POLS Chapter 12 Notes
POLS Chapter 12 Notes POLS 1101
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Kyla Brinkley POLS 1101Notes Fall 2015Bakker I. Chapter 12:Political Parties a. The Constitution’sUnwanted Offspring i. Theconstitution contains no mention of political parties ii. Duringnation’s founding,partieswere consideredto be dangerousto goodgovernmentandpublic order,esp. in republics 1. Fear of parties reflectedhistoricalexperience& 18 th centurysocial beliefs iii. Peoplein authoritysaw themselves as agentson behalf of the whole community iv. Thefirst partieswere createdto be temporary v. Thedesign of the Constitutionhad a profoundeffect on the kind of parties that developed vi. Incentives for Party Building 1. When action requireswinning majorities on a continuingbasis in multiple settings, organizationis essential 2. Constitution’s provisions for enacting laws & electing leadersput hugepremiumon buildingmajority alliances across institutions & electoralunits 3. Parties grewout of the efforts of political entrepreneursto build alliances/coordinate collective activity necessary to control the gov 4. To Build Stable Legislative& Electoral Alliances a. To controlpolicy consistently, legislative leadersfoundit advantageousto cultivate a stable groupof supporters,forming durable alliances that sharply reducedthetransaction costs of negotiatinga winning coalition on each newproposal b. Alliances that cross institutional boundaries areimportant becauselawmaking powers are sharedby pres, houseandsenate c. Alliances are,by necessity, coalitions i. Participants haveto agreeto cooperate on action even thoughtheyhave different,conflicting reasonsfor doingso ii. Participants cooperateonlyas long as it serves their purposes d. Coalitions vying for majority status needto recruitlike-minded candidates& work to elect them i. Successful alliances in Washington depend onsuccessful electoralalliances in the states & districts e. Thepresidentialselectionrules also offer powerful incentives for buildingelectoral alliances across districts & states f. Theproblemis to sustain cooperation among numerouspoliticians, oftenwith competing purposes& interests, across greatdistances i. Thedegreetowhich that effort succeeds results in nationalparty organization 5. To Mobilize Voters a. Electoral alliances fail if they can’t get enough peopleto vote for their candidates b. Beforethe Constitution i. Restrictions on suffrage ii. Thosewho couldvote made their preferencesknown orally & in public, encouragingdeferenceto the local gentry iii. Open pursuitof political office was thoughtto be unseemly 1. Campaigns hadto be conducted on the sly through friends/allies c. After constitution i. Property/other qualificationsfor white male voting reduced/eliminated ii. Size of electorateincreased,so identifying/attractingsupportersbecame more important iii. Whoever could win over the newvoters would have a political advantage 6. To Develop New Electoral Techniques a. Once organized,electoralpartiesinitiatednew relationshipsbetweenvoters & elected leaders b. Party organizersturnedto mass communications to excite voters w/ emotional appealson issues i. Newspapers, pamphlets, public letters, printedspeeches c. Anyone tryingto mobilize citizens to vote also has to overcome the electorate’stendencyto freeride i. (becausea party’s victory is a collective goodthat peoplegetto enjoy whether or not they vote) 7. To Use Party Labels& Enforce Collective Responsibility a. Party labels offer a serviceableshorthandcue that keeps voting decisions cheap & simple b. Informative, more accuratelabels better allow peopleto determinewhat a candidatewill do in office c. Themore voters rely on party cues, the more valuablepartylabels are to candidates d. Once they have adoptedtheparty label, politicians have a personalstake in maintaining the value of their party’s “brand name” i. May impose conformity costs by requiringthesubordinationof their own views & ambitions to the party’s welfare & reputation e. Party labels allow voters to reward or punish electedofficials as a groupfor their performancein office f. Parties developedinto3-partsystems connecting: i. Theparty in government 1. Alliance of currentofficeholders cooperatingto shapepublic policy ii. Theparty organization 1. Dedicatedto electing the party’s candidates iii. Theparty in the electorate 1. Composed of those voters who identify with the party & regularly vote for its nominees vii. Basic Featuresof the Party System 1. Parties emergedbecausethe institutional structures & processesestablishedby the Constitutionmade them too useful to forgo 2. Certainfeaturesreappearin every historicalparty system becausethey reflect the basic constitutional structureof American government: a. Competition between 2 major partiesmade up of decentralized,fragmentedparty coalitions that are maintainedby professionalpoliticians 3. Two-Party Competition a. Two-partysystem: a political system in which only 2 major partiescompete for all of rd the elective offices. 