Physical Anthropology 3/21/16
Physical Anthropology 3/21/16 Anth 385
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Johnson on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 385 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Barbian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Physical Anthropology 3/21/16 Fossils and Their Place in Time and Nature Chapter 8 continued Taphonomy Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks because of either constant flooding or other sources bring sediment onto the fossil Problems w/ the Fossil Records ● Decomposition and Predation ● Geological distortion/deformation ● Weathering Limitations of the Fossil Record ● Low likelihood of anything becoming a fossil ● Bias towards hard parts ○ Cartilage and soft tissue not likely to fossilize ● Missing pieces ○ Causing not to have all the pieces for each fossil ○ Causing to mix up fossils ● Time bias ● No idea what animals actually look like ● Environments pressure different ○ Wet environments pressure better ○ Acidic soils (tropics) will eat the fossils away The Fossil Record and the Timing and Tempo of Evolution ● Provides evidence for evolution and its process ● It is incomplete so their is some disagreement of time and tempo ● Two Models of it ○ Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium ■ Gradualism change is a slow process ■ Punctuated Equilibriumslow stasis than a rapid change ○ Both will happen, case by case basis of which is appropriate Bringing Fossils to Life ● What did they look like? ● Exclusive: Building the Face of a Newly Found Ancestor ○ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eatqu7hWw5g Time in Perspective ● Hard to comprehend ● Eon4 total, half a billion years or more ● Era 10 defined, several hundred million years ● Period22 defined, 10s to 1 hundred millions years ● Epoch34 defined Physical Anthropology 3/21/16 Geological Time: EArth History ● 200 mya ○ pangean ● Late Jurassic (about 150 mya ● Cretaceous (about 70 mya) ● Present Day Stratigraphic Correlation ● Krakatau, Indonesia ● 1883 ● Massive Volcano, deposit ash 3,700 miles away ○ Creates a layer, a new strata ○ Can no date that layer ○ Chemical Dating ● Fluorine Dating ● Krapina Neanderthal Fossils ● Dragutin GorjanovicKarmberger ○ First guy to use fluorine levels to date fossils items ○ The longer the fossil is in the soil the more fluorine it will absorb ○ Is a localized technique because fluorine levels are different based on the area Biostratigraphic (Faunal) DAting ● Index fossils ○ Fossil pig molars Physical Anthropology 3/21/16 ○ Irish Elk ■ Extinction 10.600 BPY ● Have to be widespread ● Evolve fairly quickly Cultural Dating ● Deals with human artifacts ● Its relatively recent ● Ceramics ● Stone tools ○ Oldowan INdustry ○ 2.61.7 mya ○ Don’t change for a long time Relative and Absolute Dating ● Previous methods were Relative Dendrochronology ● A.E. Douglas 1920s ● Dating by the growth cycle of trees Carbon Dating ● Half lifes ● Works for fossils up to about 60,000 years ● For older fossils use elements that are more unstable Early Hominin Origins and Evolution: The Roots of Humanity Chapter 10 ● Olduvai gorge, in East Africa. ○ Questions addressed in this chapter: ■ What is a hominin? ■ Why did hominins evolve? ■ What was the evolutionary fate of the first hominins? ○ Hominid = all the great apes ○ Hominins = the humans ancestry tree ● What is a Hominin? ○ What is different about humans ■ Upright walking ■ Nonhoning chewing ● The teeth do not get sharpened by each other ○ Apes do have honing chewing ■ Material culture Physical Anthropology 3/21/16 ■ Speech ■ Hunting and cooperation ■ Domestication of plants and animals ○ Foramen Magnum ■ Humans have it directly underneath the skull ■ Gorillas have it in the back of the head ○ Spine ■ S curve in the human spine ● Allows for the human head to sit straight over the body ■ Gorilla mostly straight ○ Pelvis ■ Humans Hips are on the side ■ Gorillas Hips are on the back of the body ○ Femur ■ Human has an angle, body condylar angle ■ Gorillas straight ○ Feet ■ Humans, an arch ■ Gorillas, flat, an opposable thumb ○ Teeth ■ Canines ● Humans have smaller canines ■ Apes ○ Honing (wearing at the back) versus apical (wearing at the point) wear ○ Shearing versus grinding ○ male male aggression ○ Have