Chem week 10 notes
Chem week 10 notes CHEM-10055-003-201580
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanna Notetaker on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM-10055-003-201580 at Kent State University taught by Bansidhar Datta (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see MOLECULES OF LIFE in Chemistry at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 11/10/15
Chemistry week 10 0 more H bonds more hydroxyl groups alcohols w 1 OH group liquid alcohols w 2 OH diols they re viscous thick alcohols w 3 OH triols very viscous glycerol aldoses formed by adding carbon chains to glycerol and oxidation primary alcohol 1 0 alcohol with primary carbon atom connected to hydroxyl group 0 Oh group attached to one alkyl group 0 CHZOH secondary alcohol 2 0 OH group attached to 2 alkyl groups Tertiary alcohol 3 0 OH group attached to a carbon that is saturated Oxidation 0 Process that adds oxygen and or removes hydrogen Reduction 0 Process that removes oxygen and or adds hydrogen Aldehyde 0 Last carbon double bonded to oxygen Ketones 0 Functional group always in the middle Stereoisomers 0 Compound w same formula and connectivity but has different arrangements 0 Almost same physical and chemical properties 0 Mirror images Dextrorota ry 0 Compounds that rotate light to the right 0 R o clockwise 0 Specific rotation angle is positive Levorotary 0 Compounds that rotate light to the left side 0 S o counterclockwise 0 Specific rotation angle is negative Chiral center 0 Central carbon attached to 4 different groupsatoms o Spins because of light Aldoses 0 Simple sugar w one aldehyde Fisher projection formula 0 Line drawing where each line that joins another line is a chiral center 0 2d representation of a 3d molecule haworth projection formula 0 represents cyclic forms All carbssugars are dextrorotary Alcohols O 9 aldehyde 0 9carboxylic acid Alpha D glucose vs Beta D glucose 0 Difference is H and OH groups on carbon 1 Test glucose level in blood diabetes If glucose level in the blood is high 9 cataracs High blood glucose levels 9 hypoglycemia Diabetes patients inject insulin be it breaks down glucose Type 1 diabetes insulin isn t secreted Type 2 diabetes cells don t recognize insulin Ketoses 0 one ketone group in a molecule 0 originates from dihydroxy acetone 0 Glucose from glyceraldehyde Fructose o from dioxyacetone 0 important in human body for energy D diribose o In RNA brain needs 70 of glucose Ddiroxyribose 0 DNA H group and carbon 2 Ketones don t oxidize Glycolysis 2 o Glucose fructose maltose galactose food broke down 9 pyruvate9 mitochondria9 TCA cycle to generate higher energy molecules NADH FADH2 ATP 9 complex 14 protein complex 5 h h209 ATP synthase9 3234 ATP Oxidative phosphorylation I Complexes in mitochondria Complex 1 NADHcoenzyme Q oxidoreductase Complex 2 succinate coenzyme Q oxidoreductase Complex 3 coenzyme Q cytochrome c oxidoreductase Complex 4 cytochrome c oxidoreductase o Inhibitors of complex 4 I Compete w oxygen CO CN N3 NO 0 Properties of carboxylic acids I Polarity I Stateliquid I Soluble I Acidic 0 Higher Ka value9 stronger the acid All present in cells Formic acid 9 methanoic acid 0 1 carbon group acetic acid9 ethanoic acid 0 2 C groups propanoic acid 0 3 C groups Lauric acid 0 Fatty acid C12 Mystic acid 0 C12 Palmitic acid 0 C16 Stearic acid 0 C18 saturated Oleic acid 0 C18 unsaturated o 18 carbons thicksolid fatty acids are saturated or unsaturated Cis same side H is on one side Trans opposite sides one on one sideamp one on other side
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