Week 1 Lecture- Science/Geology/Earth Formation
Week 1 Lecture- Science/Geology/Earth Formation GEO 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Foster on Saturday January 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Keene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 591 views.
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Date Created: 01/24/15
Science and geology Scientific method Uniformitarianism Who scientists are Funding Types of geology Why geology is important What is A method for learning about the natural world Exploration and discovery What we are going to ask Arrows different ways we formulate questions We need to know a lot about subject before we ask questions Which questions are actually unanswered and which ones are unanswered to you Identifying a problem Difference between proof and problems Apple falls on Newton s head problem Apples falling is problem that needs to be solved Why He comes up with mathematical theory in why gravity works Testing Ideas Gathering data Most of the work happens A proposed explanation for a speci c problem Has explanatory power the way we word it Can be tested by further investigation Not a hypothesis unless you can test it What we would logically expect to observe if a particular idea were true or fake Can be about past present or future Prediction versus hypothesis Prediction black car will be hotter than white car Hypothesi dark colored objects absorb more solar heat than light colored objects explanation and why Explanatory power is key difference Information gleaned from observations usually observations that are made in a standardized way Systematic collection NOT anecdotal information scientists can39t rely on this what are you measuring What are you looking at Where is information coming from Is direct observation needed NO No one has ever seen an electron but we use them all of the time there is a trail that they were there looking for other kinds of evidence Test results and or observations that may either help support or help refute a scienti c idea Collecting a lot of good data NOT EVIDENCE because there was not a question asked We want a speci c question before we search for evidence Data isn39t useful unless there is a question Ask questions rst then determine the data that will answer that question Communitv analysis and feedback THE MOST IMPORTANT PART OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD BUILD THEORIES Publishing Journals 1350000 peerreviewed scienti c articles in 2006 Conferences Books scientists don39t write many books An open continuous debate scientists are discussing nding every single day to ask more questions Scientists send it into publishing and publishers break it down and decide if it is good as is or needs to be redone x this change that do this they write reports Once it is xed the publisher publishes it Others will site your paper if they write a paper on the same thing May be used to determine if wrong or right m i A widely accepted explanation for why things work the way they do Greater breadth than hypothesis Often includes several hypotheses Hypotheses small speci c things Theories big phenomenon It is NOT a guess hunch some random thought Theories are extremely welltested Examples 0 Newton39s theory of Gravitation why apples were falling out of trees explained a lot of stuff The Germ Theory of Disease viruses and bacteria The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection we still tweak it and use it Proving vs Disproving Scientists don39t seek to prove Every day we nd something new and that changes the way we look at things Changing what we think we know beauty of scienti c method Benefits and outcomes Develop technology Build knowledge Address societal issues Inform policy Satisfy curiosity Solve everyday problems ARROWS no theories are ever proven science goes on Continual testing Theories are never quotprovenquot Assumptions Science has to rely on assumptions Not trivial Will the apple fall on Newton s head tomorrow Assuming every day that our feet will hit the oor and we will be able to walk but we actually don39t know that Are we sure that39s going to happen We don39t know Will it continue on Physical processes gave always functioned in basically the same manner 0 Gravity 0 Speed of light Can be complicated 0 Climate glaciers etc 0 Plate tectonics changing rates Who is most likely to use the scienti c method every day Your Lab TA Who are scientists Anyone who uses the scienti c method anyone can be a scientist Where do they work Big universities o All types of research 0 Must publish Industry 0 Often do applied research 0 Do not publish as much Where do they get money Industry 0 Consumers University and government 0 Government NSF NIH NOAA NASA defense 0 Nonpro t organizations National geographic 0 Industry Pharmaceuticals oil computers Where does the money 20 Public institution 4050 for operating 0 445 at Alabama 0 Keeps your costs down UA 2013 o Awarded 699 million 332 million research 0 Asked for 754 million less than 10 get the money they ask for Industry Pro t Into new research What is the different between a hypothesis and a prediction A hypothesis has explanatory power and a prediction does not A theory is created By the scienti c community gtquotTheories ARE NOT proven Science and the Public Why are scienti c ndings contradicted in the news Media is not always a good source 0 Writers don39t understand scienti c method 0 Often jump on preliminary data 0 Causation one thing caused another thing a caused b to happen vs Correlation don39t mean the same thing you can make anything correlate with anything else Scientists MUST publish scientists will publish quotIn our study X happenedquot Con rmation bias people have a tendency to accept that they already think is true and reject that they already think is false Anecdotal quotevidencequot most if my friends think this that must be the way everything goes Common sense science doesn39t have to make common sense it has to make mathematical sense Science and the Nation What is the gain of science Economic local and national Health Defense Engineering 0000 Geology The scienti c study of the quotcomposition behavior and the history of the cart quot Geologists study every aspect of earth and other planets 0 Land 0 Air 0 Oceans Careers in geology Everything that you use is either grown or mined 0 To do this geologists must Find Grade Extract Usually clean up The material that is to be used Ridiculously short history of the universe Big Bang 137 Ga billion years ago Formed universe as we know it NOT creation of all matter Three major pieces if evidence 0 Expansion of the universe Einstein 1917 cosmological constant number that he put in his equation that made the earth stay still Edwin Hubble 1929 realized the universe is moving einsteins first model was correct All galaxies are moving away from us The Doppler effect for light Everything has a different sound because the sound waves are either high frequency or low frequency Abundance of light elements Early universe very hot No atoms could form Cooling brought formation of H He Built model made prediction 24 of ordinary matter should be He 0 Cosmic microwave background radiation Heat left over from Big Bang Discovery of cosmic background photo Predicted 1948 Found 1965 by accident by two guys working for belle companies Timeline 137 Ga 0 Hydrogen o Helium 135 Ga 0 Nebulae formed clouds of hydrogen and helium 129 Ga 0 lst stars 457 Ga 0 Our solar system gravity and mass to form this 454 Ga 0 Earth formed 453 Ga 0 Moon formed 45 Ga 0 Differentiation a rocky body forms and differentiates photo 0 Heavy stuff in the middle lighter stuff then even lighter stuff
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