Class17and18EmotionsThoughtsInteractionsBlackboard1.pdf EPS 201
Popular in Psychosocial Change and Well-being
Popular in Education and Teacher Studies
This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Okieme on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EPS 201 at University of Miami taught by Ora Prilleltensky in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Psychosocial Change and Well-being in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Miami.
Reviews for Class17and18EmotionsThoughtsInteractionsBlackboard1.pdf
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 11/10/15
Emotions, Thoughts, Interactions Cultivating positivity, happiness and wellbeing Why What You Learned in Preschool Is Crucial at Work (NYT, October 16, 2015) • “Occupations that require strong social skills have grown much more than others since 1980, according to new research.” • “Jobs that require both socializing and thinking, especially mathematically, have fared best in employment and pay” Emotional Intelligence • Perceiving and effectively expressing emotion • Understanding how emotion shapes thinking, decision making, and coping with stress • Regulating emotion and controlling impulses • Empathizing with others • Developing intimate relationships • Forming positive interpersonal relationships Four dimensions of emotional intelligence • Self-awareness • Self-management • Social Awareness • Social Management • http://www.break.com/usercontent/2008/4/ Office-Space-I-have-people-skills-488721.html EMOTIONS • Negative emotions are often a trigger for problem behavior. • High negative emotion in conjunction with low positive emotion lowers self-control EMOTIONS • Manage negative emotions – Natural and instructive – Down-spiraling and destructive – A common trigger for problem behavior • Collect positive emotions – Positive emotions facilitate self-control – Positive emotions broaden and build – Positive emotions and thriving Flourishing (Fredrickson, 2009) • The 3 to 1 positivity tipping point • The exception rather than the rule (20% of those tested) • the negativity bias • the positivity offset Increasing Positivity Ratio • Increase the numerator (positivity) • Decrease the denominator (negativity) • Do both MANAGE AND REDUCE NEGA TIVITY • Dispute negative thinking • Avoid social comparisons • Avoid over-thinking and ruminations • Learn to forgive rather than harbor anger • Practice mindfulness • Deal with people and situations that trigger negativity • Develop coping strategies THOUGHTS • How we think and what we say to ourselves affects how we feel and what we do • We are most likely to talk to ourselves in stressful, challenging situations and what we say will have a powerful impact on how we respond THEY ARE INTERCONNECTED…. Dealing with Stress • Circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well-being and thereby tax one’s coping abilities (Weiten, Lloyd, Dunn & Hammer, 2009) Psychological Stress • “Encompasses the negative cognitive and emotional states that result when people feel that the demands placed on them exceed their ability to cope” (Lemme, 2006, p. 423) Albert Ellis: REBT • We can change our emotional reactions to stress by altering our appraisal of stressful situations and altering irrational thinking in order to reduce maladaptive emotions and behaviors. REBT: Ellis’ A-B-C Sequence A. Activating event B. Belief system C. Consequences The A-B-C theory Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 10 (4) Common Irrational Assumptions: • I must be liked by everyone • I must perform well in all endeavors • Other people should always behave competently and be considerate • Events should always go the way I like Which assumptions do you subscribe to? • It really bothers me when I suspect there is someone who does not like me. a. Agree b. Somewhat agree c. Disagree Faulty Thinking • Polarizing – Thinking about things in all or nothing terms. If something isn’t perfect, it is worthless. • Overgeneralizing – Thinking that one setback will affect all domains of life. • Catastrophizing – Anticipating the worst possible outcome in a situation. • Filtering – Seeing yourself and the world through a negative filter. Positive experiences are ignored since they do not fit with your negative filter. Faulty Thinking • Labeling – Putting negative labels on yourself or others, rather than thinking that you or someone else made a mistake. • Personalizing – Automatically thinking that others’ negative behaviors and issues have something to do with you. • Shoulding – Constantly telling yourself that you should be doing certain things and criticizing yourself for not doing them. DEALING WITH FAUL TY THINKING • Identify your thoughts and self-talk – This is harder than it seems, since self-talk is often automatic • Ask yourself….. – Is this thought reasonable? – What is the evidence that supports my assumption? What is the evidence that refutes it? – Does it help me to think this way? • Modify