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HIST 1010, Week 13 Lecture Notes

by: Peyton Robison

HIST 1010, Week 13 Lecture Notes Hist 1010

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > Hist 1010 > HIST 1010 Week 13 Lecture Notes
Peyton Robison
GPA 3.64
World History 1
Dr. Melissa Blair

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Lecture notes for week 13 (only Tuesday, because there is no class Thursday)
World History 1
Dr. Melissa Blair
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peyton Robison on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Melissa Blair in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 11/10/15
Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 13 November 10 2015 The Slave Trade amp Global Capitalism Effects of the quotNew World I Evolution of the Atlantic Slave Trade a Portuguese Origins b 17th Century Involvement of Dutch and British II Economics and Cultures of West Africa III The Middle Passage Today s Questions 3 What were the motivations for European involvement in the Atlantic slave trade How did the trade fit into existing African economies What roles did the Middle Passage play in the Atlantic economy Evolution of the Atlantic Slave Trade 0 First European country to really develop the Atlantic slave trade was Portugal in the first half of the 1400s 0 Began exploring the northern half of the west coast of Africa looking for a way to tap into transSaharan trade 0 Trying to find a way to get access to slaves but mostly the gold remember Mali Spain and Portugal are both colonizing in order to get access to gold and silver The Portuguese have a monopoly on some sailing techniques I Enables them to sail down around the coast of west Africa I Scientific advances technology of the Islamic Golden Age 0 Very good at keeping this knowledge from other Europeans 0 One of the first places they set up colonies is in the Madeira Islands I Plantations established there slaves taken there to work the plantations o Staple crop agriculture 0 Growing a single crop for export o On these islands mostly sugar 0 Slaves were people who were already outsiders in society for one reason or another 0 Prisoners of war criminals owed debts I Starting to bring a small number of slaves back to Europe 0 Going to be mostly doing domestic work or working in ports 0 The pattern of how these people are sold in Europe is already set 0 Sold at public auction 0 Already serving as status symbols for wealthier Europeans 0 Rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade 0 Portuguese establish all the patterns for the trade in the 15th century but there is relatively low demand for enslaved labor until the very end of the 16th century Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 13 I The Portuguese population and government never express any discomfort in the buying and selling of other human beings 0 Been a part of economies for miennia I They do have new ways ofjustifying what they re doing 0 Religious government had gotten a blessing from the pope of the Catholic church with the promise that one of their goals would be to convert their slaves to Christianity 0 Sending missionaries to this region for conversion 0 Vague belief that they as Portuguese men are more civilized than Africans o Africans described as quotliving like beasts 0 Really convinced that they should help these people 0 Inherent superiority is really really powerful 0 As demand expands in the 17th century the Dutch and British become more closely involved in the trade disrupting the wellestablished Portuguese trade networks both in Africa and the Indian Ocean to hurt the Portuguese and enrich themselves I Dutch and British motivations are different 0 European motivation is MONEY 0 Dutch disrupting Portuguese economic influence 0 Not interested in setting up their own colonies for the most part just on getting their hands on some of the money that the Portuguese are getting 0 Their religious leaders do express some discomfort in the buying and selling of human beings I That doesn t stop them however 0 By the end of the 17th century Dutch are transporting slightly more than half of the slaves o For the British direct involvement in the slave trade is a critical piece of the financial success from the mainland British perspective of their American colonies I In the 17th century England is a huge market for all of the goods that are circulating especially the crops coming out of the western hemisphere such as sugar I Their motivation is to cut out the middle man 0 Trying to not have to pay the taxes to the Dutch so they get their own ships Economics and Cultures of West Africa 0 Europeans sent many trade goods to Africa they aren t just taking people they are paying and trading things for the people they are taking out 0 They sent cloth raw metal iron and copper finished metal products swords and bowls and luxury goods jewelry etc 0 Economics of the Atlantic Slave Trade O Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 13 In early years 15th17t centuries trade goods coming in from Europe are luxury goods and are not essential to African economies and slave trade functions much as it always had in west African economies I The Europeans are not bringing Africa things that they wouldn t have otherwise 0 West Africa had high quality metalwork at beginning of slave trade penod 0 They are not providing the majority of the iron in Africa 0 The imported cloth only accounts for about 2 of the need of Africans 0 Domestic manufacturing is providing for the needs of the people I Africa is also exporting things to Europe as well 0 Woven mats that were very popular as bedspreads in the 16th century in Europe I Goods from both areas are going into each other I Luxury goods are really for the elites of these coastal towns o Displayed quite conspicuously I Before 1700 the slave trade itself is functioning much as it always had for these African economies 0 It s not a new thing 0 True up until about 1700 Big shift happens around 1700 when international demand for slaves explodes 23 of the 124 million people taken by the Atlantic slave trade were taken in the 18th century I Demand skyrockets for a lot of reasons After 1 700 Atlantic slave trade has a far more detrimental effect on African economies by depopulating the western half of the continent I Difficult to maintain iron and textile manufacturing 0 More dependent on European trade goods 0 Cultural backgrounds of some of the people being taken in the slave trade 0 Three types of people 0 West African CulturalEthnic Groups compared 0 O 0 Working north to south along the coast of west Africa Senegambian formerly part of Kingdom of Mali patrilineal mix of Muslim and pagan religion but large percentage of those taken for the slave trade were Muslim I Referred to mostly as quotGambianquot people I Kingdom of Mali has pretty much fallen apart at this point but they were a part of it I Society was quite hierarchical 0 There were slaves within Senegambian society gm not part of any large centralized government but rather governed by a series of kinshipbased clans patrilineal but women had high degree of respect religion focused on connections between land and ancestors I Some evidence of the Igbo illustrating quotdouble dissent patrilineal and matrilineal at the same time I Women revered as quotkeepers of the soil keeping the land in the family line Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 13 o The land was where the family strength and spiritual strength came from 0 Lounge hierarchical government under the King of the Kongo matrilineal economy based on trade within kingdom religious beliefs focused on reincarnation I Each village specialized in a specific good and they would trade among each other The Middle Passage 0 When we talk about the journey from Africa to the western hemisphere we refer to it as the Middle Passage 0 Took anywhere from three to six months 0 Over the entire course of the Atlantic slave trade almost two million people died on the Middle Passage I Not included in that 124 million total 0 The center of this journey was the slave ship 0 Roles of the Middle Passage 0 Slave ships that crossed the Atlantic as quotcombination war machine mobile prison and factory I War machine because they often fought battles with ships from other nations as they sailed o All of these ships are equipped with cannons and other defensive mechanisms 0 Still part of the geopolitical fights that Europeans keep having I Prison because they are violently imprisoning people and moving them against their will 0 Violent discipline regularly used on the ship on the slaves and the crew 0 Captain whipped the crew with the expectation that they would use the same harsh discipline on the slaves o Slaves packed tightly below deck 0 Captains of the ships know that they need to feed sometimes by force slaves and force slaves to exercise 0 They would not make as much money if they arrived in the western hemisphere visibly ill I Factory both in terms of making people into goods and making diverse groups of men and women into quotAfricansquot ie making race 0 Taking people and making them into sellable goods 0 Making people a commodity 0 Making the unique and culturally diverse people talked about earlier into just quotAfricansquot or black 0 Same goes for all the culturally diverse crew and making them just white 0 Creates ideas of race Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 13 o Attaches the slave status to the color of your skin November 12 2015 NO CLASS


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