3 party candidates usually have few, if any chances of winning elective office i. Has continuedin the US becausethere is a strongtendencyfor serious competitors to be reducedto 2 because peopletendto vote strategically ii. If their favorite party’s candidatehasno chance, they turnto the less objectionableof the major-party candidateswho does havea chanceto win: Duverger’sLaw iii. Office seekers, aware of this pattern, usually join oneof the 2 competitive parties iv. Surprisingly,only an election or 2 is requiredafter thedisruptionof old party alliances andthe appearanceof new party coalitions for voters to narrowthe viable choices down to 2 1. incentives to expandelectoral coalitions also help reducethe number of parties to 2 b. Most democracies havemore than 2 parties\ c. Proportionalrepresentation:a party receives legislative seats in proportionto its shareof votes. Used in many European democracies i. Helps preservesmaller partiesbecause votes for their candidatesaren’twasted d. Fusiontickets:slates of candidatesthat “fused” thenominees of minor & major parties. Fusiontickets, eventuallybannedby state legislatures,allowed minor partiesto boost their votes by nominating candidatesalso nominatedby major parties e. Only those3 parties(or independent candidates) thatmanage to supplantoneof the 2 reigningpartiesas a viable optionin voters’ minds gain rather thanuse support from strategicvoters 4. Decentralized, FragmentedParty Coalitions a. Another reason the2 partysystem enduresis that federalismfragments the political system b. Thedecentralizedpolicymaking system allowed theselocal partiesto work togetherto elect nationalleaderswhile goingtheir own way on matters closer to home c. Skillful management & the compelling needto holdthese factions together for anychanceat office have usually (notalways) kept the partiesfrom self-destructing 5. ProfessionalPoliticians a. Political power flowed into the handsof people with the skills to build networks of party workers, managealliances of local leaders, andmobilize voters on election day b. Personalwealth, education,andstatus were still advantages,but they were no longer essential c. Eventually the variety & frequencyof elections generatedby the multilayered federalsystem made party management a full-time job in many places d. Patronage:the practiceof awardingjobs, grants,licenses, or other special favors in exchangefor political support i. Reforms destroyedpatronage-based party orgsin the late 1800s-early1900s b. The Development & Evolutionof the PartySystems i. Tthrehavebeen6 party systems: we arecurrentlyin the 6 ii. each system derivesits special characteristics from its era’s society, economy & technology,andthe gstls/tactics of political leaders iii. 1 Party System (1790-1824):TheOrigin of American Parties 1. American party system was bornin the first few Congresses 2. Federalists: Alexander Hamilton, secretaryof the Treasuryin GeorgeWashington’sadministration, proposedanambitious & controversialset of measures designedto foster economic developmentandgive propertiedinterests, financiers,wealthy merchants, & manufacturers,a stake in the newRepublic a. Had also supportedratificationof the Constitution & endorsed strong national government 3. Republicans(Democratic-Republicansuntil 1820 when they became known simply as Democrats): James Madison & Thomas Jefferson opposed Hamilton a. Thoughthis ideas favoredNew Englandand threatenedthe well-beingof the small farmers & tradesmenwho made up majority of the citizenry b. LearnedtowardsFrancewhile Hamilton wanted strong ties with England c. Today,the Democratic Party is the oldest political party in the world d. Senatorswere chosenby state legislatures duringthis time e. Common selection procedurestried: i. Popular election ii. Selection by state legislature iii. Or combination of the 2 f. By reachingoutto local political leaders, Jefferson successfully patchedtogetheran alliance of state & local factions, which led to a historic victory for the Democratic- Republicans g. Democratic-Republicansattackedthe Alien & Sedition Acts, enactedby the Federalists in 1798to stifle political criticism h. TheFederalistswere hamperedby their nostalgiafor deferentialpolitics—the feeling that “better” peoplelike them were by right the naturalleaders—which left them uncomfortable making popularappealsto an increasinglyegalitarianelectorate i. Both parties’coalitions were unstable,lacking even uniformnames j. When their pro-Britishleaningsput