Exam 4 Week 1
Exam 4 Week 1 PSYC 2010-001
Popular in Introductory Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2010-001 at Clemson University taught by Chong H. Pak in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/10/15
Thinking Monday November 2 2015 804 AM Mental Representation of Info 0 Categories ofobjects events or ideas with common properties 0 Class freshman vs individuals in that class A concept that can be clearly defined by a set of rules or 0 properties 39 A triangle has 3 sides 39 Less than 56 hours you are a freshman more means yore a sophomore o z a concept that has no fixed set of defining features 39 Prototype a member ofa natural concept that possesses all or mot of its characteristic features III A robin is a prototype of a bird a penguin is not Categorv Hierarchies Concepts are a fundamentalto our ability to THINK and make sense of the world Conceptsinfluence memory 0 Ifsomething is inconsistent with a prototype we are less likely to remember it o Slower to think about it Problem Solving i Trial and error i Algorithms i i Heuristics iv Insight very time consuming exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution Computers use algorithms I 39 nrnracc n F Ql3ll3in a rnnrlllclnn 39l39l onru nr PnlerD n F LIIC JIUDCJJ UI CVCIIUCILIIIE CI DUIIDIUJIUII LIICUI y UI DUUIJC UI action on the basis of the believability ofthe evidence timesaving mental shortcuts rules ofthumb used in reasoning 0 Steve lives in Atlanta He is very shy withdrawn helpful but with little interes in people ort the world of reality He has a need fororder and structure and a passion for detail o Is Steve a salesperson or a librarian 39 Most people say librarian 39 Heavily influenced by description ofSteve 39 Ignored the frequency of sales people in Atlanta 0 Linda is 31 single outspoken and very bright She majored in philosophy As a student she was deeply concerned with issues ofdiscrimination and social justice for women 39 Most said feminist bank teller 39 Bank teller makes more sense 39 Don t narrow down to smallest category Conclusion about whether something belongs in a certain class are based on how similar it is to other items in that class I You ignore info about base rates frequencies 39 There are MANY more sales people than male librarians ltundagt o Gamblers Fallacv 39 You flip a coin 5 times and get 5 heads 39 Think the next is more likely to be heads 39 A false belief that random processes will correct them selves The likelihood ofan event or the correctness of a hypothesis is judged by how easy it is to think of that event or hypothesis 0 Misperceive lowlikelihood events as high likelihood because you see of hear about them a lot 0 It comes to mind easily 0 Media talks about lowlikelihood events all the time Obstacles to Problem Solving The tendency to stick with a problemsolving strategy that worked in the past m The mlnnl lc lanl U IIICIIIIIIUIJIGLY 0 Not every problem is the same or can be solved the same way 0 Our difficulty in using the absence of evidence to help eliminate hypothesis from consideration 0 Russian commanderwho figured that only 5 missiles did not constitute of an attack 0 Ignoreinfo that s against whatyou think 0 Seek out info only confirming your belief Language Wednesday November 4 2015 800 AM 0 The smallest unit of sound that affects the meaning of speech 0 molecules 0 The smallest unit oflanguage that has meaning 0 Atoms units of language composed of one or more morphemes Babbling Stage 0 Beginning at 4 months the infants spontaneously utters various sounds like agoo o Babbling is not imitation of adult speech universal One Word Stage 0 Beginning at or around his first birthday a child starts to speak one word at a time o The word doggy means look at the doggy out there 0 Two Word Stage 0 Before the 2nd year two word sentences 0 Telegraphic Speech Explaining Language Development 0 Operant Learning 0 Association imitation and reinforcement o BUT 0 Children generate phrases sentences they have never heard before 0 Overgeneralization errors addings to end of word doesn tfit o Chomsky language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained throughjust learning principle and thus most of it is unborn 0 Evidence 0 Critical Periods in language development f lII IJ I II I I IJ o cnnoren never exposed to any language spOKen or Signed py apout age 7 gradually lose their ability to master any language 0 Learning language gets harder with age 0 Aphasias impairments in language speaking or understanding 0 Brocas