11/10/2015 Notes - Science, Discovery, and West’s Productivity Leap
11/10/2015 Notes - Science, Discovery, and West’s Productivity Leap HST 121 - M001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Ratty on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HST 121 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by J. Takeda in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see HST 121 in History at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/10/15
Science Discovery and West s Productivity Leap Class Goals The Rise of Western Science and Technologies Shifts in knowledge about the universe and their causes Heliocentric theory Empiricism Inductive reasoning versus deductive reasoning The Enlightenment Western science and the East Expanding resources What was the Scientific Revolution 1500s1800s Atransformation in scientific thought that had many effects on politics society culture and religion Astronomy Physics Chemistry Biology Causes Globalizing networks Knowledge transfers New World data Renaissance humanism and patronage Protestantism Against new science BUT More tolerant towards publication of new ideas Interest in motion planetary and gravitational Neoplatonism Unity of the natural and spiritual worlds Mathematical harmony Sun in center of universe Undoing accepted scientific views of Claudius Ptolemy 100170 CE Ptolemy s calculations and Aristotle s conception of universe A stationary earth surrounded by moons sun other planets Supported by Biblical references Astronomers of the Scientific Revolution Nicolaus Copernicus 14731543 Polish cleric Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres Heliocentric model of the universe Tycho Brahe 15461601 Danish astronomer Accepts Copernicus idea that the planets revolve around sun But insists that sun revolves around earth Johannes Kepler 15711630 German astronomer Sun at center Planets move in elliptical orbits not circles New Astronomy Galileo Galilei 15641642 Italian astronomer Dialogue concerning the Two Chief World System Heliocentric model of universe Pope Urban as Simplicio who defends Ptolemy s system 1633 Tried in front of Roman Inquisition Physics Natural Laws and Beyond Galileo Motion of material objects Theory of Inertia Motion is not a quality inherent in an object Motion is not a quality or force an object gets from another object There is no prime mover that moves objects or people Importance the earth can move even though we do not feel the earth moving heliocentricism Isaac Newton 16421727 Formulates mathematical laws so explain physical world Principia Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 1687 Unity of entire physical world Defines gravitational force through mathematical expression Synthesis of other scientists Scientific method Scientific method vs Deductive reasoning Francis Bacon 15611626 New Organon 1620 Empiricism Inductive reasoning Sir Isaac Newton a revolutionary Encouraged the complete reversal of theological Aristotelian deductive methods of knowing DeIegitimized the entire corpus of knowledge accumulated by theologicallyminded men over hundreds of years through deduction Implicitly jeopardized the validity of the idea of the Great Chain of Being Chemistry and Biology Chemistry Four humors Robert Boyle 16271691 discovery of atoms Biology Surgery Bodily circulation Microscope Transmitting Newtonianism Academies and patronage Why would a king or prince be interested in sponsoring scientists engineers geographers etc Academy of the LynxEyed Rome 1603 Academy of Experiment Florence 1657 Academie de sciences France 1666 Royal Society England 1662 Enlightenment Age Religion Politics Educa on Society Culture Empiricism Classification and New Europes Royal Botanical Gardens French Jardin des Plants 1626 Real Jardin Botanico de Madrid 1755 Royal Botanical Gardens Kew 1722 Why care about plants Why focus on acclimatization What s the connection with empire Transplantations Coffee World monopolyArabia 1707 Dutch introduce to Java French introduced to Bourbon Reunion in the Indian Ocean and Haiti Caribbean Portuguese introduced to Brazil Connected to sugar development Atlantic supremacy Spices Pierre Poivre French horticulturalist Missionary to Cochin China and China independent in Bourbon and Mauritius Slugged 3000 spice plants from southeast Asia to Mauritius Clove cinnamon pepper Europes Growing population growing economies Science technologies industrialization Made the West big Colonies creole mentalities and the era of revolutions