themon the wrong side in the War of 1812,the Federalists fadedas a nationalforce k. Duringthis system, the parties’ congressional caucuses(members assembled with their allies to make party decisions) nominated nd presidentialcandidates iv. 2 Party System (1824-1860):OrganizationalInnovation 1. Democratic-RepublicanJames Monroe beat the Federalists in 1816andwas reelectedin1820 without significant opposition a. Monroe yearswere so lacking in party conflict that it’s called the Era of GoodFeelings b. However, political battles were fought within the remainingparty c. Dramatic falloff in voter participationin pres. elections d. Caucuses became a problemwhen the Federalists dissolved, leavingalmost everyonein Congressa nominal Democratic- Republican i. With onedominant party, whoever picked its nominee basically picked the president,so the caucus would haveits way as long as therewas a consensus among its members on the nominee (like Monroe) e. 1824election:5 candidates,all Democratic Republicans i. William Crawford ii. AndrewJackson 1. Hero of Battle of New Orleansin War of 1812 iii. John Quincy Adams iv. Henry Clay 1. House Speaker v. John C. Calhoun 1. Withdrew, early, electedVP f. Corruptbargain:nocandidategota majority of electors, so election was thrown into the House of Representatives.There,Clay gave his supportto Adams, who upontaking office, made Clay his secretaryof State (apparent heir to White House) i. Jackson’s supporterswere angrythat this deniedhis placein the White House ii. With Jackson as the focal point, Van Burenassembled a political network that became the Democratic Party iii. Van Buren& Jackson usedthis organizationalpyramid to spread propagandathatkept Jackson and the “wrong” donehim in the public consciousness g. Supportersof PresidentAdams hadno choice but to createa network of their own i. Adams hatedpartiesand soughtto build a coalitionthat incorporated allfactions of the old Democratic-Republican& Federalistparties ii. National Conventions 1. Jackson’s smashing victory in 1828was a powerfullesson in the value of political organization 2. The1832election, which he also won, featuredthe first national partyconventions:a gatheringof delegatesto select a party’s presidential& vice-presidential ticket & to adoptits national platform 3. National conventionswere promotedas a more democratic alternativeto the congressional caucus, allowing broader participationin making presidential nominations 4. Was also an eminently practical device for solving problems of conflict & coordination 5. Provideda forumfor doingthe politicking that convinceddiverse party factions to agreeto rally behinda single presidentialticket without necessarily agreeingon anythingelse 6. Democrats held a national conventionagainin 1836to nominate Van Burenas Jackson’s successor 7. Jackson’s opponentsHenry Clay & Daniel Webster formed Whig Party, name borrowedfromBritish political history: symbol of oppositionto royal tyranny (opponentsthoughtJackson acted like a king) 8. Whigs tried to divide and conquer by running3 regionalcandidates 9. This failed but won 2 presidential victories: nominateda popular military herowithout known political colorationandobscured party divisions by not writing a platform 10. Whig nominee 1840:William Henry Harrison (hero of1811 Battle of Tippecanoe,“Tippecanoe andTyler Too”-Tylerwas his VP) 11. 1840campaign extended organized2 partycompetition to every state 12. Competition inspired unprecedentedeffortsto involve & mobilize ordinaryvoters 13. Theparties solved the problemof freeridingby making participation exciting & fun: increasein turnout 14. Bred strongfeelingsof party loyalty iii. TheSpoils System 1. Parties pursuea collective good: victory for their candidates& policies 2. Themen who worked to elect Jackson or Harrison took as their right the spoils of victory—mainly governmentjobs but also contracts to supply goodsand services to the governmentor special projects fromwhich they might profit 3. Spoils system intensified party competition & put heavy premium on winning 4. High stakes also inspired imaginative efforts to mobilize the first mass electoratein history 5. Desire to win contributedto corruption,moral myopia regardingslavery, andpublic cynicism aboutthe honesty& motives of politicians 6. Principledconflict is often a threat to partycoalitions a. Whigs & Democrats build coalitions arounddifferences on economic policy b. Whigs favorednational bank, hightariffs to protect US manufacturers,and federallysponsoredpublic works c. Democrats rejectedthe bank andthe activist economic roleit implied and advocated low tariffs to benefitfarmers d. both partieshas members of northandsouth so they were split on slavery 7. when the extension of slavery became