Learning Week 5 Notes
Learning Week 5 Notes Psyc 4450
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Heitmann on Monday March 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 4450 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Christopher L. Hubbell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Learning in Psychlogy at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Week of March 21 Instrumental Conditioning: Introduction I. Basic Procedures a. Mazes: Discrete trials i. Looks at behavioral changes between trials ii. Straight Alley 1. How long does it take to get to the end of the alley 2. Measures the running speed, but has not possibility of errors iii. T-maze or Y-maze 1. Rats given a choice of left or right 2. Measures running speed and error rate iv. Hampton Court Maze 1. A complex maze 2. Measures running speed and error rate 3. Over time they get to the goal faster with fewer errors b. Skinner Boxes i. Measures steady state behaviors ii. Train animal to perform a task and then place them in a new environment and measure their response c. Shaping i. The Method of Successive Approximation II. Primary, Secondary and Social Reinforcers a. Primary Reinforcer i. No special training required to be effective in triggering behavior 1. Food, water, or sex a. All necessary for survival 2. Access to complex sensory stimulation a. Will work very hard to gain access to visual stimulation ii. Premack Principle 1. More probable responses will reinforce less probable responses b. Secondary Reinforcer i. Also called Conditioned Reinforcer ii. Training required to make reinforcer have meaning and be effective in triggering behavior iii. Ex: money c. Social Reinforcer i. Also a Conditioned Reinforcer ii. Praise, affection of attention from another member of the species III. Delay of Reinforcement a. Does Delay Matter i. Early Studies 1. T-maze with a Delay box a. Trap rat in delay box for a period of time, and then allow them access to goal b. Learning occur with delay up to 60 seconds c. Violated Law of Contiguity d. Hull i. Characteristics of the delay box became secondary reinforcers ii. Spence’s Hypothesis 1. Exteroceptive Stimuli: stimuli that originate outside the body 2. Interoceptive Stimuli: stimuli that originate inside the body a. Proprioceptive Stimuli: stimuli that originate in muscular movement b. Believed that a muscle movement caused a trace of that movement to be present in the brain after the movement occurred c. If the trace is still present when the goal is reached, then the trace would acquire reinforcement properties iii. Grice’s Test 1. Looked to see who was right: Hull or Spence 2. Food available after white space 3. Side that was white changed, so it was on the right 50% of the time and on the left 50% of the time a. Equal reinforcement of going right of left, so there is no proprioceptive reinforcement 4. Introduced various time delays in different groups a. Delay boxes did not gain secondary reinforcement properties 5. Delays of 1 or 2 seconds impaired learning 6. Supports Spence’s Hypothesis b. The Role of Interference i. Interference from competing responses 1. Why delay had such a devastating effect in Grice’s test IV. Schedules of Reinforcement a. Ratio and Interval Schedules i. The Schedules 1. Continuous Reinforcement (CRF) Schedule: when reward is given after every time a response is performed 2. Partial/Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule a. Ratio Schedules: reinforcement depends on the number of responses b. Interval Schedules: reinforcement depends on a length on time 3. Fixed or Variable a. Fixed Ratio (FR): the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same b. Variable Ratio (VR): the number of responses required is averaged (ex: average presses is 10) c. Fixed Interval (FI): the length of time required for reinforcement is always the same d. Variable Interval (VI): the length of time required is averaged (ex: average time is 10 sec.) ii. Patterns of response iii. The Partial Reinforcement Effect 1. Demonstrated by observing what happens during extinction 2. Increases resistance to extinction b. DRL and DRO Schedules i. Differential Reinforcement of a Low Rate (DRL) 1. Responses reinforced after a certain amount of time 2. Rat cannot respond during that time or the clock starts over 3. IRT: inter response time 4. Encourages a low rate of response ii. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) 1. Eliminates a response or unwanted behavior 2. Lack of response rewarded when behavior hasn’t occurred in a time limit c. Concurrent Schedules i. Two things are happening ii. 2 levers: VI30 and VI60 iii. Over time, rats adjust behavior to get 2 pellets from VI30 lever and 1 from the VI60 lever iv. Herrstein’s Matching B1/(B1+B 2=R /1R +1 ) 2 If 1 = VI30 and B =2VI60 then B /(B 1B )1R /2R +R1) =12/32 V. Motivation a. Drive i. Clark (1958) 1. Phase I: rats bar press for food on VI 1 min schedule 2. Phase II: deprive rats of food in different groups for time between 1-23 hours 3. The more hungry the rats are, the more bar presses they performgreater drive b. Incentive i. Crespi (1942) 1. 3 groups of rats that are equally food deprived a. 1 group gets 1 food pellet at the end of the alley b. Another group gets 16 food pellets c. Another group gets 256 food pellets a the end of the alley 2. Measure running speeds of rats in each group 3. Adjust the number of pellets at the end of the alley to be 16 for all groups ii. Learning or Motivation 1. Thorndike’s Law of Affect: more learning is occurring 2. Crespi: behavior seen is based on motivation 3. The real reason is motivation 4. Drive and incentive are independent iii. Runway experiment 1. 2 rat groups: High consumption ad Low consumption a. High averaged 1.42 g/kg of 6% ethanol in 2 hours with an average preference of 46% b. Low averaged .08 g/kg of 6% ethanol in 2 hours with an average preference of 2% 2. Rats in each group drink water for 15 minutes no longer thirsty 3. Place in alley with ethanol at the end 4. Measure running speed in alley with 120 sec. time limit 5. 10 trials 6. Alcoholic rats ran faster in the alley c. Learning and Motivation i. In general, an increase in motivation increases learning ii. Sometimes a high motivational factor impairs learning if the task is hard iii. Yerkes-Dodson Law 1. There is a peak motivation level that gets the best performance
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