Chapter 1-Homeostasis HHP: 3500
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Date Created: 01/24/15
SyHabus Dr Rogersjenrogersuiowaedu Office Hours Wed 101130 Thurs 1230 Physiology NotesChapter 1Homeostasis I Introduction to Human Physiology Physiologystudy of how living organisms functionhuman body in this class 0 Concept 1 Hierarchy of Structural Organization 0 MoleculesljlcellstissuesOrgansfunctional unitsorgan systemsorganism o to understand physiology we must understand how changes in function at the most basic level lead to wholebody responses All parts work together to maintain function of human body II Review of Structural Characteristics Interrelationships between structureanatomy and functionphysiology Review differentiation 0 4 main cell typesmuscle neurons epithelial connchve Muscle tissue 0 Function tension generation 0 Cardiac o Smoothdigestive tract blood vessels 0 Skeletal Nervous tissue 0 Communication via generation of electrical signals 0 Brainperiphery AND peripherybrain Epithelial tissue o Barriercompartmentalizationkeep structures where they should be located to properly carry out function Tubular lumenholow space Interstitial uid Blood vessel There is a basement membraneanchoring pointheps keep epithelial cells grounded Basolateral sideby blood vessel Apical sideby tubular lumen Tight junctioncells adhere close together substances can t trickle through 0 Regulates movement of substances from one body compartment to another 0 Selective secretion and absorption of different substancessome things can move but NOT all 0 Protectionskin many organs are surrounded by ep heHaIUssue 0 Many types of epithelial cells lines the inside of hollow spaces Connective tissue 0 To connect anchor and support different parts of the body 0 Fibrous connective loose connective blood bone cartilage adipose tissue 0 Formation of the extracellular matrix collagen and elastinprotein bers polysaccharidesquotnametagsquot to certain cells in the body Scaffolding cell signalingfacilitates communication between things outside of cell and possibly cells themselves 0 Organ discrete structure that performs a speci c funcUon 0 Typically comprised of all 4 celltissue types 0 Example the heartsimple squamous epithelium epicardium myocardium endocardium neurons 0 Example the kidneyinnervated renal capsule connective functional unitsnephronwhere urine is formed 0 Organ System several organs working together to perform and overall function 0 Example urinationkidneys form urine travel down ureters stored in bladder through urethra excreted lll Body Fluid Compartments a Concept 2 body uidswater plus the substances dissolved in it are localized into 23 compartments i Intracellular uid compartment INSIDE cell 1 A lot of water inside cells ii Extracellular uid compartment OUTSIDE cell 1 Plasma a 3 liters of water in plasma volume 2 Interstitial uidand interstitium IV Homeostasis a Process by which physiological variables are kept within a predictable range b The active maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment despite internalor external changes i We expend energy to keep these variables where they should be c Example blood glucose regulationbetween 80100mgdecileter i After eating it rises d Dynamic constancy variables may uctuate in the shortterm but stable over longterm i Usually regulated around a set point e Homeostatic Control Systems helps to maintain physiological variables around their set point i Negative feedback systemchange in a variable away from its set point initiates a response bringing it back towards its set point 1 Example body temp dropping body responses to bring it back to normabody constricts blood vessels curling up shivering ii Positive feedback systemchange in a variable away from set point causes a chain of events that further increases the change 1 Example blood clotting giving birthstretch on uterus contractions cause more stretching iii Feedforward regulationbody adjusts a variable prior to any actual change in anticipation of future needs 1 Example ventilation at onset of exercisebeing told you will exercise your heart rate increases and body prepares itself f Homeostatic Re exes unlearned control systems linking stimuli with one or more responses mediated by a re ex arc i Components of re ex arc 1 Stimulusvariabe 2 Receptorsomething keeping track of where variable is at 3 Afferent pathwayinput signal way to relay information to control system Integrating Centercontrol system sends responses Efferent pathwaysent back after integrating center Effector Responsebrings control variable back to its normal physiological range 8 Further activation is shut off when homeostasis is found g Remember i Homeostasis is integrationthere may be more than one input more than one output 1 All will work together to maintain homeostasis ii Affectors effectors and integrating centers are often part of the nervous system but not always 1 Example of NOT part of nervous blood glucose regulationintegrating center located within beta cells mediates response which is release of insulin h Local Homeostatic Responses i Like a re ex links stimulus to a series of events ii Unlike a re ex occurs entirely within a LOCAL arealimited to one space 1 No afferent pathway no integrating center no efferent pathway 2 Example hyperemiablood going through one part of body more than the other i Concept 4 In order for re exes or local responses to work cells must communicate i Cells do this by releasing chemicals that diffuse to other cells bind to receptors oninside those of cells to elicit a response j lntercellular Chemical Messengers i Classes 1 Hormones released by endocrine glands into the blood a Hormone is chemical messenger blood will circulate them throughout obdy 2 Neurotransmitters released by neurons into a synapse 3 Paracrine agents released locally by one cell affects a nearby cell 4 Autocrine agents released locally by one cell affects that same cell 5 AAA CAN BE BOTH k Processes related to Homeostasis i AdaptationAcclimatization FP P F 1 An adaptation is a characteristic that favors survival in speci c environments a Example adaptations to life in very cold regions of the worldfat storage using as protection 2 In this sense each of our homeostatic control systems represents an adaptation 3 Acclimatization refers to an acquired change in a homeostatic system that allows it to function betterin theory a Usually brought about by exposure to environmental factorsthe quotclimatequot 4 Body responds to prolonged exposure to heatcold by adapting to it ii Biological Rhythms 1 Type of feedforward regulation 2 Circadian rhythms cycle once every 24 hours a Body temperaturethere is uctuationpredicted changes throughout this pedod b Menstrual cycle in femalesover 28 days rather than 24 hours 3 Hypothalamus is the location of the primary pacemaker for these rhythms a In center of the brainlots of homeostatic variables are located in hypothalamus coordinator for efferent responses iii Balance of Substances in the Body 1 Many systems balance addition and removal of a given substance from a pool within the body a Note mechanisms for gain and loss 2 Systems that are regulated example body needs proteincan get from amino acids pool within body ot more simple than requiring to get it from out of the body as proteins are broken down amino acids can be put back into pool a NET GAINSCan get these from foods we eat air we breathe synthesis in body b NET LOSSESmetabolism excretion from body via lungs GI tract kidneys skin etc i Amino acids remove nitrogen group converted into urea turned into urine 3 Lossgtgain negative balance a Losing this substance from the body 4 Gaingtloss positive balance a Storing it in the body b Example as a child it is stored to help us grow 5 Lossgain stabe balance V General Principles of Physiology goom Review section 19 in text page 15 Homeostasis is essential for health and survival The functions of organ systems are coordinated with each toher Most physiological fucntions are controlled by multiple organ systems often working in opposition Information ow between cells tissues and organs is an essential feature of homeostasis Controlled exchange of materials occurs between compartmetns and across cell membranes Physiological processes are dictated by the laws of chemistry and physics Physiological processes require the transfer and balance of matter and energy Structure is a determinant of and has coevolved with function Summary Terminology
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