the dominant national issue, the coalitions of the second party system fell apart v. 3 Party System (1860-1894):EntrepreneurialPolitics 1. Republican Party, organized1854as a coalition of antislaveryforces 2. Thirdparties:Anti-Masonic Party andAmerican (Know-Nothing) Party a. Appearedin periodsof economic distress & social crisis b. Antiparties: movements for the people c. When they showed capacity to win elections, attractedopportunists d. Anti-Masons joined Whigs e. Know-Nothings joined Republicans 3. Republicanpartywas organizedin oppositionto Kansas-NebraskaAct (1854),which overturned limits on the extension of slavery to the territories enactedearlier inthe Missouri Compromise of 1820 andCompromise of 1850 a. Theadoptedname laid claim to the JeffersonianRepublicansandthe National Republicanswho had backedAdams against Jackson b. Appealedto business/commercial interests by promising protectivetariff & transcontinental railway c. Appealedto farmers by promising free landfor homesteading d. AbrahamLincolnwas electedas a Republican in 1860 i. TriggeredSouth’s secession fromthe Union/Civil War ii. Republicanswon 4. endof Reconstructionin 1876restoredlocal control to white southernpoliticians & left newly revived Democratic Party an equalcompetitor for national power 5. Party Machines a. Party orgsreachedtheir peakof development duringthe3 partysystem b. Partymachines:state or local partyorgs basedon patronage.Theywork to elect candidatesto public offices that controlgov jobs and contracts, which in turnareused by party leaders(oftendenigrated as“bosses”)to rewardthe subleadersandactivists who mobilize voters for the party on electionday i. Build on simple principlesof exchange c. Supportedby poor immigrants d. Ex: i. GeorgeWashingtonPlunkitt, Tammany Hall Democratic machine in NYC e. Late 19 centuryparty machines represented the culmination of trendsreachingback to the Jacksonian era 6. TheProgressive Attack a. Party machines were regularlyattackedas corrupt& inefficient b. Reformers sought to destroy the party machines by deprivingpartyleadersof the capacity to reward followers c. ProgressiveEra: the decadesjust beforeand th after the turnof the 20 century, overlapping the endof the 3 partysystem andthe beginningof the 4 th i. Reforms: 1. Civil service 2. Australianballot 3. Primary elections d. PendletonAct 1883:reformersbeganto replacethe spoils system with a civil service system in most jurisdictions i. Under the spoils system, the winning party filled appointivegov jobs with its faithful workers, firing everyone whohad not worked for the ticket ii. Civil service system turnedgov jobs into professionalcareers,andappointment& advancementdepended on merit 1. Reducednumber of party workers becauserewardsfor party work shrank e. Secret (Australian) Ballot i. Prior to 1890sbecauseballots were readilydistinguishable,voterscouldn’t keep their choices privateor easily vote a split ticket:vote for candidatesof differentpartiesfor differentoffices (becausethis requiredmanipulating severalballots) 1. This system invited corruption/intimidation:party workers couldmonitor votes & reward/punishthem ii. Australianballot is still in use today andlists candidatesfromall partiesand is marked in the privacy of a voting booth iii. With the adoption oftheAustralian ballot, the gov became involved in party nominations 1. Primary elections:an election heldbeforethe generalelectionin which voters decidewhich of a party’s candidateswill be the party’s nominee for the general election 2. Primaries stoppedpartymachines from beingableto control nominations iv. States adoptedlaws requiringvotersto register before electiondayto reduce the possibilities of fraudandpass literacy tests (Australianballotrequired literatevoters) f. Progressivereforms were designedto enhancethepolitical clout of the “right” kindof people—educatedmiddle andupper middle class peoplelike the reformersthemselves— at the expense of poor urban immigrants and their leaders“of slender social distinction” g. Stricter voter registration laws discriminated againstthe poor anduneducated 7. TheConsequencesof ProgressiveReforms a. Turnoutdeclined i. Tighter registrationlaws, Australian ballot, andliteracy tests discouraged voting ii. Fewer peopleto mobilize voters becauseno more spoils system iii. Voter turnoutdroppedmore when women were enfranchisedin 1920and number of eligible voters doubled iv. Turnouthasn’t risenmuch above60% ever since v. Many women initially ignoredpolitics as “men’s business” and women’s turnout levels took a half-centuryto pull even but now they exceed men’s b. Reformers also beganto shift the focus of electoralpolitics from partiesto candidates i. When party orgscontrollednominations andvoters chose between whole