Week 1 Lecture Notes
Week 1 Lecture Notes PSY:3320:001
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Guevara on Saturday January 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY:3320:001 at University of Iowa taught by Alan in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 01/24/15
Abnormal Psychology Lecture Notes Week 1 Abnormal Psvcholoqv Past and Present What is abnormal Psychology The scienti c study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe predict explain and change abnormal patterns of functioning Workers in the eld may be Cinica Scientists or Clinical Practitioners quotSeeindquot Mental Disorders When diagnosing things like broken bones you can see it but how do you know if it is a mental disorder Menta disorders are not that apparent in pictures as broken bones are in xrays What is Psychological Abnormality Many de nitions have been proposed yet none has won total acceptance Most de nitions however have certain features in common quotThe Four D39squot Deviance Different extreme unusual perhaps even bizarreobjective if by thinking statistically Distress Unpleasant and upsetting to the person more subjective is the person bothered by it Dysfunction interfering with the person s ability to conduct daily activities in a constructive way more objective the behavior is impairing the individual to carry out an activity a metric for what we measure as abnormal Danger posing risk or harm less common of an issue are instances were danger is posing risk of harm someone can be depressed and have risk of hurting themselves While this de nition is a useful starting point it has key limitations Statistical Deviance Number of Stores Sta39ndard39Devia39tion 55 TD 85 100 115 1 1 5 Wechsler IQ Score I I I I I I I I I I I I l I l I 3 2 1 1 2 I I I I I I 3 I Think of standard deviation of how different a person is from the norm Not purely that they are different but how much they deviate from the standard deviation How you de ne what is abnormal if you look at just statistically its an insufficient picture Deviance From what Statistically Deviant From behaviors thoughts and emotions that differ markedly from a society s ideas about proper functioning From social norms Stated and unstated rules for proper conduct Rarity alone is not enough Judgments of abnormality vary from society to society and change over time as norms grow from a particular culture Homosexuality once included as a disorder in the DSM Our view of what is quotabnormalquot has shifted over time hoarding recently added to the DSM5 Distress According to many clinical theorists behavior ideas or emotions usually have to cause distress before they can be labeled abnormal whether or not it causes people to upset them an indicator of stress Not always the case Mania no distress Psychopathy no emotion Chidren with conduct disorder Can have abnormality and see the disorder and the person can be okay with it it39s not suf cient Dysfunction Abnormal behavior tends to be dysfunctionalit interferes with daily functioning The presence of dysfunction or impairment is often a key to distinguishing quotnormalquot range of behavior emotion and thought from quotabnormalquot if have a pattern of behavior that causes you to be upset it can be a problem what medical professionals focus on the most Danger Abnormal behavior may become dangerous to oneself or others Behavior may be consistently careless hostile or confused Although often cited as a feature of psychological abnormality research suggests that dangerousness is the exception rather than the rule And dangerousness is very hard to predict Most people would agree universally that if there is a problem that someone puts themselves in danger there is a mental iHness doesn39t come up much hard to identify not particularly and issue for most The Elusive Nature of Abnormalitv Ultimatey a society selects general criteria for de ning abnormality and then uses those criteria to judge particular cases Szasz places such emphasis on society s role that he nds the whole concept of mental illness to be invalid a myth of some sorts quotmental disorders are nothing more than conditions that society dislikesquotgtmenta illness is a concept of society and not someone not tting in the roles the societ doesn39t like the way a person acts exampe Sexual Orientation Deviations called quotabnormalquot are only quotproblems of livingquot Societies invent the concept of mental illness to better control or change people who threaten social order Disapprova alone is not enough Racism We disapprove of racism but we don39t diagnose it as a mental illness Even if we assume that psychological abnormality is a valid concept we may be unable to apply our de nition consistently Examples Diagnosis of alcohol problems in colleges ssue of abnormality versus eccentricity In short although abnormality generally is de ned as behavior that is deviant distressful dysfunctional and sometimes dangerous these criteria often are vague and subjective Few categories of abnormality are as clearcut as they seem most continue to be debated by clinicians What is Treatment Once clinicians decide that a person is suffering from abnormality they seek to treat it Treatment or therapy is a procedure designed to change dysfunctional distressing abnormal behavior into more functional less distressing behavior once someone is identi ed as having some mental disorder we hope that they seek some sort of treatment medical based or therapy based All forms of psychological therapy have essential features 1 A sufferer patient who seeks relief from the quothealerquot clinician 2 A trained sociay accepted healer whose expertise is accepted by the patient and his or her social group 3 A therapeutic alliance trust the person if not the treatment isn39t going to help 4 A series of contacts between the healer and the sufferer 5 An expectation for improvement have dimensions regardless of what somewhat of treatment someone is engaged in apply in all therapy and medicine helping ppl to eliminate distress physical or psychological Speci c versus nonspeci c factors Pacebo if someone like an expection for improvement placebo effects very strong How was abnormalitv viewed and treated in the past Despite their differences most clinicians agree that signi cant numbers of people need therapy or treatment of one kind or another In any given year as many as 30 of adults and 19 of children and adolescents in the US display serious psychological disturbances and are in need of clinical treatment In addition most people have dif culty coping at various times but does this require treatment ls this the fault of modern society Although modern pressures may contribute they are hardly the primary cause every society past and present has witnessed psychological abnormality In every era every society has their own stressors that may been seen as abnormal there are good things and bad things of living Ancient Views and Treatments Demonic Model demos and evil spirits caused mental illness Historians have concluded that ancient society s probably regarded abnormal behavior as the work of evil spirits This view may have begun as far back as the Stone Age The treatment for severe abnormality was to force the