Nationalism Fair sex discourses created a system of ethics that contributed to domi nant thinking on race ethnicity and gender in the last two decades of the eighteenth century The ethics marked a retrogression to marriage within monarchy adapted for life in republicanisni By promoting dis cipline among white women to suppress claims to knowledge author ity and equality the ethics of fair sex ideology revived traditional pa triarchal relations in the borne They promoted wifely subordination and distorted speech within families not free rational discussion among equals Second these ethics imposed a moral geography that separated public rnale spaces from private feminine ones In short fair sex ideology helped to establish republicanism through dual patriarchy Third the ethics served nationalist ends as they defined fernininity through specifically AngloAmerican patriarchal relations Fourth fair sex ethics promoted economic stability by norrnalizing nquotiiddle class values through virtues of industry and obedience which were supposed to encourage men and sons to be more or less productive but passive law abiding citizens The ethics of the fair sex thus seems to have sup ported commercial development and racial patriarchy in Because discourses of the fair sex were set in the context of gender and ethnicity or race they produced fernininity as well as Anierican whiteness They positioned the white woman as partially oppressed and 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