In-Class Notes GEO 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassandra Flores on Saturday January 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Keene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Dynamic Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/24/15
113 In Class Notes What is Science A METHOD for learning about the natural world ldentifying a problem ex quotapple falling on Newton39s head IMPORTANT This is NOT proof of gravity The mathematical equation that Newton develops is Hypothesis Has explanatory power Must be testable via further investigation Can39t claim there is an invisible unicorn that never leaves tracks in the room Prediction de nition sheet Can be about past present or future Prediction vs Hypothesis Prediction quotDark car will be hotter when left in the sunquot Hypothesis quotDark car is hotter because dark objects absorb more solar heat than light objectsquot Explanatory powerthe difference Data de nition sheet systematic collection NOT anecdotal information ls direct observation needed NO Evidence de nition sheet Publishing ournals Conferences Books less frequent All of these lead to an open and continuous debate between scientists Scienti c Theory de nition sheet Greater breadth than a hypothesis Often includes several hypotheses NOT a guess or a hunch EXTREMELY well tested Examples Newton39s theory of Gravitation Germ theory of disease Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Stopped using quotLawquot terminology around 19th century Proving vs Disproving Science aims to disprove Theory must be built by community and not individual scientists Continual testing theories are never quotprovenquot Assumptions Science has to rely on assumptions Not trivial Uniformitarianism de nition sheet Gravity Speed of light Can be complicated Climate change Plate tectonics Who are scientists Anyone who uses the scienti c method Where do they work Big universitiesgovernment All types of research Must publish Industry Often applied research Don39t publish much Where does the money come from You via various paths Consumer taxes nonpro t donations etc Earth StructurePlate Tectonics Earth Structure Internal layers 0 How do we know about layers Magnetic eld Atmosphere Earth39s Magnetic Field Geographic northmagnetic south Magnetic poles regularly wander and reverse 0 Called POLAR WANDERING This tells us that the interior of Earth is made of magnetic material Earth39s composition lron 321 Oxygen 301 Silicon151 Magnesium 139 Other 88 Layers of Earth Fig 18 b or 15 b dep On ed Crust Upper Mantle Lower Mantle Outer Core Inner Core Seismic Geology Uses natural or added wave energy Measure how the waves behave Interior of Earth Waves move differently through different materials Distance amp time gt velocity Velocity helps to determine property Change in velocity determines boundaries 00000 0000 O Crust Continental 0 1525 miles thick 0 Less dense 0 Made mostly of granite Oceanic o 46 miles thick 0 More dense than continental ManUe Soft solid think superhot playdoh Largest layer 3 parts 0 Upper Mantle 0 Lower Mantle 0 Transition Zone Convchon 0 Movement that displaces materials based on temp Heat goes up cold goes down Incredibly slow in this instance Composition 0 Rocks thought to have assembled there 0 Seismic waves More pressure and temperature with depth gt acts more plastic 0 Pressure keeps everything solid in spite of temperature Core Ironrich Outer Core liquid Inner Core solid 0 Interaction between the 2 creates the magnetic eld How do we know core composition o Meteorite composition 0 Seismic waves 0 Density density of earth is vastly different from density of surface General layer properties The deeper you are the higher the pressure and temperature are Heat At 100 km depth rock gets soft Core may be 8942 degrees F Heat in core from 0 Formation 0 Friction o Radioactivity Boundanes Moho Mohorovicic discontinuity We have not been able to drill to this point Lithosphere upper crust transition zone upper mantle Athenosphere Lower mantle softsolid part Atmosphere 0 Exists due to the magnetic eld 0 Denser towards the surface 0 Composition of gases 78 nitrogen 21 oxygen 1 other Plate tectonics What are tectonic plates How do we know they move Tectonic plate piece of lithosphere NOTjust crust 0 Some oceanic 0 Some mix of oceanic and continental 0 None are purely continental 0 Act differently from one another 0 Move 115 cm per year Continental margins 0 Active margins 2 plates in motion in opposite directions 0 Passive margins 6 pieces of evidence for movement 1 Shape of continents 2 Paleozoic Glacier deposits 3 Ancient Climate belts 4 Distribution of fossils 5 continued in next lecture
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