Chapter 2-Chemical Composition of the Body
Chapter 2-Chemical Composition of the Body HHP: 3500
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This 7 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Breanna Blaess on Saturday January 24, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to HHP: 3500 at University of Iowa taught by Jennifer Rogers in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 183 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 01/24/15
PhysiologyChapter 2Chemical Composition of the Body I Chemistry Basics a Atoms Elements and Ions i Atom the smallest freely existing unit of matter 1 2 Nucleus protons and neutronsno charge a protons determines atomic numberelement Electrons revolve around nucleus in orbitals a Full orbitalsmolecular stability b lmportant in determining molecular bonds In most atoms protonsneutrons but many elements can have a different number of neutronsisotopes a Isotopes tend to be unstable spontaneously emits energy or atomic componentsradiation ii Typically because the of protonselectrons atoms are electrically neutral 1 2 An ion is an atom that gains or loses one or more electrons in order to achieve a full outer shell resulting in a net charge a Cations anions Electrolyte ion in solution b Moleculesamp Chemical Bonds i A molecule is twoor more atoms bonded together ii Types of molecular bonds 1 2 3 2 Covalent bondsformed due to comingling of electron shells strongest bonds of all Ionicdue to electrical attraction opposite charges a Solubility Hydrogen bondsweak intermolecular force that in uences solubility and molecular shape Polarity region of charge in an electricallyneutral molecule 1 If electrons are shared equally the result is a nonpolar covalent bond If they are not shared equally it results in a polar bond a Greater solubility body water iv Free Radicals molecules with an unpaired electron in one of its orbitasvery reactive 1 2 Reactive oxygen species ROSoxidative stress a Superoxide anion 02quot b Hydroxyl radical OHquot c Nitric oxide NOquot Initiates cellular damage a Binds to cell membranelipid b Intercellular proteins c DNA 3 Formation Metabolismexercising smoking radioactive chemical exposure v Theory free radicalsROS contribute to aging and disease vi Antioxidants inhibit oxidation reactions and free radical production a Vitamins A C and E zinc selenium 2 Innate antioxidantsenzymes a Catalase b Superoxide dismutase c Peroxidases 3 Food source of Antioxidants a Raw cacao tomatoes spinach peppers broccoli brightly colored vegetables b Also found in tea wine and juice c Solutions amp pH i De nitions 1 Liquidsolvent 2 Substances dissolved in liquidsolutes 3 Solventsolutesolution a Solubility describes how well a solute will dissolve in with a solvent 4 Concentration the amount of solute per volume of solvent ii Water most abundant moleculesolvent in body 1 Polar and ionic compounds dissolve in waterhydrophilic 2 Nonpolar compounds are generally insoluble in waterhydrophobic 3 Compounds with a polar region and a nonpolar region are amphipathic iii pH when a H atom loses an electron it becomes a simple free protonHquot 1 increased hydrogen iondecreased pH 2 70neutral lt7acidic gt7basicalkaline a Extracellular uid pH74 b Intracellular uid pH72 c Under homeostatic control ll Classes of Organic Molecules i Living organisms are comprised of carboncontaining molecules ii 4 categories of organic macromolecules in the human body 1 Review Table 24 2 Carbohydrates 3 Lipids 4 Proteins 5 Nucleic acids b Carbohydrates i Makes up only 1 of body weight ii Function cellular energy productionATP 1 Especially important a During highintensity exercise b As the primary energy substrate in certain tissuesexampleglucose c Example retina brain iii Structure CH20 1 Most carbon contain hydroxylOH group a Polar molecules because of hydroxyl 2 Subunitsmonosaccharides a Examples i Glucose6C most interesting to us ii Galactose6C 1 Liver converts this iii Fructose5C 3 Disaccharides a One will always be glucose 4 Polysaccharides gt2 monosaccharides used for CH0 storage a Starchprimary plant polysaccharide b Glycogenprimary animal polysaccharide i Storage sites liver skeletal muscle ii Note extensive branching 1 Bene t there are a lot of quotend piecesquot a Lots of glucose molecules can be released at the same time c