French Revolution and Industrial Revolution
French Revolution and Industrial Revolution HIST 100
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cailyn Notetaker on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 100 at George Mason University taught by Scala in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization in History at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 11/10/15
Week 11 11/10/2015 ▯ European Politics and Society Transformed: The French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution ▯ ▯ The French Revolution 1789-1815 Abolishes ancien régime in France Four phases and dynamic of radicalization/moderation Europe-wide impact: challenges structures of ancien régime across Europe Inaugurates era of modern politics as such ▯ ▯ Causes of the Revolution Louis 16 and Marie Antoinette Growth of liberal public opinion on enlightenment ideas Three estates: clergy, nobles, commoners o Each have a different legal status and rights o There is already social tension between the estates French government goes into financial crisis th o Louis 16 tries to increthe revenues by taxing the nobility o May 1789 Louis 16 calls in the estates general to tax first and second estates o Nobility and Clergy use estates general to maintain their rights o Commoners call in estates general to make political change and gain more representation June 20 1789: Tennis Court Oath o National Assembly o 3 estate has meetings until they write a Constitution Middle class leaders take control of Paris July 14th 1789 o Middle class storm the Bastille o Vivid symbol of what is happening in Paris The Great Fear o Peasant riots break out o Try to seize agricultural land and drive out nobility October 1789 o Women upset about bread prices and National Assembly march to Versailles and force King to return to Paris National Assembly o Constitutional monarchy o Abolish remaining structures of feudalism o Déclaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen 1792 prospect of war becomes more of a possibility o Leopold, brother of Marie Antoinette, becomes more disturbed, and with King of Prussia, issue the declaration of pillnitz Austria would go to war if and only if all thee other major European powers went to war with France o Revolutionary France faces setbacks on the battle field Summer 1792: rebels assault the palace where the King was staying —demand that the assembly declares suffrage 2 ndphase of revolution—most radical o New legislature to replace national assembly is elected: National Convention Jacobins are dominant figure Introduce radical reforms Introduce law of the maximum Fixed prices for food and other necessities Intervene directly in economy: no longer laissez- faire Engage in persecution on anyone who showed dissent of the revolution o Major internal rebellions th Jacobins tried Louis 16 for treason and execute him and Marie Antoinette later on. o Committee of public safety Radical revolutionary cultural trends here as well Reject organized religion Create civic cult of virtue Public celebrations of virtues of the revolution Change months of the calendar Political repression reaches apex Suspicion of all society—30,000 people killed during this period: Period of Terror o 2 ndphase comes to end in July 1794 National Convention turns on Committee of Public rd Safety, arrests them, and executes them 3 Phase of the Revolution 1794-1799 o want to moderate the revolution o end the emergency measures law of maximum etc. o enact a new constitution 1795 places limits on voting rights reaffirmed rights from declaration of rights and human citizens put government in hands of middle class executive body (Directory) o French government is willing to use violence to suppress lower class radical movements o War continues with other European powers o Napoleon Bonaparte becomes general Win very important battles and territory Gain power o Internally the French government is weak Directory members willing to put Napoleon into power o Scattered revolts by radical workers groups when Napoleon is put into power, however he uses military forces to stop them. th 4 Phase of Revolution o Napoleon’s actions Crowns himself emperor in 1804 Undisputed ruler of France Comes to settlement with nobility and clergy Makes promises to peasants, urban workers, middle class One figure who can do something for all groups Able to forge national consensus Liberal reformer Issues civil code of civil and criminal law Reorganizes state of administration based on hierarchy of talent Reforms tax codes and educational system Authoritarian leader Creates police state in France Censored press Restrictions on freedom of speech and assembly Personalized power under his control Pretense of constitutional rule Military conquests Continues trend of war with other countries Defeats Austria in 1805, Prussia in 1806, reaches agreement with Russia in 1807, Enacts continental system Cuts of trade with Great Britain Classic case of overextension Peninsular war 1808: British and Spain Guerilla forces battle against Napoleon 1812 he attempts to invade Russia—takes down Moscow Huge blow for Napoleon—must fight for defensive position Russia, Austria, Prussia, Polish, British all battle against Napoleon—largest battle in European history prior to WWI: The Battle of Nations Napoleon is banished to Mediterranean island but returns to France Battle of Waterloo 1815 o Napoleon’s final defeat o Banished to St. Helena French Revolution comes to an end, but the ideas will remain in Europe French Revolution won’t be worked out in Europe until the end of the Cold War ▯ ▯ The Industrial Revolution 1760-1870 Fed by advances of Scientific Revolution Central characteristic: technical innovation fostering mechanization of manufacturing process Mechanization generates unparalleled productivity and continual innovation Begins in Britain, then spreads gradually across Europe and North America Economic transformation in turn engenders transformation of European society ▯ ▯ Origins First takes off in Britain Conditions in Britain: large commercialized agricultural enterprise, large supply of capitol, pursuit of wealth wasn’t viewed as a negative thing, entrepreneurial spirit encouraged, laissez-faire economic system (capitalist), small land mass for effective transportation, well integrated domestic market o Favorable for industrialization ▯ Technical Innovations Process of spinning and weaving Series of inventions increase productivity of spinning and weaving Cotton gin 1793: efficiently removes fibers to create greater supply of cotton fiber Steam engine—turns steam energy into mechanical force to power factories All of these inventions work together to create power looms in factories, which make the process an industrial process and no longer small scale o Textile production is revolutionized Coal starts to take on central role as the industrial revolution grows and grows Iron becomes key element Emergence of railroad system ▯ Spread and Growth The railroad spreads first through Great Britain and then to Continental Europe Other countries in Europe catch up with Great Britain’s advances More based on state promotion of industrialization in other countries and not so much on entrepreneurialism Large parts of Eastern Europe fall behind ▯ Changes to Society Big rise in GDP however, had to deal with brutal conditions while working in the factories Wealthy middle class entrepreneurs benefit, but the workers including children and women, are worked to death Luddism: traditional artisans (luddites) see emergence of factories as a threat to their business and they go destroy the machines in the factories Emergence of slums Unprecedented level of urbanism Social ills exasperated by industrialization o Prostitution o Alcoholism Now see society divided into classes based on socio-economic position TAKE AWAY: French Revolution marks beginning of the very gradual end for ancien régime in France and throughout Europe, redefines terms of politics Industrialization revolutionizes production and the economy, transforming society in the process The French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution following the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment represent two defining moments in the development of Western civilization and together mark start of modern era in political and socio-economic life ▯ ▯
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