CH104chpt7.pdf CH 104
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Stephen Woski in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introductory Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 11/10/15
Thursday November 5 2015 CH 104 Chapter 7 Gases Liquids and Solids The Three States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Existing as a gas liquid or solid depends on the balance between the kinetic energy of its particles the strength of the interactions between the particles intermolecular forces Gases Measurable properties of gases volume liters number of particles moles temperature kelvins Kelvins MUST be used in calculations Increasing temperature increases kinetic energy pressure atmospheres is the force exerted per unit area as gas particles collide with the walls of a container 1atm 760 mm Hg 760 torr 147 psi pounds per square inch 101325 Pa pascals know mm Hg and torr Thursday November 5 2015 Gas Laws Boyle s Law As P increases V decreases for constant T and n Charles s Law As T increases V increases for constant P and n GayLussac s Law As T increases P increases for constant V and n Combined Gas Law shows the relationship of P V and T when two quantities are changed and the number of moles is constant combines all 3 gas laws see Table 72 for equations P pressure the units do not matter as long as they are consistent V volume the units do not matter as long as they are consistent T temperature MUST be in Kelvins n moles Molar Volume At STP standard temperature and pressure 273 K 1 atm1 mol of any gas occupies 224 L ldeal Gas Law PV nRT R gas constant we will be given this All units in the equation must be the same as the units in the constant moles Kelvin atm L Dalton s Law of Partial Pressure The total pressure of a mixture of gas is the sum of all of the pressures of the gases Intermolecular Interactions London dispersion tendency of all molecules to want to stick to other molecules universal attractive force between molecules relative strength weak exhibited by all molecules Thursday November 5 2015 Bigger molecules have more surface area so that have a better ability to stick together Dipoledipole Differing electronegativities cause molecules to have partially charged areas that are attracted to other partially charged areas of other molecules relative strength moderate exhibited by molecules with a net dipole Hydrogen bonding relative strength strong exhibited by molecules with an OH NH or FH bond Boiling Point and Melting Point Boiling point temperature at which a liquid is converted to a gas vaporization Melting point temperature at which a solid is converted to a liquid The stronger the intermolecular forces the higher the boiling point and melting point Phase Changes do not worry about sublimation and deposition Melting solid gt liquid endothermic energy is absorbed Freezing is the opposite process exothermic Vaporization liquid gt gas endothermic Condensation is the opposite process exothermic Calculating Heat to Convert Solid lt gt Liquid Heat heat of fusion x mass heat of fusion is also noted AH fusion Calculating Heat to Convert Gas lt gt Liquid Heat heat of vaporization x mass heat of vaporization is also noted AH vaporization Thursday November 5 2015 Calculating Heat to WarmCool a SinglePhase Sample Heat specific heat x mass x Atemperature Heating Curve Temperature is on the Y axis Heat Added is on the X axis