demons from the body through trephination and exorcism treatments t to be the cause of mental disorders Ancient Skull with holes from trephination if the people calm down from pounding holes in skull they may calm down and they can see that as a valid treatment Eurooe in the Middle Ages Demonoloov Returns 5001350 AD The church rejected scienti c forms of investigation and it controlled all education Religious beliefs came to dominate all aspects of lifebecame more organized Once again abnormality was seen as a con ict between good and evil Abnormal behavior apparently increased greatly during this period people probably didn39t have mental disordersit was probably because these rules of abnormal being applied Some of the earlier demonological treatments reemerged At the close of the Middle Ages demonology and its methods began to lose favor again The Renaissance and the Rise of Asylums 14001700 AD Demonoogical views of abnormality declined German physician Johann Weyer believed that the mind was as susceptible to sickness as the body The quotMedical Modelquot The care of people with mental disorders continued to improve in this atmosphere patients were not blamed Treatments not scienti c Bood letting letting them bleed out the blood that contains the mental iHness Scare the illness out of patients snake pits if you scare people enough they will get over their mental illness Saw less of demonology beginning of medical treatment people got sick mentally still didn39t know how to treat them Unfortunatey this time also saw a rise of asylums institutions whose primary purpose was care of the mentally ill The intention was good but because of overcrowding they became virtual pnsons The Nineteenth Centurv Reform and Moral Treatment As 1800 approached the treatment of people with mental disorders began to improve once again Pine France and Tuke England advocated moral treatment care that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful techniques In the US Benjamin Rush father of American psychiatry and Dorothea Dix Boston schoolteacher were the primary proponents of moral treatment By the end of the nineteenth century several factors led to a reversal of the moral treatment movement Money and staff shortages Decining recovery rates Overcrowding Emergence of prejudice By the early years of the twentieth century the moral treatment movement had ground to a halt longterm hospitalization became the rule once again psychosurgery frontal lobotomy in the 194039s 5039s httpwwwvoutubecomwatchv0aNlLW6lLk The Earlv Twentieth Centurv Dual Persoectives As the moral movement was declining in the late 18005 two opposing perspectives emerged The Somatogenic Perspective Abnormal functioning has physical causes The Psychogenic Perspective Abnormal functioning has psychological causes The Early Twentieth Century The Somatogenic Perspective Two factors were responsible for the rebirth of this perspective Emi Kraepelin s textbook argued that physical factors such as fatigue are responsible for mental dysfunction quotdementia praecoxquot New biological discoveries were made such as the link between syphilis bacterium and general paresis Despite the general optimism biological approaches yielded mostly disappointing results throughout the rst half of the twentieth century when a number of effective medications were nally discovered The Early Twentieth Century The Psychogenic Perspective The rise in popularity of this perspective was based on work with hypnotism Friedrich Mesmer and hysterical disorders Sigmund Freud39s theory of psychoanalysis Freud and his followers offered treatment primarily to patients who did not require hospitalization now known as outpatient therapy By the early 20th century psychoanalytic theory and treatment were widely accepted In the 19505 researchers discovered a number of new psychotropic medications and physiologic interventions Antipsychotic drugs Antidepressant drugs Antianxiety drugs Eectroconvusive therapy lnstitutions remained a dominant form of treatment through the 196039s then rapidly declined and gave rise to outpatient care eg community mental health centers Current Trends It would hardly be accurate to say that we know live in an period of great enlightenment about or dependable treatment of mental disorders 43 of people surveyed believe that people bring mental health disorders upon themselves and 35 consider mental health disorders to be caused by sinful behavior Nevertheess the past 50 years have brought major changes in the ways clinicians understand and treat abnormal functioning Treatment Today Outpatient care has now become the primary mode of treatment When patients do need institutionalization they are usually given shortterm hospitalization and then ideally outpatient psychotherapy and medication in community settings The approach has been helpful for many patients but too few community programs are available in the US only 40 to 60 of those with severe disturbances receive treatment of any kind Surveys suggest that nearly 1 in 6 adults in the US receives treatment for psychological disorders in the course of a year the majority for fewer than 5 sessions A Growing Emphasis on Preventino Disorders and Promotino Mental Health The community mental health approach has given rise to the prevention movement Many of today39s programs are trying to Correct the social conditions that underlie psychological problems Hep individuals at risk for developing disorders Prevention programs have been further energized by the growing interest in positive psychology the study and enhancement of positive feelings traits and abilities What Are Today39s Leading Theories and Professions One of the most important development in the eld of abnormal psychology has been the growth of numerous theoretical perspectives including Psychoanaytic Bioogical Behaviora Cognitive Humanistic existential Sociocultural At present no single perspective dominates the clinical eld In addition to multiple perspectives a variety of professionals now offer help to people with psychological problems Another Key development in the study and treatment of mental disorders has been a growing appreciation of the need for effective research Cinica researchers have tried to determine which concepts best explain and predict abnormal behavior which treatments are most effective and what kinds of changes may be required Models of Abnormality n science the perspectives used to explain events are known as models or paradigms Each model spells out basic assumptions gives order to the eld under study and sets guidelines for investigation Modes in uence what investigators observe the questions they ask the information they seek and how they interpret this information the lens of what you have can impact how you see these disorders Biolooical Model Adopts a medical perspective Reductionisticgt takes symptoms of mental illness and can try to reduce to low level of explanation Mechanisticgt refers to simple relationships you cut your artery and blood comes out Disease focusedgt medical is based on pathology Main focus is that psychological abnormality is an illness brought about by malfunctioning parts of the organism Typicay point to problems in brain anatomy or brain chemistry