PSYCH1010: Piaget's Theory of Development and Erikson
PSYCH1010: Piaget's Theory of Development and Erikson PSY 1010
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Parsley on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Paul J Watson (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 11/10/15
PSYCHlOlO Introduction to Psychology Watson Monday 1 1215 PIAGET39S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 1 What five general assumptions does Jean Piaget make about cognitive development 0 Development is characterized by qualitative changes gradual changing through time Intelligence occurs in a set sequence there39s a commonality in development of all people with few variations 0 Development is a product of nature and nurture Each stage is associated with strengths and weaknesses Development is a process of supplement not replacement 1 What kinds of cognitive changes occur as a person moves from one stage to another Qualitative 2 What did Piaget assume about the sequence in which cognitive development occurs It is solid and cannot be altered 3 What was the American Question and how did Piaget respond to it 0 How can we speed up the process and ignore the early stages 0 It is not a race it39s a set sequence of events that takes time you cannot skip a step or go too quickly it is a genetically modified maturation 4 How are nature and nurture involved in cognitive development 0 Nature establishes the potential for intelligence Nurture actualizes the potential and expresses the intelligence as efficiently as possible 5 What can be said about each stage in terms of cognitive strengths and weaknesses Every stage allows adaptation to environment strength but it doesn39t allow complete adaptation weakness 6 How do the stages of development occur according to Piaget Is development a process of replacement 0 NO Replacement Each previous stage is not replaced by a new stage lgt2gt3gt4 Supplement Stage 1 occurs then stage 2 joins it stage 3 appears as well and lastly stage 4 arises all previous stages remain quantitative improvements are present lgtl2 gtl23gtl234 7 What is the first stage of development and when does it occur Sensorymotor 02 years 8 What is the importance of this first stage Behavioral schemas occur 0 Object permanence develops 9 How might behavioral changes be related to this stage 0 Systematic behaviors are adopted to react to the environment 10 What is object permanence and how can it be related to this stage What game might be described as the object permanence game 0 Object permanence Understanding that objects have an existence independent of perception There is ME self and NOT ME objects gt for babies there is no distinction between the two the baby cannot control its own body but it controls the mom39s actions amness Out of sight out of existence baby39s understanding 0 Once the differentiation is made a baby is moving on to stage 2 0 Game peekaboo 11 What is the second stage of development and when does it occur 12 13 14 15 16 Preoperational stage 27 years What are the major accomplishments of this stage Language Representational symbolic Thought What is representational or symbolic thought 0 Ability to mentally represent objects and events using words and images Things are placed in the mind but one cannot actively manipulate theses thoughts What is an operation and how does the definition of this term explain the name of the stage Mentally manipulate representations 0 This is the stage preoperational before operation occurs Which weighs more a pound of bricks or a pound of feathers Why does a child in this preoperational stage have a hard time answering this riddle correctly A child cannot mentally manipulate the representations so it is hard to imagine the images of feathers and bricks being weighed What is egocentrism How is it related to this second stage How might it be demonstrated Egocentrism an inability to perceive the environment from the perspective of another person 0 A child sees an urban scene on a train set on one side of a mountain and a country scene on the other side of the mountain if another person stands on the urban side while the child stands on the countryside and the researcher tells the kid to explain what the researcher is seeing the child will describe what the child is seeing the child39s world is limited solely to what he is currently seeing A child believes if he can39t see mom mom can39t see him quotif I don39t see the problem it isn39t therequot Wednesday 11415 COMPLETING PIAGET 17 18 19 20 21 22 What is the third stage of Piaget s theory of cognitive development and when does it occur 0 Concrete Operational Stage 712 years What are some of the most obvious features of cognitive development during this third stage 0 Can perform operations on mental representations of physical concrete events Transitive inference Conservation What is transitive inference What is an example Ability to infer new relationships based upon already understood relationships 0 Example a child knows John is taller than Paul at school and Paul is taller than James at church it can be inferred that John is taller than James even though the child has never seen them together What is conservation 0 Understanding that while some things change others stay the same How might conservation be illustrated with a conservation of volume task 0 If two glasses are filled with the same amount of punch a child will see that they39re the same if one glass is poured into a skinnier cup the preoperational child suddenly thinks the taller glass has more the concrete operational child realizes both glasses still have the same amount of liquid What is the fourth stage of Piaget s theory of cognitive development and when does it occur 0 Formal Operational Stage 12 years Does everyone develop sophisticated levels of the cognitive skills associated with this stage of development Mentally manipulate representations of objects and events that are not concrete Engage abstract reasoning can solve math problems and then prove why it39s true Scientific thinking Hypotheses testing 0 Systematic tests of hypotheses 23 What does the development of such sophisticated cognitive skills require 0 Educational experience 24 How can this stage of development be related to the purposes of this course this university and our culture 0 The culture of our society needs students to gain more intelligence 0 We need more mental heavylifting over physical heavylifting Friday 11615 INTRODUCING ERIKSON 1 In broad terms how would you describe Erik Erikson s early life Psychosocial theory of development characterized by chaos Chaos is a fact of life that everyone has to endure Born in Denmark with Jewish mother from an affair moved to Germany Erik got sick and was taken to a pediatrician his mother married the doctor who adopted Erik Erik had three last names name of mother39s first husband name of biological father and name of new father pediatrician he decided to keep Erikson after his birth father 25 With whom did he work in Vienna Sigmund Freud worked with his daughter Anna Freud as well 0 Used art therapy as psychoanalysis among children with Anna Freud 26 Where did eventually end up living Denmark gt Germany gt Vienna gt London gt US Boston Married a Canadian woman in Vienna While in Vienna his colleagues would have to go to concentration camps so they moved to London In the US he worked in Boston and went to Berkley for awhile and Pittsburg Pittsburg worked with Mr Rogers as a child therapist 27 What method did Erikson recommend Things are complex Triple Bookkeeping account for three types of causes 28 What were the three key components included in this method Biology Psychology 0 Social life 29 How can this method be related to the composite model of causality that we have developed this semester Biology physiopersonal variables Psychology intrapersonal variables 0 Social life interpersonal metapersonal and nonpersonal variables 30 How does some of the material in Erikson s Childhood and Society 1950 illustrate the parallels that exist between Erikson s method and certain parts of the composite model of causality Interpersonal Su mothers weaned their children Intrapersonal what is the Su personality all about Metapersonal religion and traditions like the quotvision questquot moving young men into adulthood 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Nonpersonal they freely hunted Buffaloes on the plains but once moved to the reservation they could not do this anymore What aspect of personal development does Erikson s theory describe Biology gt Psychology gt Social Life gt Biology gt Psychology gt Social Life etc 0 This is a continuous cycle to leave a dock untie all the ropes on the boat How many stages does Erikson s theory specify 0 8 stages What methodology underlies Erikson s developmental theory 0 Supplement not replacement 0 Each stage is characterized by 0 Whole person 0 8 stages of development 0 Con ict causes strength or liability Triple bookkeeping What is the implicit definition of the person built into Erikson s theory 0 A person is What happens during 8 stages of development from birth until death This is a psychosocial theory of development In general terms What happens during each stage of development 0 Each stage is defined by an age biology con ict psychology and example behavior social life What is the result when a person successfully accomplishes the tasks associated with a stage of development Maturation What is the result when a person is unsuccessful in meeting the developmental demands of a stage Skeels and Dye experiment in an orphanage 0 When babies were given mothers they grew well and led successful lives When babies were not given the love they needed they were likely to grow up with mental disabilities or die early
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