Lipids i Make up 15or more of body weight iL FuncUons 1 Energy substrate 2 Cell membrane component 3 Signaling molecules a Energy steroid hormones iii Structure mostly C and H atoms linked by covalent bonds 1 Nonpolar 2 lnsoluble iv 4 lipid subclasses 1 Fatty acids long C chain with attached H carboxyl group on one end a b Saturated vs unsaturated fatty acids Functions used for energy building blocks for other lipids Trans Fats i Atypical hydrogen arrangement around double carbon bond 1 Properties are changed allegedly related to atherosclerosis ii Made often during hydrogenation process 2 Triglycerides primary storage form of lipids in the bodybody fat a b 3 FAs linked to a glycerol i Glycerol resembles carbohydrates FAs within a TC can be saturated or unsaturated 3 Phospholipids glycerol with 2 FAs and 1 phosphate group a Function primary component of plasma membranes in the body 4 Steroid molecules 4 interconnected rings of C atoms a few a b c d Proteins hydroxylsnonpolar Derived from cholesterol Important component of plasma membranes Component of steroid hormones l i 17 of body weight50 of organic material largest macromolecules Functions see table 25 1 Critical to all physiological processes a b c d e iii Structure a Provide structure of body Enzymes Cell receptors i Regulate what can cross cell membrane Channeb i Regulate what can cross cell membrane Can be used for energy if necessary mino acid subunits 1 All living organisms use the same 20 amino acids a Amino acids are composed of i AminogroupNH2 ii CarboxylgroupCOOH iii Side chainR group b Nature of side chain determines protein structurefunction 2 Amino acids linked together by peptide bonds to form polypeptides 3 lt50 AAs with biological functionpeptide 4 gt50 AAs with characteristic shape and functionprotein iv Protein shapeand its ability to change is the basis of all physiological function 1 Protein shape determined by different levels of structure 2 Primary structurethe and types of amino acids and their speci c order 3 Secondary structureocal foldingalphahelices beta pleased sheets and random coiled regions a Hydrogen bonds between amino and carboxyl groups b Depend upon side chains v Teritary structuremore global 3D folding 1 Due to interactions between side chains a H bonds b lonic bonds i Differences in electric charges c Hydrophobic bonds d Covalentdisul de bonds e Van der waals forces i Weak forces only strong enough to hold molecules together that are close together vi Quaternary structurethe combination of multiple polypeptides to make a single protein 1 Example hemoglobin 2 Also due to interaction of sidechains vii Denaturation 1 Unfolding of a protein 2 Change in pH temp ionic strength solubility a Can break bonds in amino acids b Results in loss of function 3 Sometimes is reversibleprotein can regain 3D shaperequired to operate e Nucleic Acids i 2 of body weight8 of organic material ii Function responsible for storage expression and transmission of genetic info iii Structures 1 Deoxyribonucleic acids stores genetic info in the form of genes 2 Ribonucleic acidsRNA carries instructions for building proteins 3 Both are polymers made up of repeating nucleotides a Nucleotide sugarphosphatebase i DNA 1 Sugardeoxyribose 2 ii RNA 1 Sugaroxyribose b Nucleotides connected by sugarphosphate bonds 4 Speci c nucleotides determined by the base a 5 different bases i Purinesdoube rings 1 AdenineDNAampRNA 2 GuanineDNAampRNA 3 quotPure as goldquot ii Pyrimidinessingle ring 1 CytosineDNAampRNA 2 Thymineonly DNA 3 Uracilonly RNA 4 quotCUT the yquot 5 DNA a Contains the sugar deoxyribose b Exists as doublestranded delix c The two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds i Provides stability to genome ii A pairs with T C pairs with G iii Strands must be separated in order to transmit genetic code 6 RNA a Contains the sugar ribose b Uracil replaces Thymine as a basepairs with A c Exists as a single strand i Not as stable as DNA ii Can basepair with itself 7 ATP adenosine triphosphate a Purine bases also play important role in energy transfer b All energy stored in macromolecules must be transferred to ATP before it can be used for biological work c Energy is released when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and a phosphatePi
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