Week 12 AMH2097
Week 12 AMH2097 AMH2097
Popular in Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States
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Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by JennaEliteNotetaker on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH2097 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Amundson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
3/28/16' -! Louis Adamic and cultural pluralism o! 1920s automobile was key part of economic growth !! Helped stimulate the economy by stimulating development of petroleum, steel, and oil industries and creating jobs o! Assembly lines began to be created o! Americans spent more and more of their money on leisure activities !! 1929 double the number of Americans attending movies than in 1920 o! Immigrants felt like they weren’t part of this American development and sense of unity all of these new changes brought o! Louis Adamic introduced the idea of cultural pluralism !! Cultural pluralism is the idea that ethnic differences should be celebrated and accepted not just tolerated or repressed !! 100% Americanism was the wrong goal and immigrants could retain parts of their native cultures while becoming fully American !! Wrote the book The Native’s Return !! Advocated for multiculturalism, racial acceptance rather than tolerance, and believed Americans should openly and joyfully accept cultural differences of immigrants !! Advocated for more acceptance of immigrants •! Wanted to see them represented in plays, books, and magazines -! The New Deal o! Programs Roosevelt tried to create to deal with depression o! Economic prosperities in the 1920s o! Stock market crashed in 1929 o! An attempt by the federal government to respond to the crash in the economy o! Changed ideas in the US about freedom !! Conservatives said New Deal programs would make Americans less free o! Caused Americans to rethink the role that the federal government should play in their lives o! Franklin Delano Roosevelt !! Born in 19882 into a life of extreme privilege !! Went to Harvard !! Ran for VP in 1920 as democrat but was unsuccessful !! Got polio when he was 39 and lost the use of his legs permanently !! Promised a New Deal for the American people o! Roosevelt won in a land slide in 1932 !! Him and his old advisors were progressives •! Turned to England, France, Russia, and Germany to see how they should help this economic crash o! Frances Perkins !! Secretary of labor under Roosevelt !! First woman to ever serve in a president’s cabinet o! Roosevelt called a bank holiday closing down all of the banks in the US !! Banks that had invested in the stock market o! Emergency Banking Act provided with banks in danger of crashing help from the government o! Glass Steagle Act stopped banks from investing in the stock market 3/28/16' o! FDIC o! Removed the US from the gold system allowing the US to print more money which they hoped to cause inflation to help the economy o! National Recovery Administration (NRA) !! Government industry that worked with businesses within the same industry to set standards for things like production output, price, working conditions, etc !! Hoped this would end the cut throat competition that caused workers to be laid off !! Federal government became actively involved in the production industry !! Director of NRA started publicity campaign to get support for this administration o! Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) !! An example of federal government becoming involved in market !! Got involved to manipulate prices in farming and livestock !! Authorized federal government to control farming !! Farm prices were low and farmers responded by trying to produce as many crops as they could !! AAA wanted to regulate the amount of staple crops in the market !! Would pay farmers not to plant crops or raise cattle !! Sharecropping was still in place •! Share croppers did not benefit from the AAA only land owners did •! Land owners began to throw share croppers off of their land o! The Dust Bowl !! Middle of the country experienced drought !! This area was semi-arid !! It was being over farmed !! Native grasses and top soil was gone 3/30/16& -! 