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Knowledge chapter

by: Aimee Castillon

Knowledge chapter PSYC317

Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61

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About this Document

Lecture notes for Chapter 9
Cognitive Psychology
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC317 at George Mason University taught by Wiese in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 11/10/15
Organization name Aimee Castillon Cognitive Psychology PSYC 317 • Fall 2015 Heading: 11/5/15 Notes: Knowledge   Introduction  What is a concept?  ­ concept­ ​ mental representation that is used for a variety of cognitive    functions, including memory, reasoning, and using / understanding language    ­ i.e. concept of a cat    ­ Information about what cats are, what they usually look like,    how they behave, and so on    What is categorization?  ­ categorization­ ​ process by which things are placed into groups called    categories    ­ i.e. Categorizing cars in the street: ​ SUVs, Chevrolets, Fords,    American cars, and foreign cars    ­ two approaches    ­ comparison approach­ ​ Decide whether something belongs    in a category by comparing it to a standard     ­ network approach­  Knowledge about categories can be    represented by networks, which are diagrams that indicate    how information about categories is organized in the mind    ­ why categorization is necessary  Why do we need  ­ To understand cases and situations that we have never seen  categorization?  before     ­ Tool for making inferences about things that belong to a    category     ­ To help understand behavior    ­ definitional approach to categorization     ­ Decide whether something is a member of a category by    determining whether a particular object meets the definition of    the category.     ­ Problem: Not all of the members of everyday categories have    the same features    ­ solution: family resemblance    ­ Refers to the fact that things in a particular    category resemble one another in a number of    ways     ­ Instead of setting definite criteria that every    member of a category must meet, the family    resemblance approach allows for some    variation within a category     ­ i.e. Chairs may come in many different sizes    and shapes and be made of different    materials, but every chair does resemble other    chairs in some way.     Categorization through similarity    ­ similarity approaches to categorization are based on the idea that    membership in a category can be determined by comparing an object to a    standard that represents the category    ­ Approaches differ in their definition of the nature of the standard     ­ two approaches  Examples vs. Prototypes  ­ prototype approach s ​tates that the standard is determined by    averaging over category members.     ­ Prototype is formed by averaging over category members    that we have encountered in the past     ­ Prototype is not an actual member of the category, but an    average representative     ­ Prototypicality can be high or low     ­ Family resemblance and prototypicality are related                       ­                         ­       ­ exemplar approach  ​states that the standard is created by  considering a number of typical members of a category.       ­ Standard with which cases are compared consists of multiple    exemplars   ­ Exemplars​  are actual members of the category that a person      has encountered in the past.     ­ Deciding whether a particular animal is a dog involves  comparing it to dogs that have been experienced in the past      ­ which approach works best?  ­ Exemplar approach does not discard information that might be useful    for later     ­ Exemplar approach can more easily deal with variable categories     ­ Both approaches seem to be used – the Prototype approach when    first case of category is encountered, the Exemplar approach when    more information is available     Organization of categories    ­ hierarchical organization­ Larger, more general categories are divided into    smaller, more specific, categories to create a number of levels of categories              ­     ­ what’s special about basic categories?    ­ there are different levels of categories, ranging from general    (like furniture) to specific (like kitchen table)    ­ People tend to focus on one of these levels     ­ Superordinate     ­ Basic     ­ Subordinate     ­ The basic level is psychologically special because it is the    level above which much information is lost and below which    little information is gained                              ­     Relationship between categories                        ­     ­ cognitive economy    ­ storing shared properties just once at a high­level node    ­ makes network more efficient                                  ­     ­ time it takes for a person to retrieve information about a concept    should be determined by the distance that must be traveled through    the network                              ­   ­ spreading activation­ ​ activation spreads along any link connected      to an activated node                    ­     ­ lexical decision task                    ­     ­ criticism of semantic approach  ­ cannot explain typicality effect  ­ concept of cognitive economy is questionable  ­ Collins & Loftus (1975)  ­ updated model that can account for typicality   ­ shorter links are used for close concepts   ­ no hierarchy   ­ can explain empirical results    ­ criticisms  ­ Explanatory power       ­ Predictive power     ­ Falsifiability   ­ Generating experiments      Representing concepts in networks                Similar to grandmother cells  ­   ­   ­   ­ Connectionist Approach  ­ Learning process is slow and eventually creates a network  capable of handling a wide range of inputs   ­ Information about each input is contained in the distributed  pattern of activity across a number of unit  ­ Connectionist network represents different concepts by  different patterns of unit activity   ­ features  ­ Neurologically plausible   ­ System is not totally disrupted by damage   ­ Learning can be generalized   ­ Basis for successful computer models  Concepts and the Brain  ­ Visual agnosia  ­ double dissociation for living things vs. nonliving things  ­   ­ category­specific neurons­ ​ neurons fire for representative stimuli from one  category 


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