party tickets, political careerswere bound tightly to parties ii. With adventof Australianballot and primary elections, thesebonds weakened iii. Reformed contributedto changesin the demographicsand goals of party organizations iv. Traditionalpartyorgs were built on material incentives attractive to working class people c. Theprogressiveeraleft the Republicansand Democrats organizationallyweaker but more entrenched thanever in the political system d. Once consideredprivategroups,partieswere nowtreatedby the law in many states as essentially public entities chargedwith managingelections e. Regulationstendedto privilegethe 2 major partiesand discriminate against newparties & independentcandidates f. No new partyhas come close to challenging either of the 2 major parties since the 1800s, but those partieshave sufferedsome convulsive changesas the result of challengeswithin Commented [KB1]: Which partycame close? The know vi. 4 Party System (1894-1932):Republican Ascendancy nothings ortheWhigs ortheanti-masonicparty? 1. 1896 Democrats reactedto severe economic downturnby adoptingplatformof People’s Party (Populists), a party of agrarianprotestagainsthigh railroadratesand the goldstandard a. Nominated William Jennings Bryan, candidate with strongPopulist sympathies i. Bryan andthe Democrats proposedto make silver as well as golda monetary standard(“free silver”) ii. Would increasemoney supply, easing interestrates & thereforethepressure on debtors,which includedmost farmers/westerners 2. Republicancampaign persuadedmany urban workers that the Democrat’s proposalsthreatened their livelihoods 3. TheRepublicanParty lost its ascendancyto the Great Depression a. HerbertHoover-R b. Saddledwith blame for economic devastation & highunemployment after 1929stock market crash c. FranklinRoosevelt-D, defeated Hoover in 1932election d. New Deal—newcoalition of intereststhat gave Democrats a popularmajority e. Democratic Party has maintainedthat th majority—sometimes barely—tothis day vii. 5 Party System (1932-?):TheNew Deal Coalition 1. New DealCoalition: anelectoralalliance that was the basis of Democratic dominance fromthe 1930s to the early 1970s.the alliance consisted of Catholics, Jews, racial minorities, urbanresidents, organizedlaborers,& white southerners a. BroughttogetherDemocrats of every conceivablebackground b. Some were attractedby Roosevelt’s New Deal policies, which radically expandedthe federalgov’s responsibilityfor, and authority over, the economic & social welfare of all Americans c. Wagner Act of 1935,known as organized labor’s“bill of rights” cemented unionsupport d. Public works programs attracted poor/unemployed citizens includingnorthern blacks (who until then favoredtheparty of Lincoln) e. Providedpatronagefor urbanmachines f. Farmprograms appealedto distressedrural voters g. Progressiveintellectuals liked federalgov’s expandedrolein attendingto the economic welfare of citizens h. Adoptionof Social Security and unemployment insurancesystems earned gratitudeof working peoplewhose economic insecurity hadbeenpainfully exposed by the Depression i. Other groups i. Conservativesouthernwhites: civil war ideologies ii. Roman Catholics 1. Democrats promised to repeal Prohibition(Protestantmovement with anti-Catholic/anti-immigrant overtones) iii. Jews 1. Roosevelt was an earlyenemy of Nazi Germany 2. Republicancoalition a. Business/professionalpeople b. Upper income white protestants c. Small town residentsnortheast/Midwest d. Ideologicalconservatives e. OpposedRoosevelt’s New Deal programs and enlargedfederalbureaucracy 3. Erosion of the New Deal Coalition a. New issues became the focus of electoral politics b. Republicansenabled newissues to shape electoralpolitics by finally recognizingthat major New Deal programs were thereto stay (couldn’tcling to losing positions) c. Republicansregainedpresidency1952- Dwight Eisenhower i. Promise to administer New Deal programs more frugally d. Other issues i. Civil rights for blacks ii. Democrats became party of civil rights, so white southernersbegan todepart iii. War in Vietnam also split the Democrats alongthe fault lines of class: blue-collar constituents andsouthernDemocrats supportedthewar iv. Social behavior:sexual freedom, pornography,abortion,women’s rights, gay rights e. neweconomic initiatives i. LyndonJohnson(1963-1969)Great Society 1. Lackedbroadappealof the New Deal 2. Major New Deal programs served politically active majorities 3. Great Society programs served minority: the poor 4. Housing subsidies, school nutrition programs, Head Start, food stamps, Medicaid 5. Working/middle class Democrats saw New Deal as for “them” not “us” 6. Economic growth slowed in 1970s, increasingopposition totaxes f. Environmental protectionpittedblue-collar