your self-talk • Ask yourself: “what would I say to my best friend if she were in this situation?” • Replace self-defeating thoughts with positive self-instructions. Tell yourself what you need to do to meet the next sub-goal. • The best thing to do when feeling “down” is to reflect, focus on the source of the problem, and try to understand it. • A. True • B. False Avoiding rumination and social comparisons (Fredrickson, 2009; Lyubomirsky, 2008) • When NOT to reflect • Rumination-busting strategies – Distractions – Worry schedule – Write – Problem-solve – Big picture: will this matter a year from now? Practice mindfulness and psychological flexibility (ACT) • Accept negative private experiences • Do not take them as objective reality • Stay in the moment • Be willing to have rather than avoid or change these experiences • Understand that such experiences do not need to dictate your behavior • Act in accordance with your values and priorities Diffuse Negativity Landmines • Becoming more mindful • Negativity triggers • Dealing with negative situations and negative people – Modify the situation – Attend differently – Change meaning – Limit exposure Social Comparisons Which of the following is most accurate for you? a. I never compare myself to others b. I rarely compare myself to others c. I frequently compare myself to others • Developing coping strategies – Appraisal-focused coping – Problem-focused coping – Emotion-focused coping • Benefit-finding • Post-traumatic growth • Finding meaning • Social support • Learning to forgive INCREASE POSITIVITY • Find positive meaning and cultivate optimism • Positive reappraisal • Practice savoring • Count your blessings and express gratitude • Learn and apply your strengths • Increase flow experiences • Commit to your goals • Nurture social relationships • Practice kindness the architecture of sustainable happiness • Importance of personal-activity fit • Role of effort • Stick with it but vary the format • Avoid the hedonic treadmill Gratitude Exercise • There are many things in life, big and small that we might be grateful about. Think back over the past week and write five things for which you are grateful (Lyubomirsky, 2007; Lyubomirsky & Kurtz, 2013). Gratitude • Start a gratitude journal • Write a gratitude letter • Express gratitude (home, school, work) Practicing Kindness • Write about a time when you were truly kind to someone else or went out of your way to help that person. Describe a situation, what you did, how you felt, and how the other person reacted (Lyubomirsky & Kurtz) • Over the next week practice five acts of kindness. The acts do not have to be for the same person and can be different from one another . – Vary the format – Try doing all five acts in one day – Keep a “kindness Journal” Nurture Relationships • Make time and share your inner life • Express appreciation and affection (the 5 to 1 ratio) • Manage Conflict • Focus on strengths • Take delight in loved ones’ successes • utube.com/watch?v=WRobpAKT7Qs Active Constructive Responding (Shelly Gable) • How do you respond to capitalization attempts? – Active Constructive (AC) – Passive Constructive (PC) – Active Destructive (AD) – Passive Destructive (PD) Being a Good Listener • Think about a situation when someone did a good job listening to you. What did the person say and do? What made him or her a good listener? • Now think about a situation when someone did a poor job listening to you. What did the person say and do? What made him or her a poor listener? Becoming a good listener • Devote energy to listening • Be aware of the benefits of listening • Be willing to “learn to listen” • Practice active listening skills – Attending skills – Following skills – Reflecting skills Use effective attending skills • Use affective attending skills – Control your nonverbal behavior – Consider the speaker’s nonverbal behavior – Choose a suitable environment • Maintain rapport by using “following skills” – Open the door – Use minimal encouragers – Be silent – Ask infrequent, follow-up questions • Practice reflecting skills – Paraphrasing – summarizing Avoid barriers to listening • Judging responses – Criticizing – Praising – Diagnosing – Name-calling • Avoiding responses – Diverting – Using logical arguments – reassuring • Problem-solving responses – Giving advice – Ordering or threatening – Questioning excessively • Communication – Assertive – Unassertive • Dealing with conflict – Avoiding (the turtle) – Accommodating (the teddy bear) – Competing (the shark) – Compromising (the fox) – Collaborating (The Owl) In Conflicts There Are Two Concerns: • Your Goals Unimportant 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Important • Your Relationship With The Other Person(s) Unimportant 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 Important Conflict Strategies • Avoiding (the turtle) • Accommodating (the teddy bear) • Competing (the shark) • Compromising (the fox) • Collaborating (The Owl)