thinner enamel ■ Allows for the teeth to remain sharp ● Why Did Hominins evolve? ○ Bipedal ■ 47million ○ Tool Use ■ 2.6 million ○ Canines size ○ Brain size ○ Hunting Hypothesis ■ Charles Darwin ● Hominins evolved in Africa ● Hunting meat= tool use = large brain ● Tool use = small canine ● Tool use = free hands ● Free hands = bipedalism Physical Anthropology 3/21/16 ○ The times don’t add up ■ Patchy Forest Hypothesis ● Peter Rodman and Henry McHenry ● African Savanna ● Two legs energetically more efficient than four? ○ Problem is the earliest hominins come from straight up forests ■ Provisioning Hypothesis (Dinner Date) ● Owen Lovejoy ○ Apes have a long interbirth interval ■ About 7 years ○ Humans have a shorter interbirth interval ■ About 2 years ○ If you get more food have more infant ○ Suite of anatomies and behaviors coevolve ■ Food provisioning ■ Bipedalism ■ Pair bonding ● Reduced canine size ■ Cooperation ■ Predicts reduced sexual dimorphism but that is not the case ● Who were the first Hominins? ○ Fall in the time period 47million years ago ○ Genre ■ Not in agreement that these two are actually hominins ■ Sahelanthropus tchadensis ● Chad, Central Africa ● 67 million years old ○ Forest near lake ● M. Brunet ● Not in east africa but out in the middle of africa ● Discovered in 2001 ● Anatomies ○ Small Brain(350cc) ■ Low end for a chip ○ Bipedal? Foramen magnum is pointing down ○ Nonhoning chewing ■ Smallish canines ■ Massive brow ridge ● Flat face ■ Orrorin tugenensis ● Tugen Hills, Kenya, Africa Physical Anthropology 3/21/16 ● 6million years old ○ Forest ● M.Pickford and B. Senut ● Anatomies ○ Bipedal ■ Based on femur ■ Obturator externus groove, on the femur proves that there's a muscle important for bipedalism ■ Tree climber ● Based on hand bones ■ Partially honing canines ○ Next Genus Ardipithecus and the Middle Awash Valley ■ Almost everyone agrees they were hominins ○ Ardipithecus kadabba ■ Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia, Africa ■ 5.25.8 million years old ● Forest ■ T. White and Y HaileSelassie ■ Anatomies: ■ Bipedal ● Found a toe bone ● It proved that they can push off with there foot just like humans do ● Perihoning complex ○ The honing canines are decreasing ○ It is transitional ○ Ardipithecus ramidus ■ Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia, Africa ■ 4.416 million years old ○ Forest ■ International team led by T. White and Y. HaileSelassie ■ Anatomies: ● Bipedal ○ Based on pelvis, femur, and foot ○ Climbing based on hand and foot ■ She would not be able to walk on her knuckles ○ Nonhoning canines The Earliest Hominins Evolve Physical Anthropology 3/21/16 PreAustralopithecine Australopithecine Teeth Wear on tip of canine, nonhoning but with modified honing Bones Vestiges of apelike Loss of Traits arboreal traits Brain Small Slight increase ● Australopithecus ○ Australopithecus anamensis ■ Kenya and Ethiopia, Africa ■ 4 million years old ● Woodland ■ M. Leakey and T. White ■ Anatomies ● Bipedal ○ Based on Shin bone ■ Was well adapted to upright walking but spent time tree climbing ● Nonhoning canines ○ Australopithecus afarensis ■ Lucy ■ Dikika, Ethiopia (Infant) ■ Korsi ■ 33.6 million years ago ● Woodland and grassland ■ D. Johanson and others ■ Anatomies ● Small brain ● Nonhoning canines ○ Large molars and premolars ■ Eats different diet ■ Grasses, tubers, nuts, etc... ● Bipedal ○ Short and stout pelvis ○ Femur bends in ● No language (hyoid bone) ○ Important for speech production ■ Animals bones w/cut marks ● Meat, but no tools ○ Australopithecus afarensis Physical Anthropology 3/21/16 ■ Footprints ■ Fingers are bent in the middle, not completely like a gorilla, but not straight like ours ○ Australopithecus (Kenyanthropus) platyops ■ Burtele foot (3.4 Ma) ■ Kenya, Africa ■ 3.5million years old ● Woodland ■ M.Leakey ■ Anatomies ● Flat face ● Small molar teeth ○ Can be placed into 3 different groups? ■ Robust Australopithecus ■ South African Australopithecus ■ Australopithecus garhi ○ Australopithecus garhi ■ Ethiopia, Africa ■ 2.5 million years old ● Woodland ■ T. White and Y. HaileSelassie ■ Anatomies ● Large teeth (premolars and molars) ● Long legs ● Stone tools ○ Oldowan stone tools (2.6 million years) ○ Australopithecus first stonetool make; not homo
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