Class16BehaviorsBlackboard.pdf EPS 201
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Okieme on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EPS 201 at University of Miami taught by Ora Prilleltensky in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Psychosocial Change and Well-being in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 11/10/15
BET I CAN: Seven scientific principles to promote well-being Behaviors Next Emotions Steps Well Being Awareness Thoughts Context Interactions copyright (c) 2012 Prilleltensky. Do not reproduce or circulate without permission 1 BET I CAN STRA TEGIES SET A GOAL Behaviors CREATE POSITIVE HABITS Next Steps Emotions Well- Awareness Being Thoughts Context Interactions BET I CAN MANAGE NEGATIVE EMOTIONS Behaviors COLLECT POSITIVE EMOTIONS Next Steps Emotions Well- Being Awareness Thoughts Context Interpersonal BET I CAN Behaviors Next Steps Emotions CHALLENGE ASSUMPTIONS WRITE A NEW STORY Well- Awareness Being Thoughts Context Interactions BET I CAN Behaviors Next Steps Emotions Well- Awareness Being Thoughts CONNECT Context Interactions COMMUNICATE BET I CAN Behaviors Next Steps Emotions Well- READ THE CUES Awareness Being Thoughts CHANGE THE CUES Context Interactions BET I CAN Behaviors KNOW Next YOURSELF Steps Emotions KNOW THE ISSUE Well- Awareness Being Thoughts Context Interactions BET I CAN Behaviors Next MAKE A PLAN Steps Emotions MAKE IT STICK Well- Awareness Being Thoughts Context Interactions BEHA VIORS Set a Goal Create Positive Habits copyright (c) 2013 Prill9ltensky. Do not BEST POSSIBLE U Imagine yourself 10 years from now, after everything has gone as well as it could. You have worked hard and have realized your goals and your best potential. Take a few minutes and write a brief description of your best possible self, ten years from now. (King, 2001) • How did you feel as you imagined your best possible self? • How can you use this to set long-range and short-range goals? • How does the goal you set for yourself fit in with your future aspirations? • What can get in the way of achieving it? • Why is our behavior at times incompatible with goals? The benefits of self-control • Better grades • Greater professional advancement • Higher income • Healthier and happier • Better relationships • Longevity • Self-control is a better predictor of academic success than intelligence or SAT scores. • While genes play a role in self-control challenges, there is a lot we can do to help ourselves act in ways that are consistent with our long-range goals. • The marshmallow study THE CHALLENGE OF SELF CHANGE • “Giving up smoking is the easiest thing in the world. I know because I've done it thousands of times.” (Mark Twain) SELF CHANGE IS DIFFICULT….. SELF CHANGE IS DIFFICULT….. • Conflict between “Wants” and “Shoulds” • Conflict between what you want now and what you want in the long-term • Short-term delay of gratification for long-term benefit • What’s your willpower challenge? – What does the wiser side want? – What does the impulsive side want? • How do you feel when you allow yourself to indulge? • What are common willpower challenges for UM students? • Duped by Dopamine? Watch out for… • Giving yourself permission to indulge • Letting tomorrow license today • The halo effect • False hope syndrome • “What the hell” effect DIFFICUL T BUT POSSIBLE • A sizable proportion of New Year resolutions are successful • Most people who change problem behavior do so on their own – without professional help • Successful self-change entails deliberate steps toward gaining control over our own behavior. Getting ourselves to do the harder thing (Sapolsky) • Doing the harder thing (McGonigal) – I will – I won’t – I want BEHAVIOR: SET A GOAL • To change yourself, not someone else • Consistent with your values and priorities • Realistic and within your control • Stated in the positive • Can be broken down into measurable sub- goals Florence’s Health Goals Goal 1: Replace junk food with nutritious food Goal 2: Increase physical activity IF PROS OUTWEIGH CONS SET SMART SUB-GOALS • Specific • Measurable • Attainable • Relevant • Time-bound FLORENCE’S SHORT-TERM SUB-GOALS 1. Munch on raw veggies rather than on chips at least three times a week as I watch my favorite TV program