Chapter 8 - My Parents and I!
Chapter 8 - My Parents and I! A104
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by KUMIKO Notetaker on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to A104 at Republic Polytechnic taught by Lynette Liaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 175 views. For similar materials see Biology in Applied Science at Republic Polytechnic.
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Date Created: 11/10/15
ghapter 8 My Parents and I What inherited materials are passed on from parents to offspring It is commonly observed that children bear some resemblance to their parents 0 The passing on of inherited materials from parents to their offspring partially accounts for such observations 0 The study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants by a monk Mendel explains how inherited materials are passed on from parents to their offspring What are the differences between genes and alleles Genes can have more than one form 0 For example the gene that controls the colour of the pods can have a form that produces yellow pods and another that produces green pods Different forms of the same gene are called alleles However even if the allele for yellow pods is present the offspring may not have yellow pods The offspring from the pea plant takes an allele from each parent plant Example All humans have a gene for hair colour but humans do not all have the same colour hair The exact colour of our hair is determined by an allele or combination of alleles of the gene for hair colour Genotypes and Phenotypes The genotype of an organism is the combination of alleles that are present in the organism39s cells It is not necessarily the allele that is expressed or turned 39on39 o The phenotype of an organism is how it appears outwardly and is the result of the organism39s genotype Incomplete dominance The two alleles blend just like mixing paints When a red snapdragon is crossed with a white snapdragon the next generation will have all pink ower Codominance An organism can have both alleles of a gene displaying at the same time o For example a crossbreed between a black cat and a white cat results in a black cat with white patches Codominant genes do not mix like incomplete dominance Instead they are both shown equally An animal with white fur has a pair of alleles represented by quotWWquot and another animal with red fur has a pair of alleles represented by quotRRquot An animal with both white and red fur coexisting has pair of alleles represented by quotRWquot Dominant traits Blood type categorisation is an example of trait where we can have two or more dominant traits In general the 3 alleles that control the blood types are IA allele for blood type A IB allele for blood type B IO allele for blood type 0 0 Both IA and IB are dominant allele while IO is a recessive allele Practice Questions 1 All of us exhibit different traits Inherited materials passed on from parents to offspring are responsible for the traits observed in the offspring List down some of the traits which can be passed on from parents to offspring 2 ln tomatoes a certain gene controls the colour of the fruit quotRquot denotes the allele for red tomato fruit and quotrquot denotes the allele for yellow tomato fruit The allele for red tomatoes is dominant over the allele for yellow tomatoes a State the possible pair of alleles that a yellow tomato fruit may have b State the two possible pairs of alleles that a red tomato fruit may have c A parent plant with the quotRRquot pair of alleles is bred with another parent plant with the quotrrquot pair of alleles State all the possible pair of alleles that the offspring plants may have 2 Huntington s disease is a genetic disease which is inheritable from parents This disease is caused by an abnormal protein in the body Both Jimmy39s parents as well as his two siblings have Huntington s disease However Jimmy does not have the disease It is known that the allele quotNquot is dominant over allele The allele for normal protein which causes the disease is denoted by quotNquot and the allele that does not cause the disease is denoted as State the pair of alleles that are present in a Jimmy b His parents 1 A certain species of animals could have black white or grey fur Grey fur colour is an expression of intermediate trait between black and white fur coloursln a particular breeding between two parents of this species there is a 100 chance of getting an offspring with grey fur Suppose that the allele for black fur is denoted by while the allele for white fur is denoted by State the pair of alleles that each parent should have Explain your answer 1 John39s blood type is A He has a brother and two sisters Peter Susan and Mary Their blood types are A B and AB respectively It is known that the effect due to the allele for blood type 0 can be masked by the presence of the allele for blood type A as well as the allele for blood type B Using this information state the two pairs of alleles thatJohn39s parents could have Explain your answer Learning Outcomes All of us exhibit different traits Inherited materials passed on from parents to offspring are responsible for the traits observed in the offspring With the programs provided you were asked to Explain the observations and trends in the traits of the parents and offspring Extend what you have learnt to other cases where traits are being passed on 0 Based on Mendel39s observations of pea plants certain traits are passed on from parents to offspring as a result of the passing on of two sets of inherited material one set from each parent o The traits of the offspring can emerge from the inherited materials in different ways The effect of one allele of a pair is expressed in the offspring in preference to the other Eg allele for green pod dominating over allele for yellow pod in the pea plants Incompletedominance The expression of an intermediate trait in the offspring when one allele of a pair is not fully dominating over the other Eg interaction of the allele for red ower and that for white ower gives rise to offspring with pink owers Codominance Both sets of inherited materials are dominant and are expressed simultaneously Eg blood type AB is a result of the presence of an allele for type A and an allele for type B Need answers Feel free to drop me an email 15043445 myrpedusg
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