Community Health and the Environment
Community Health and the Environment HED 371 001
Popular in Introduction to Public and Community Health
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
NURS 239 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by ayla on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HED 371 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Angelica Boyle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public and Community Health in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 11/10/15
Community Health and the Environment Health is affected by the quality of the environment. Includes air we breathe, water we drink, food we eat, communities in which we live Outdoor Air Pollution Air pollution – contamination of air by substances in great enough amounts to harm living organisms • Major sources in U.S. – transportation, electrical power plants fueled by oil and coal, industry. Primary pollutants• Secondary pollutants • Phytochemical smog vs. industrial smog• Ozone• Thermal inversion Indoor Air Pollutants Come from a variety of sources • Asbestos • Biogenic pollutants • Combustion by- products • Volatile organic compounds • Formaldehyde • Radon • Environmental tobacco smoke • Mainstream smoke, sidestream smoke Regulation of Outdoor Air Quality Clean Air Act (CAA)• National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs)• Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)• Criteria pollutants• Air Quality Index (AQI)• The Water We Use Waterborne disease examples – cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery • Responsible for 1.5 million deaths worldwide each year• 2006 – 1/7 of world population had no access to supply of clean drinking water• U.S. – 100% of population has access to clean water and sanitation • Waterborne disease outbreaks still occur Sources of Water Surface water • Water in streams, rivers, lakes, reservoirs• Groundwater • Located under surface of the ground• Aquifers • Porous, water-saturated layers of underground bedrock, sand, and gravel that can yield economically significant amounts of water• Only .003% of earth’s water is available for human use Water Pollution Point source pollution • Pollution that can be traced to a single source• Nonpoint source pollution • All pollution that occurs through runoff, seepage, or falling of pollutants into water • Runoff – water than flows over land surfaces, typically from precipitation Biological Pollutants of Water• Examples: viruses, bacteria, parasites• Cause a variety of diseases• Nonbiological Pollutants of Water Examples: heat, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, radioactive pollutants• Endocrine-disrupting chemicals• Pharmaceuticals and personal care products • No government regulation on disposal of meds• Water quality in U.S. has deteriorated in many communities • Population growth, chemical manufacturing, reckless land use, disposal of hazardous waste The Food We Eat U.S. has one of the safest food supplies• More than 200 known diseases transmitted through food• Food can be contaminated at several points The Place We Live Environmental hazards occur where we live due to household and land management practices• Solid waste – solid refuse from households, agriculture, and business Solid and Hazardous Waste• Solid waste – garbage, refuse, sludge, discarded solid materials Natural Hazards Naturally occurring phenomenon or event that produces or releases energy in amounts that exceed human endurance, causing injury, disease, or death • Often termed disasters Radiation Process in which energy is emitted as particles or waves• Heat, sounds, visible light are long- wavelength, low-energy radiation• High-energy ionizing radiation• Can cause sickness, permanent damage Radiation from Natural Sources• Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sun• Skin cancer Radiation from Humanmade Sources• Those associated with medical and dental procedures “(X-rays, nuclear medicine diagnoses, radiation therapy), consumer products (smoke detectors, TVs, computer screens) and nuclear energy and weaponry ABCD rules Natural Environmental Events Geologic activity (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes), weather-driven events (tornados, hurricanes, floods)• Can result in serious physical and psychological health consequences for humans• Natural disasters – substantial loss of human life and property• Create new variety of needs Psychological and Sociological Hazards Can affect health• Overpopulation and crowding• Hate crimes• Wars• Acts of terrorism Terrorism Calculated use of violence or threat of violence against civilians to attain goals that are political or religious in nature Sociological hazard • Affects entire societies Psychological hazard • Produces fear, stress, hysteria Responding to Environmental Hazards• Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).