American History Notes for 9:22:14
American History Notes for 9:22:14 HIST 1310
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This 6 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Meghan Xanthos on Saturday January 24, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to HIST 1310 at George Washington University taught by Professor Stott in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to American History in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/24/15
Midterm review sheet Midterm Format ID terms eight will be on the exam you will de ne three writing a goodsize paragraph giving its meaning dates if relevant and historical signi cance 30 Essay questions two will be on the exam you will do one 60 Short question on Herculz ne Barbm 10 ID Terms Voltaire a gure of the French Enlightenment who was a writer and philosopher Voltaire hated the established Catholic Church because of his believe in the separation of church and state Voltaire and deism Deist person who believes in god but not any particular religion Voltaire when old and revered knocks on a door and asks the man inside to walk to the top of a hill to look at the view Voltaire reaches the top of the hill raises his arms and yells a statement along the lines of I believe in you god but I don t believe in Jesus or Mary or any religion Voltaire and religious toleration Religious toleration idea that emerged in the 17th century Pragmatic arguments for religious toleration a religiously tolerant society would not be ghting religious wars religious toleration is necessary for society and a right of human beings the dutch and the republic of England had already reached state of religious toleration France did not have religious toleration revocation of nought protestant minority no longer tolerated and were forced to leave country or convert to Catholicism the protestants were industrious people the Calas case the eldest son of a family was found hanged in basement it was thought that his own father had killed him for wanting to convert to catholicism priests said protestants would do this to every catholic the father was sentenced to death and the dead man s widow appealed to voltaire volatile believed father innocent wrote letters signed crush the infamy Seven Years War 17541763 main con ict in the seven year period of 17561763 a war fought between the British and French colonies in North America when the British attacked French positions in North America and took merchant ships the French had Native American allies Catherine the Great of Russia the longestruling female leader of Russia who came to power after the Seven Years War Serfdom under Catherine the Great The landowning noble class owned the serfs who were bound to the land Serfs had limited rights example state did not technically allow them to own possessions People gave up freedoms to a landowner in exchange for their protection Initiated change example serfs could le complaints against landlords Napoleonic Code a complete system of law in France during the The Napoleonic Era 17991815 established by a committee of french lawyers Napoleon commissioned Before the code France had no uniform law napoleon likes a standardized system example a centralized education system where higher education is turned into a university system run by the state Manchester School of Economics economic movement of the 19th century that originated in Manchester England argued that free trade would lead to equality the AntiCorn Law League called for repeal of corn laws that increased food prices Civilizing Mission european colonial powers reason for colonization was that they felt it was their duty to bring civilization e g Western ideals and ideology to communities perceived as uncivilized Crimean War 1853 1856 a war fought mainly on the Crimean Peninsula between France Russia Britain and the Ottoman Turks why the war happened France Russia and Britain were all competing for the Middle East particularly with Turkey Access to religious sites in the Holy Land had been a cause of tension between Catholic France and Orthodox Russia In 1853 the con ict came to a head with rioting in Bethlehem which was ruled by Turkey Tsar Nicholas 1 mobilized the Russian army against Turkey The British and French were concerned about Russian expansion in the region threatening their trade routes Congress of Berlin 1885 a Congress established to avoid a european war over African territory eventually establishes a system that regulates claiming of territory before the mid19th century europeans maintained trading posts on coast diseases and african people did not want them mid 19th century rising tensions between european powers for center of Africa europeans starting going to center of Africa because development of tropical medicine quest for source of nile fill in blank spaces on the map no africans at congress the congress succeeds in avoiding a European war but lots of colonial wars break out because effective control of a territory can always be contested Otto von Bismarck 18151898 a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs late 19th century prominent force at the Congress of Berlin in 1885 Syllabus of Errors 1864 a constitution listing the errors of the time period written by Pope Pius J acobins a term used to describe members of the J acobin Club a revolutionary political group that cropped up during the French Revolution quotJ acobinsquot were strong supporters of the French revolution the group was headed by Robespierre 175 8 1794 they controlled the French government from the years of 1793 to 1794 during which the J acobins passed legislation that supported ideals of revolution the Reign of Terror or The Terror occurred The Terror was a period where the J acobin Club executed anyone they believed to be antirevolution FrancoPrussian War 1870 1871 a war where Prussianled German states defeated France and ended with the end of French European hegemony and a uni ed Germany Petty bourgeoisie people who are in terms of lifestyle are inbetween the proletariat and the bourgeoisie example small business owners eg a shoe shop where the owner works there along with his workers rather than being a manager OR clerks eg people who wrote records for a living marx thought they were going to disappear thought they would descend into the proletariat whole point of petty bourgeoisie is not being proletariat under economic pressure in the 19th century retail sector stronghold of the petty bourgeoisie ISSUE small businesses competing with department stores where you can buy high quality reasonable priced goods Filippo Marinetti a leading Italian futurist 18761944 what is Italian futurism people saw Italy as a country of the past people did not go to Italy to see modern innovation futurists defined as a group of people who championed the future through speed and technology hated this believe that Italy should burn the louvre as a testament to letting go of the past fill in the canals to make room for cars and embrace the future Origin of Species 1 859 a novel by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation for the discovery of evolution religious people willing to concede evolution in general HOWEVER Christianity like all religions was based on the idea that human beings are different Christianity defined key difference between humans and animals as that humans have souls with Origin of Species it became known that there were common ancestors between humans and apes and that ancestor was pretty much an ape the soul never came in church had no way to eXplain this finally decided that humans evolved and their god stuck a soul in humans at some point Essays 1 Discuss the relationship of Europe and the rest of the world from the Industrial Revolution through the age of High Imperialism What were the