jobs against middle class environmentalists g. Republicanshaddivisions too i. Conservativev. moderate ii. Conservatives took over nationalparty 1964,nominatedBarry Goldwater (Arizona Senator) for pres. 1. Voted againstCivil Rights Act 1964& hostile to New Deal programs 2. Supportedby southern segregationistsbut not moderates within his party h. Republican candidatessince RichardNixon have built winning coalitions by combining affluenteconomic conservativeswith middle andworking class social conservatives, particularlyfromwhat is called the Christian Right i. To attract economic conservatives, the republicansdeclared war on taxation, regulation,andwelfare j. To attract social conservatives, they offered law and order,patriotism, and “traditional family values” (banon abortion,promotionof prayer in public schools, oppositionto same- sex marriage) 4. ChangingtheRules a. Divisions within the parties’electoralcoalitions duringthe60s were playedout in intraparty battles that reshaped thepartiesas orgs b. Progressive-stylereformof presidential elections c. Vietnam war triggeredwholesalereform d. Democrats opposedto American involvement in Vietnamsought to nominate an antiwar candidatein 1968 e. Democratic conventionin Chicago let to riots that were violently suppressedby Chicago police, shown on nationalTV, led to election of Nixon 5. Primary Elections and Caucuses a. To repair theDemocratic coalitionand restore the convention’slegitimacy, a party commission (McGovern-FraserCommission) drewup a new set of criteriaspecifying that conventiondelegationshadto be chosen in a process that was “open,timely, and representative” b. States could holdprimary electionwhich would determineat least 90%of the state’s delegation,or hold local party caucuses open to all Democrats, who would select delegates to a meeting at the country, congressional district, or state level. Thesedelegateswould elect delegatesto the nationalconvention c. Most state parties haveadoptedtheeasier primary d. Winner-take-allmethod of allocatingdelegates was removed i. To meet “representativeness” standard, delegationshadto includemore minorities, women, andyoungadults ii. Previously Democrat presidential nomination hadbeenconferredby party leaderswho wanted to pick a winner who would be obligatedto them and send presidentialfavorstheir way iii. Now, nominationgoes to candidatewho can best mobilize supportin primary elections e. New processis more fair but has threatened other partygoals, like winning and governing i. Allows outsiderswith tenuouslinks to other Democratic leadersto compete f. Prominent elected officials—governors, senators,andrepresentatives—arenow automatically among the convention delegates:superdelegates i. However, they havepower to split the party badly g. Nomination processlets parties solve the coordinationproblemposedby competing presidentialaspirants h. Leadersarenot the only partisanswho can coordinatethe choice of presidentialnominee 6. TheConventionsEvolve a. Now that primaries andcaucuses effectively determinethe parties’ nominees, the purpose andmeaning of nationalconventionshave changed b. Now, delegatesbelongto candidates,not party officials c. Conventionsno longer chooseparty’s candidate:caucus activists & voters in primaries do d. Conventionsarestill crucially important to parties e. Display of party unity still matters i. To convince the public that the partyhas its act together andcanbe trusted to govern f. A party’s self-displayat its nationalconvention is not without risk i. On almost every questionthe opinions of conventiondelegatesaremore sharplydivided thanthose of their parties’voters 7. Consequencesof Fractured Alignments a. When issues arise that split the existing party coalitions, partisanidentities weaken and the party labelmay not providethe information voters want b. Fracturingof New Deal alignments in 1960s and1970sand difficulty party politicians faced in reconstructingstablecoalitions around new issues reducedtheimportance of party cues to voters i. Became less certainaboutwhich party to identify with ii. Party-linevoting declined,ticket splitting increased 1950s-1970s 8. Voters Became More Indifferentto the Parties 9. With Voters SubstitutingPersonalCues for Party Cues, the Electoral AdvantageEnjoyedby CongressionalIncumbents Grew a. Name recognition advantage b. Fewer voters rejectedcandidatesbecause of their party 10. TheElectorate Became More Volatile a. Election results less predictable 11. IndependentandThird-PartyCandidatesIncreased Their Take 12. Divided Partisan Control of Government Became Common a. Divided government:a termused to describegovernmentwhen one political party controls the executive branchandthe other political party controls oneor bothhouses