Aphasia can understand but cannot speak coherently o Wernicke39sAphasia Can speak coherently but cannot understand Intelligence Friday November 6 2015 829 AM Intelligence 0 Do we have inborn general mental capacity If so can we quantify this capacity ability to learn from experience solve problems and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations 0 In research studies intelligence is whatever intelligence tests measure 0 Intelligence is o A psychological construct 39 It is not directly observable 39 May be measurable 39 Is theorized to exist 0 Most agree with Sternberg 0 Having knowledge 0 Efficiently using that knowledge to reason about the world 0 Using reasoning adaptively in different environments Cognitive Ability The capacity to reason remember understand solve problems and make decisions 0 Measures of cognitive abilities often determine the educational and employment opportunities people have or don t have Brief History of Intelligence Test M1904 Can French children doing poorly in school be identified Termen introduced concept of IQ Q mental age x 100 chronological age WechslerAdult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition WAlSlll Measures of o Verbal IQ 0 Performance IQ 0 Full Scale IQ Can also calculate factor scores that reflect a person39s 0 Cognitive processing speed 0 Working memory 0 Perceptual memory 0 Verbal Comprehension WechslerAdultIntelligenceScaleforChildrenWISClllR Picture comprehension what part is missing from the picture 0 Picture arrangement put series of pictures in order to tell a story Advantages of Tests Tests are standardized o The conditions surrounding the test are as similar as possible for everyone who takes it o Said to be quotobjectivequot not quotsubjectivequot Tests summarize the test takers performance with a specific number or score 0 Allows for the calculation of norms which describe the frequency of particular scores 0 Low different results onetime to another 0 Highsame results one time to another 39 0 Low inaccurate conclusions and predictions 0 High accurate conclusions and predictions IQ Tests 0 For teenagers and adults reliability is high generally above 90 o Reasonably good validity for predicting certain criteria 39 But not a perfect measure of how quotsmartquot people are 39 future 39 SAT how well you will do in college 39 what you ve learned I Bar Exam forlawyers Factors Affecting IQ 0 Both geneticand environmental factors interact to influence cognitive abilities 0 Gender Differences Very small 0 RacialEthnic differences I Within group differences are much greater than betweengroup differences 39 Differences between two Icelanders is much greater than between Icelanders and Africans Why Are IQ Scores Related to Family Income 0 Parents jobs and status depend on characteristics related to their own intelligence 0 Parents39 income affects child39s environment Motivational differences in socioeconomic levels 0 Those with higher IQs may have greater opportunities to earn more money Conditions that can Raise IQ Scores 0 Development of environment enrichment programs 0 Project Head Starts 0 Intervention programs for at risk infants 0 Do the gains achieved by preschool enrichment programs last 0 Long term benefits are disputed o Fading effects probably due more to reduced motivation not loss of cognitive ability Studying Intelligence PsychometricApproach o This approach emphasizes analysis of the products of intelligence test scores 0 Is intelligence one general thing or a bundle of more specific things III g general ability III High g results in high scores on many different tests III 5 specific factors there are 7 relatively independent primary mental abilities III Numerical ability Reasoning Verbal fluency Spatial visualization Perceptual ability Memory Verbal comprehension I There are 2 types of gfactors III Fluid lntelligenceThe basic power of reasoning and problem solving This mental engine that allows you to learn new things D Crystallized lntelligenceThe specific knowledge gained as a result of applying fluid intelligence Total Sum of your knowledge In formation ProcessingApproach This approach focuses on the processes involved in intelligent behavior not test scores and other products of intelligence Relates basic mental processes thinking reasoning to the concept of intelligence Research suggests that intelligence is o More attentional quotresourcesquot 0 Bigger working memory short tem memory 0 Higher perceptual speed
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