2 ndhalf of the New Deal o! Got rid of Agricultural Adjustment Act o! Public support for New Deal in voting o! Focused on economic security o! Roosevelt wanted to guarantee that the poor, elderly, orphans, etc had economic safety in the US o! Wanted to redistribute income o! Rural Electrification Authority worked to bring electricity to rural parts of America so these citizens could purchase appliances o! Social Security Act 1935 !! Created old age pension for elderly people !! Created unemployment insurance and old age pension !! Americans form of Welfare reform in Europe !! Personal contribution every worker made into the fund •! Made it different than other welfare policies around the world !! Excluded a number of categories of workers including domestic servants and agricultural workers because they had high employment of African Americans o! Republicans thought the New Deal was a threat to their freedoms and wanted it to be replaced by private charity o! In 1936 election Roosevelt won popular vote and every state except Maine and Vermont o! 1936 the economy improved some and Roosevelt cut back on government spending !! Roosevelt reduced spending creating a mini depression in 1937 and re- increased the funds o! Francis Perkins was secretary of labor and first woman cabinet member !! Roosevelt also appointed other woman to important roles !! Mary McLeod Bethune •! Long time activist for black civil rights and black advocate •! Appointed special advisor to Roosevelt about civil rights and issues affecting black Americans •! First black woman to be appointed to this kind of role in the federal government o! Eleanor Roosevelt !! Gave speeches and wrote newspaper columns !! She tried to push Roosevelt to make him think about civil rights and wanted to develop more protection for workers o! Organized feminism stopped existing o! The Economy Act !! If husband and wife in family couple were employed in a state or local government than one of the two had to resign •! Often times the wives •! Tons of women had to resign from their jobs !! Earn more benefits later on in life by contributing to social security consistently 3/30/16& •! This led to woman not having appropriate social security benefits later on in life o! Most African American workers were excluded from social security 4/1/16% &! The%Great%Depression% o! Herbert%Hoover%vs.%Al%Smith% !! Election%of%1928% !! Herbert%Hoover% •! Republican%nominee% •! Born%in%Iowa% •! Son%of%black%smith%and%school%teacher% •! Became%wealth%in%1910’s%and%20s%as%a%miner% •! Directed%food%relief%for%Europeans%after%WW1% •! Had%clear%ideas%about%American%capitalism%and%the%role%the%government%should% play%in%regulating%American%society% •! Wrote%a%book%and%said%the%ordinary%people%should%be%able%to%live%their%lives% without%too%much%intervention%from%the%government% !! Al%Smith% •! First%Catholic%to%ever%be%nominated%for%president% •! Was%born%in%poverty%in%New%York%city% •! Was%native%born%but%both%of%his%parents%were%immigrants%from%Ireland% •! After%the%triangle%fire%of%1911%he%became%a%supporter%of%progressive%legislation%to% protect%workers% •! As%governors%he%signed%laws%that%limited%the%number%of%hours%woman%and% children%could%work,%to%end%prohibition,%to%end%the%red%scare,%and%to%create% widow%pensions%for%men%who%died%on%the%job% •! Had%strong%showing%among%voters%in%urban%America%and%won%the%12%largest%cities% in%the%US% !! Hoover%won%and%became%president% &! Black%Thursday%(October%24 ,%1929)% o! First%stock%crash%which%mainly%hurt%those%whole%held%little%stock% o! Stock%holders%began%to%panic%and%sell%their%stocks% o! Another%decline%the%following%Tuesday%which%started%to%harm%bigger%stock%holders% o! Most%rich%people%remained%rich%during%the%great%depression%but%not%after%the%stock% market%crash% o! Unemployment%rate%was%at%25%% o! Which%such%a%high%unemployment%rate%and%number%of%applications,%companies%did%not% higher%people%for%unnecessary%and%ridiculous%reasons% &! Depression%and%American%Culture% o! Many%people%took%to%the%roads%to%search%for%jobs% o! At%the%height%of%the%depression%more%than%4,000%children%a%day%were%receiving%food% from%red%wine%in%a%single%city%a%day% o! Caroline%Wear%called%this%The%Invisible%Scar% !! People%who%lived%throughout%the%depression%were%affected%by%it%for%the%rest%of%their% lives% !! Argued%that%the%depression%impacted%Americans%more%than%either%of%the%World% Wars% 