after work. 2. Stop at the park on my way home from work and walk for a minimum of 20 minutes at least three times a week. • Goal intention – Our desire to achieve a certain outcome. • Implementation intention – Our specific plan of action – where, when and how we will work on our goals. • Automatic activation of goal behaviors (Gollwitzer, 1999) AWARENESS: KNOW YOUR BEHAVIOR • We cannot recall our own past behavior with a high degree of precision • We sometimes remember what we want to remember and forget what we choose to forget • In order to change a certain behavior we need to know what we are currently doing • If you want to improve your diet, record your food intake for a week AWARENESS: KNOW YOUR ABC • Antecedents – Take place before the behavior – Act as triggers for the behavior – When these triggers are present, the behavior is likely to occur • Consequences – Come after the behavior – Affect whether or not we repeat the behavior BECOME A GOOD DETECTIVE TRIGGERS CAN BE…. • Environmental • Interpersonal • Mood • Self-talk IDENTIFY TRIGGERS… • When did it happen? • Where was I? • Who was I with? • What was taking place? • What physical cues were present? • What was I saying to myself? • What was I feeling? IDENTIFY CONSEQUENCES…. • What are the consequences of my behavior? • What immediately follows the behavior that serves to reinforce it? • Am I rewarded for the very behavior I am trying to change? FLORENCE’S JUNK FOOD LOG TRIGGERS BEHAVIORS CONSEQUENCES What? When? Where? Positive and negative What reinforces the With whom? Thoughts? examples behavior? Feelings? Include amount and magnitude REACH A GOAL BY… • Changing the triggers • Changing the behavior • Changing the consequences AVOID TRIGGERS THA T CUE PROBLEM BEHAVIOR • Clear your house of junk food • Chuck the candy bowl on your desk • Don’t walk by the vending machine • Take a different route to avoid “your” drive- thru • Avoid places where you will be tempted STEEL YOURSELF IN TEMPTING SITUA TIONS • Don’t shop for groceries on an empty stomach • Eat a healthy snack before going to a party • Ask others not to tempt you • Imagine the unhealthy qualities of the tempting food • Make a specific plan for dealing with temptations you cannot avoid MAKE A PLAN • “If folks at the office order pizza for lunch, I’ll eat my lunch at the park” Pre-commitment • We need to structure our environment so it works for us rather than against us. Often, we need to limit our options in order to prevent ourselves from succumbing to temptation. This is a form of pre-commitment which can protect our long-term goals. Making it difficult to reverse our choices can help protect us from ourselves. • “Why do family tragedies generally occur during the last two weeks of the semester?” (Dan Ariely, 2008) • What would you choose? – Condition 1: Set own deadlines – Condition 2: No deadlines until final class – Condition 3: Deadlines dictated by professor • Which class did the best? True or False? • I sometimes delay tasks that I should do immediately • Delaying a task increases my motivation for completing it later • I sometimes pay the price for the tendency to put off until tomorrow what I should do today • Most students have a problem with procrastination • Pre-paid gym membership • Automatic deductions • Disabling wifi • Alarm clock in a different room • The credit card ice-glass method • Penalty for surfing the net CHANGE THE BEHAVIOR: DO THE HEALTHY OPPOSITE • Engage in an alternative pleasant activity • Practice relaxation if tension is a trigger for problem behavior • The 10 minute rule – Wait 10 minutes before you indulge (I won’t) – Do 10 minutes of something you are resisting (I will) • Surfing the urge CHANGE THE CONSEQUENCE: T AKE CHARGE OF REWARDS • Eliminate rewards that maintain problem behavior • Reward the healthy alternative to problem behavior POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT CHEA T- SHEET • Rewarding to you – Activities – Interpersonal strokes – Self-praise • Contingent on the target behavior • Immediate or soon after • Varied to maintain interest A touch of pessimism: Mental Contrasting (Oettingen, 2014) • WOOP Your Goal – Wish – Outcome – Obstacle – Plan • Make if-then plans
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