reasons for European dominance How dominant was Europe What were the effects of changing relationships with the rest of the world on Europe itself 2 Discuss the impact of the French Revolution on European politics and culture from the battle of Waterloo to the late nineteenth century Should the period be considered one of developing the ideas and issues of the French Revolution or was nineteenthcentury political culture a break with the Revolution 3 Discuss the impact of industry on nineteenthcentury Europe Should Europe at this time be considered an industrial society Notes on the Industrial Revolution for Essays 1 and 3 not a term used at the time at the end of the 19th century meant to be a parallel to the french revolution debate over when it begins the revolution is definitions power 0 not political or social power 0 power as in the ability to reach out to things in the universe and move them around 0 humans have relied on naturally occurring sources of power like human or animal muscle or wind that turned windmills or moved sailing ships from beginning of time 0 human beings use more and become more dependent on arti cially generated power in the industrial revolution 0 most important is steam power burn coal or wood or charcoal to heat water and create steam to generate power steam now succeeded by petrol nuclear power economic growth 0 take off into selfsustaining growth 0 most economies grow in the long term but grow intermittently 0 during a revolution there typically is a much smoother faster uptick in growth 0 British economy did not grow that much faster as a result of the revolution technological growth 0 rate of technological innovation speeds up during revolution 0 before the revolution extremely slow 0 example printing press gets improved upon distribution of labor 0 most people were engaged in primary food production 0 otherwise people were engaged in other primary production 0 now that is the minority 0 early 19th century Britain majority of population in cities 0 people are factory workers clerks artisans why England wealth 0 natural resources 0 England has a lot of coal helped steam production 0 coal is the fuel of the rst revolution 0 aggregate wealth 0 rich society by premodem standards 0 enough capital for people to invest it in industrial enterprises 0 due to agricultural reorganization farmers lost jobs and joined the work force technological culture 0 disputed some people say the revolution was not that technologically innovative revolution seen as a series of great inventors and their great inventions 0 machines were devised built and maintained global empire 0 England had built the world s largest global empire 0 Britain recovers quickly from the american revolution 0 two main things empire provides source of supply mechanized spinning and weaving 0 Britain did not produce any cotton not the right climate 0 textile produced instead was wool cotton grew in their colonies and the American south knew Britain was so dependent on their cotton they thought they would support them in civil war 0 to be successful Britain needed not only a supply but a reliable supply 0 France could not have a reliable supply because France is at war with Britain Britain rules the seas France can t get supplies as easily Britain can rely on steady stream of imports and France cannot Britain exported some goods to Europe reason for continental system re Napoleon was to bring Britain to knees and free up the sea for the French but it fails 0 Europe is not an adequate export market for amount Britain was producing and they wanted markets they could protect close off to foreign competition 0 colonial markets were perfect as they could only buy and sell with Britain logic our colony will buy from us and only us the railway age railroads invented in 1825 emerge in the north of England first railway anywhere in the world doesn t go to London but runs between Liverpool and Manchester uses coal and hauls things back and forth dramatic impact on culture factory system doesn t affect you if you aren t working in it but the railway affects everybody the steam ship around the same time opens up isolated areas and allows for tourism Scottish islands swiss alps by 1850 tourism was so embraced that english people were writing about going to the swiss alps and were complaining about how many english people were there the revolution spreads time was local and time was in theory continuous and gauged by the sun railroads worry about it because of timetables time zones start in the united states because it was a big country going east to west and railroads traversed the country other countries noticed what England was doing and 1851 is the height of the revolution worlds fair held in London built crystal palace out of industrial steel which was a product of the revolution and allowed Britain to show off modern thing crystal palace was bombed to ruins in world war 2 class structure in the 19th century the problem marxist interpretations karl marx believed that class structure was becoming simpler because of the industrial revolution industrial revolution divides into proletariats which are industrial workers and Bourgeoisie which owns factories exploited and exploited becomes more complex the persistence of the old regime did not mean the end of the european social order persists into the first world war even in the most commercial of societies it s not just about money to be part of the elite to be a gentleman lady money alone will not work in contrast the US is all about money people use money to attain social status that money won t give you example take profits from factory buy country estate send son to university have him enter parliament have him marry a daughter of a count the gentleman still occupies many citadels of power land owner don t have power because you have land have land because you are powerful land is a sign of status officers lean heavily toward the aristocracy Bourgeoisie have hard time cracking that in Germany old fashioned aristocrats don t want anyone Bourgeoisie for their of cers navy becomes middle class in Germany diplomacy is a eld for gentleman Herculine Barbin Childhood Herculine was a French intersex person who was treated as a female at birth was later designated a male after a physical examination Herculine grew up in a covenant Adulthood Before Reclassi cation School worked as a schoolmistress in a charter school charter school private individual has control over day to day operation but incorporated into the governmental structure in the context of the french revolution school was religious therefore the church won superintendent was working for the government meaning the revolution won yes the students went to mass and and were taught catechism but the school superintendent is actually in charge the headmaster was the one who started the school three fold analysis entrepreneurial spirit came during postrevolutionary period institution that is in the process of evolving The Time Period many communities having wars between parish priest and traditional catholic values and the schools which are being taught by people not from the church but from the state part of the process of secularization After Reclassification physician makes final decision about gender has authority to make that judgement institutionally is granted by the state because physicians are the intellectual authority of science decided Barbin was a male rather than a female before french revolution the decision made by church church may have asked advice from doctors foucault was the person to establish the idea that sexuality has a history sex was not just a biological function people read more for the interesting ideas than actual facts book often incorrect keeping records about people has moved from the church to the state