4/1/16% !! People%who%lived%through%this%experience%were%impacted%by%it%for%the%rest%of%their% lives% !! Notion%that%living%through%the%depression%was%something%that%affected%you%for%the% rest%of%your%lives% o! Depression%changed%Americans%ideas%about%themselves%and%how%they%lived% !! Americans%generally%believed%that%things%would%improve%slightly% !! Americans%believed%that%they%were%making%progress%generally%up%until%the% depression% !! Markedly%lower%marriage,%divorce,%and%birth%rates%during%this%time% !! People%could%not%afford%to%contribute%to%clubs,%groups,%and%churches%so%they%left% them% !! Fewer%phone%calls%made%and%fewer%mail%sent% !! Colleges%had%to%increase%their%food%budgets%because%their%students%would%be%much% less%likely%to%receive%money%from%home% !! People%read%more%newspapers%and%magazines,%listened%to%the%radio,%and%saw%movies% more%often% &! Dance%Marathons% !! %Couples%would%dance%45%minutes%per%hour%until%no%one%was%left%dancing% !! People%would%give%them%money%or%food% !! People%would%take%pictures%with%them% !! The%food%and%promise%of%cash%prizes%drew%couples%in% &! 100%neediest%cases% o! Landlord%who%could%not%collect%rent%from%his%tenants% o! Factory%worker%who%was%laid%off%from%a%job%and%killed%himself.%His%wife%in%turn%got%laid% off%three%days%later%and%tried%to%kill%herself%but%was%stopped%by%friends% o! People%believed%that%people%in%these%situations%were%not%at%fault%for%them% !! They%believed%it%was%the%fault%of%banks,%big%businesses,%and%the%government% &! Hoovervilles% o! Full%of%people%living%in%tents%and%shanties% o! Called%hoovervilles%due%to%failed%economic%policies%of%Hoover% &! School%teachers%had%to%ask%children%what%they%had%to%eat%before%they%were%punished% because%kids%were%more%irritable%and%moody%if%they%had%not%eaten% &! No%social%security%or%no%food%stamps%existed%at%this%time% &! Communism,%Socialism,%and%the%Fight%for%Civil%Rights% o! Communist%and%Socialist%organizations%saw%an%upswing%in%interest%during%the%depression% o! Member%of%American%Youth%League%(communist%youth%group)%were%invited%to%stay%at%the% white%house%by%Eleanor%Roosevelt% o! Communists%and%Socialists%played%a%key%role%in%labor%unrest%and%civil%rights% o! Workers%demanded%the%right%to%organize% !! They%got%the%sense%that%Roosevelt%was%more%in%favor%of%Unions%% o! Worker%sit%in%strikes%and%general%strikes%began%to%happen%nationwide% o! Ella%May%Wiggins% !! Killed%by%being%shot%by%hired%guards/thugs% !! Shot%in%broad%daylight%with%over%50%witnesses% 4/1/16% !! Worked%for%$6%weeks% !! Worked%6%days%a%week,%12%hours%a%day% !! Was%deserted%by%her%husband% !! Had%no%choice%but%to%live%in%the%black%section%of%Gastonia% !! Would%leave%her%kids%with%woman%in%the%neighborhood%while%she%worked% !! Native%born%white%southern%woman% !! Became%secretary%of%her%Union% !! Was%a%singer% !! Traveled%throughout%the%region%singing%songs%about%current%political%issues% !! Four%of%her%nine%children%died%with%the%whooping%cough%and%they%died% o! Scottsboro%Boys% !! Young%jobless%African%Americans% !! Were%falsely%accused%of%raping%woman%after%they%rode%the%rails%together% !! There%was%a%dispute%between%a%group%of%white%and%black%men%based%on%where%they% were%sitting%and%the%black%men%beat%them%up% !! In%the%next%town%the%train%stopped%and%police%found%them%and%lied%and%said%the%black% men%raped%them% !! They%were%convicted%twice%using%questionable%testimony%and%their%testimony%was% overturned%twice% !! They%were%convicted%a%third%time%and%the%communists%made%deals%to%help%them% •! Spent%between%7%and%13%years%in%jail% o! Farm%radicalism% !! Farmers%had%to%borrow%against%the%value%of%their%land%to%buy%farming%equipment% !! Banks%began%to%foreclose%on%them%and%take%away%their%farms,%land,%and%possessions% to%pay%for%relatively%small%debts% % % % %