of the legislature b. Allows each party to block the other’smore extreme proposals c. Forcesparties to compromise when making policy d. People who distrust politicians may prefer to have the partiesin a position to check each other e. Voters apply differentcriteriafor different offices 13. Media andMoney a. Weakening of party influenceon voters was hastenedby technologicalchangesandthe growing availability of campaign resources— money, skill, activists—from sourcesother than political parties b. Tv as a campaign medium, campaign videos, internet c. Electronic media has made party less essential to candidates& voters d. Technologyof modern campaigns is expensive, driving up the demandfor campaign funds th c. TheRevival of the Parties: A 6 Party System? i. Democratic andrepublicanpartiescontinueto dominate electoralpolitics ii. PartisanshipEndures 1. Fewer voters think of themselves as staunch partisansthan was the case 40 years ago 2. But most arestill willing to call themselves Democrats or Republicans,and this is still the best predictor of howthey will vote 3. Number of independentshas grown but more of then leantoward one of the parties a. Number of “pure”independentshas fallen iii. Party Differences 1. Party labels still carry valuableinformationabout candidates—shorthandcue 2. Republicanstend to favor a smaller, cheaper federal government a. Advocate lower taxes, less regulation of business, andlower spendingonsocial welfare b. Would spendmore on defense c. Letting free enterpriseflourish d. Ban abortion,gay marriage,allowprayer in public schools 3. Democrats are more inclined to regulatebusiness on behalfof consumers and the environment a. aremore supportive of gov programs designedto improve domestic welfare b. would spendless on nationaldefense c. fairness, equality d. favor abortion,gay marriage,prohibitprayer in public schools 4. not all candidatesadhereto their party’s modal positions iv. Changesin the Party Coalitions 1. Theparty coalitions of the 2000sstill retainstrong traces of the New Deal alignment 2. Blacks and Latinosstill democrat 3. White southernersnowrepublicans 4. Lower income more likely to be democrat vice versa 5. Men havebecome more republican,women have not 6. Religious peoplemore republican 7. Changesin the party coalitions havebeenextensive enough tosuggestthat a 6 party system is now in place a. Starting dateunclear b. Some say 1968 c. Some say 1980or 1984 8. Biggest differenceis RepublicanParty’s increased strength:won majorities in House & Senatein 6 straightelections (1994-2004)andretookhouse 2010 9. Republican’scompetitive status is threatenedby demographictrends a. Coalition includes mostly while male old religiousconservatives 10. Democratic coalitionis younger morefemale and has more minorities a. Younger votersmore liberal 11. Partisan differencesonissues and policy arewider anddeeper thanthey were duringNew Deal party system a. Conservatives aremore likely to identify as Republicanandliberalsare more likely to identify as Democrat v. Modern Party Organizations 1. Modern partiesarepyramidal 2. Sovereign bodyis nationalnominatingconvention: officially elects nationalpartychair & ratifies states’ selections to party’s nationalcommittee a. RepublicanNational Committee b. Democratic National Committee c. Charged with conductingparty’s affairs between nationalconventionsand hiring/directing alargestaff 3. Below nationalcommittees are state committees andchair a. Oversee committees representing congressional/statelegislative districts/counties 4. Control a. National partiesarefar from hierarchicalorgs b. At most levels controlledby elected politicians, not partyofficials c. National party’s chair is always the choice of the party’s presidentialnominee d. National committee’s primary task it to win or retainthe presidency e. Elected officials usually control state parties f. Governorsareusually the most powerful figuresin their state parties g. State partieshave little influenceover local orgs h. National parties& state orgs havebecome modern, businesslike enterpriseswith permanentoffices, staffs, budgets 5. OrganizationalInnovations a. National organizationshave playedsignificant rolein party politics since 1970s b. Republicansenlargedtheir organizationalstaff andbeganto providehost of services to their candidates i. Help themraise money, comply with financeregulations,designpolls, make websites, researchopponentsrecords, make lists to contact voters, design campaign strategy c. Democrats shocked into similar effort d. Modern partiescontinueto play major financial/organizationalrolein electoral politics, but havelost the near-monopolythey hadon campaign resourcesuntil the mid- 1900s e. Candidates,rather thanparties,arethe focus of campaigns